LESBIANS, GAYS AND EDUCATION
We do not need to re-invent the wheel. This Resource List is one of a series (see L.I.S. Publications List) which identifies research papers available here. It costs about 50p (25p if you are unemployed) per item and takes about a month as local libraries need to send off to the British Library for a photocopy. This List gives abstracts of mainly U.S. research and papers. The List also includes Reports, a Book List, Useful Addresses and the Lesbian Information Service Publications List. We hope that you will find it useful.
THE GAY COLLEGE STUDENT: PERSPECTIVES FOR MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS, ELANE M. NUEHRING, SARA BECK FEIN, MARY TYLER, COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1975, VOL 4, P64-72.
Homosexual university students report that they have experienced difficulty in obtaining adequate counseling services. The principle obstacle suggested is counselors' lack of information about the gay subculture, particularly those aspects which can facilitate gay students' personal development. This paper is an attempt to provide information which could be useful to counselors in their work with gay students. Other work relative to nonclinical groups of gay persons are reviewed. Findings on homosexual identity, the gay couple, the gay friendship group and gay contraculture are discussed. It is recommended that counselors adopt a minority group conceptualization of such treatment adjuncts as gay paraprofessional counselors or referrals to gay student organizations.
CHANGING HOMOPHOBIC ATTITUDES THROUGH COLLEGE SEXUALITY EDUCATION, WILLIAM J. SERDAHELY, GEORGIA J. ZIEMBA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 10(1/2), P109-116.
It was hypothesized that a unit on homosexuality (which emphasized role playing and the debunking of myths) in an undergraduate college sexuality course would alter students' homophobic attitudes. A modified version of the Hudson/Ricketts Index of Homophobia was used to measure homophobia. At the completion of the course, for those students in the treatment group with pretest scores above the median, the homophobic scores decreased significantly when compared to the scores of control counterparts. The results of this study also showed that there was no significant difference in homophobia scores at the end of the course for those students in the treatment group with pretest scores below the median when compared to the appropriate controls.
CRISIS COUNSELING FOR DISPARATE ADOLESCENT SEXUAL DILEMMAS: PREGNANCY AND HOMOSEXUALITY, GARY ROSS-REYNOLDS, BARBARA S. HARDY, SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, 1985, VOL 14(3), P300-312.
Issues and considerations in counseling adolescents confronted by the two unrelated potential sexual dilemmas of pregnancy and homosexuality are presented. Within the framework of crisis counseling theory, roles and activities of the school psychologist confronting these issues are articulated. As crisis counselor the psychologist is called upon to facilitate rapid reduction of acute stress and to enhance adolescents' coping skills by helping them access personal and community resources. The psychologist's role in primary prevention is also discussed.
PREPARING COLLEGE HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TO DELIVER GAY-AFFIRMATIVE SERVICES, CAROLYN DILLON, JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH, 1986, VOL 35(1), P36-40.
On every campus, there may be many gay students, faculty, and staff who might benefit from medical and mental health services sensitively developed as an integral part of the range of health services provided to the total campus. It is crucial to develop a cadre of providers from different disciplines who have a knowledge of gay lifestyles, developmental issues, and societal pressures. Staff must develop or heighten sometimes painful self-awareness engendered by empathic identification with a stigmatized minority. They must also conceptualize homosexuality as a relationship preference or lifestyle choice and appreciate the importance of same-sex attachments in normal development.
This paper reviews common presenting themes of gay patients and clients who rarely come for help to change their preference. The effects of homophobia on staff practices and attitudes are reviewed in the context of learned negative stereotyping in the larger culture. Heterophobic expecations of potential gay consumers are explored, including those of being diagnosed as deviant, mentally ill, or arrested libidinally. Suggestions are offered for the design and marketing of collaborative gay-nongay services and for services to older hidden populations. Individuals are encouraged to examine their own relationships to homosexuality and to experience new learning through enriched encounters with gays.
SENSITIVE DRAWINGS OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SEXUALITY TEXTBOOKS: AN ANALYSIS ON COMMUNICATION AND BIAS, CAROL A. POLLIS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P59-73.
Sensitive drawings are a distinctive genre of explicit sexual imagery which has become a standard way of illustrating sexual acts in human sexuality textbooks. This essay presents an analysis of signs defining age, ethnic status, class, and sexual identity encoded in such sensitive drawings as used in 23 recent text-books and of the biases which this encoding reflects. The strong class and heterosexual biases characterizing the images are consistent with those found in the sex manuals which inspired the style of drawing. Functions of the drawings and their relationship to the texts' written materials are discussed, and it is argued that the biases mirror problems in treatment of social class and sexuality and in the treatment of sexual acts, e.g. masturbation, oral sex, anal sex, and coitus, as they relate to sexual identities.
ASSESSING AND ADDRESSING THE SPECIAL CHALLENGE OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS FOR HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELING PROGRAMS, ANNE C. BENVENUTI, 1986, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
Eleven percent of teenage girls and 14% of teenage boys in a recent survey acknowledged having had a same sex sexual encounter. It may be assumed that the number of adolescents with concerns related to sexual orientation exceeds the number with actual same sex experiences. If, as self-identified homosexual adults have reported, their sexual orientation had developed before puberty, exploring issues related to sexual orientation in counseling high school students will not likely be determinent of their adult sexual orientation. Most high school counselors would recognise that there are, in their case loads, students for whom issues of homosexuality or sexual orientation may be central concerns. Failure to provide counseling or referrals for the special needs of these students is an act of negligence. Counselors may experience role conflict, however, of counselor as representative of the normative macroculture versus counselor as advocate of a minority group with special needs relevant to their minority status. Although it may not be within the scope of the high school couseling program to work extensively with issues of sexual identity, the issues can be addressed directly and openly, and the special needs of this student population can be understood, interventions can be provided, and referals can be made.
