THE EFFECTS OF A HOMOPHILE ORGANIZATION ON THE SELF-ESTEEM AND ALIENATION OF ITS MEMBERS, JERROLD S. GREENBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(3), P313-317.
With the expanding number and kinds of homophile organizations, a need exists to evaluate the effect these organizations have upon their members. Stemming from a previous investigation by the author, this study of the relationship between membership in a homophile organization and the dependent variables Self-Esteem and Alienation was conducted. It was found that Self-Esteem remained unaffected while Alienation levels decreased initially but started rising again after a 1-year period of participation in the organization. The author hypothesizes reasons for these relationships and suggests areas for subsequent investigations.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELF-ESTEEM OF THE HOMOSEXUAL INDIVIDUAL, JOHN A. JACOBS, WILLIAM H. TEDFORD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(4), P373-382.
It was predicted that the effects on self-esteem of membership in the homosexual community are in part a function of alienation from and openess within the general community, as well as of the importance and degree of homosexual membership. Scores were obtained for 35 homosexual males contacted through members of homophile organizations in Dallas, Texas. A multiple regression indicated that alienation and openness were most important in predicting self-esteem. When alienation and openness were held constant, self-esteem was found to be positively and significantly related to the importance to the individual of membership in the homosexual group. Degree of homosexuality did not affect self-esteem. Artifacts in attempting to measure this last variable are also discussed.
THE ASSESSMENT OF ADOLESCENT SELF-ESTEEM: A COMPARISON OF METHODS, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS & GAIL A. JAQUISH, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, 1981, VOL 49(3), P324-336.
The present series of studies explores the relationship between two conceptions of self-esteem: the self as experienced by the individual and the self as presented to others. Traditional measures of self-esteem are employed, and two new methods of assessing self-esteem in adolescents are introduced: an observational measure of self-esteem behavior (presented self) and a repeated self-report measure (experienced self). The presented self (observed behavior and peer ratings) and the experienced self (Rosenberg, Lerner, and a new method, paging devices) measures were consistent within themselves in assessing self-esteem. The presented self and the experienced self were not, however, significantly related to each other. We propose a moderator variable ("defensiveness") to explain these discrepancies, and suggest that the observation of adolescent behavior provides a more accurate assessment of self-esteem than self-report measures.
CONCEIVING OR MISCONCEIVING THE SELF: ISSUES IN ADOLESCENT SELF-ESTEEM, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLAMS, DAVID H. DEMO, JOURNAL OF EARLY ADOLESCENCE, 1983, VOL 3(1/2), P121-140.
SITUATIONAL AND TRANSITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF ADOLESCENT SELF-FEELINGS, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS & DAVID H. DEMO, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1983, VOL 44(4), P824-833.
Employing a new self-report technique (paging devices), the self-feelings of 35 adolescents were assessed in various naturalistic contexts. Regression analysis was used to assess the stability of self-feelings. Individuals fell into three groups: stable, oscillating, and unpredictable (the largest). For the sample as a whole, self-feelings were not influenced by the immediate context, although specific settings, activities, and others present within the contexts elicited various levels of self-feelings. More crucial for predicting the self-feelings of adolescents are such enduring characteristics as sex, social class, pubertal maturation, stability group, birth order, and number of siblings. The authors argue for a baseline conceptualization of adolescent self-conception from which fluctuations occur.
THE COOPERSMITH SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY: A CONSTRUCT VALIDATION STUDY, BRIAN W. JOHNSON, DORIS L. REDFIELD, RICHARD L. MILLER AND ROBERT E. SIMPSON, EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOOGICAL MEASUREMENT, 1983, VOL 43, P907-913.
The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was examined using a modified version of the Sabers and Whitney model for construct validation. The SEI, Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (CSCS), and Children's Social Desirability Scale (CSDS) were administered to 55 males and 50 females enrolled in six intact fifth-grade classes. Each student also received a teacher rating of self-concept using the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Asessment Scale (BASE). Regression analyses indicated that the SEI has convergent validity with regard to the CSCS (p<.01) and BASE (p<.01), has discriminant validity with regard to the CSDS (p>.05), is sensitive to differences in achievment level (p <.01), and is internally cosnsitent (coefficient alpha = .86). Intra-rater stability for the BASE ranged from .85 to .97; average inter-rater agreement was .86.
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE AND STABILITY IN ADOLESCENT SELF-CONCEPT, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS & DAVID H. DEMO, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1984, VOL 20(6), P1100-1110.
This research challenges the traditional conception of adolescence as a time of stress and instability in self-concept. Using multiple measures of self-concept with a longitudinal sample, three components of self-concept are distinguished: the experienced self, the presented self, and self-feelings. Feelings about the self are relatively stable from moment to moment and from year to year. There are apparently three routes through the adolescent years: stable, baseline, and oscillating. For most study participants, level of self-esteem increased gradually and only slightly from 7th to 10th grade. This study is unique because of its methodoloty (longitudinal and multiple measures) and its counter-traditional characterization of adolescence.
ODDS & SODS
THE HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE SURVEY, SEVEN YEARS ON, A LONGITUDINALSTUDY OF A NATIONWIDE SAMPLE, MEASURING CHANGES IN PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, ATTITUDES AND LIFESTYLE, ED. BRIAN D. COX, FELICIA A. HUPPERT, MARGARET J. WHICHELOW, 1993, DARMOUTH
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