HETEROSEXISM IN SCHOOLS, CELIA KITZINGER, VALUES, 1987, VOL 2(1), P40-41.
DEVELOPING A SENSE OF DIFFERENCE AMONG GAY AND LESBIAN CHILDREN IN THE DEEP SOUTH: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEING QUEER AND BEING DIFFERENT, JAMES T. SEARS, 1987, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
The paper focuses on the emergence of a sense of sexual difference during childhood and the attitudes and feelings about homosexuality internalised by children. The sense of children who recognise themselves as different and which later develops into a realisation of being homosexual is discussed with the stories of 13 young adults.
PEDAGOGY AND PREJUDICE: STRATEGIES FOR CONFRONTING HOMOPHOBIA IN THE CLASSROOM, LAURIE CRUMPACKER AND ELEANOR M. VANDER HAEGEN, WOMEN'S STUDIES QUARTERLY, 1987, VOL 15(3/4), P65-75.
A STUDY OF GAY AND LESBIAN TEACHERS, MYRNA R. OLSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P73-81.
This study summarized a survey of 97 homosexual individuals who were currently teaching or who had been teachers. The focus of the survey was to gain insight into the experiences of such individuals in the public schools. It was found that 25% of the respondents had left teaching; a little more than half of this group left at least partially because of their sexual preference. About 82% were out of the closet to at least one person while teaching; nearly half of those who were "out" had chosen another teacher in whom to confide. Of those who chose someone in whom to confide, 70% reported a positive reaction from that individual. The author's conclusion is that an individual's decision to become a teacher, stay in teaching, and to "come out of the closet" is necessarily highly individual and very complex.
A VERY SILENT AND GAY MINORITY, GLORIA J. KRYSIAK, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, 1987, VOL 34(4), P304-307.
Suggests some special considerations that might be given the homosexual or lesbian high school student. Examines knowledge, beliefs and values about homosexuality. Encourages counselors to help homosexual students develop healthy identities and self-disclosure skills and help them come to terms with disclosing or not disclosing their sexuality.
STRESSES ON LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS IN SCHOOLS, J. HUNTER & R. SCHAECHER, SOCIAL-WORK-IN-EDUCATION, 1987, VOL 9(3), P180-190.
An awareness of a homosexual orientation often emerges in students during their high school years. A significant portion of these self-identified youngsters experience unique stresses that the school system needs to recognize and address in an affirmative manner. The authors provide an overview of the problems and briefly describe the role of the school social worker.
HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND THE SCHOOL COUNSELOR, ROBERT EARL POWELL, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, 1987, VOL 34(3), P202-208.
The purpose of this article is twofold: to examine some of the problems and issues that confront adolescent gay and lesbian students in the school environment and to focus on an understanding of the sexual preference of these youths as a means of delineating roles for the counselor. Some specific recommendations for the school counsellor are also included.
ATTITUDES, EXPERIENCES, AND FEELINGS OF GUIDANCE COUNSELORS IN WORKING WITH HOMOSEXUAL STUDENTS: A REPORT ON THE QUALITY OF SCHOOL LIFE FOR SOUTHERN GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, JAMES T. SEARS, 1988, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE).
A variety of studies conducted over the past 15 years mostly in the industrial North and Far West of the U.S.A. have sought to find out about the attitudes and feelings of various populations toward homosexual men, lesbians, and homosexuality. These studies often reported the relationships between attitudes and personality traits or demographic variables. During this same period papers have appeared in professional counseling journals advising practitioners of their professional responsibility to address the special needs and problems of homosexual clients, particularly students. This study examined the attitudes, experiences, and feelings of school counselors in the state of South Carolina about homosexual students. Significant differences were found between counselors' attitudes and feelings about homosexuality vis-a-vis their educational level, gender, and race. Counselors often expressed ambivalent attitudes toward homosexuality though few harbored neutral feelings. Most counselors felt ill-prepared to work with students who were homosexual.
THE LESBIAN ACADEMIC: NEGOTIATING NEW BOUNDARIES, MICHELE AINA BARALE, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1988, VOL 8(1-2), P183-194.
IN DEFENCE OF GAY LESSONS, J. MARTIN STAFFORD, JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION, 1988, VOL 17(1), P11-20.
The arguments against the positive treatment of homosexuality depend on such false premises as that it is an illness or is socially subversive or that homosexuals are necessarily promiscuous. Since most of the problems are engendered by the intolerance and hostility which flow from unwarranted negative attitudes, these need to be countered by dissemination of correct information and constructive discussion.
The term positive image is a relative one without unambiguous denotation. However, many repellent images are projected by homosexuals themselves. Moral educators must not countenance irresponsible and decadent behaviour, but should guide people towards, and foster respect for, caring and committed relationships whether they be homosexual or heterosexual. So temperate and humane a proposal should command the support of all but bigoted and fanatical extremists.
WORKING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, DICK SCOTT, ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE UNIONS-INTERNATIONAL, 1988, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
Homosexual college student issues of significance to college student union and student activities professionals are discussed. It is suggested that the knowledge base should include an understanding of various theories of sexual orientation development, the unique developmental tasks that gay men and lesbians face, legal sanctions and rights, and the AIDS epidemic. Developmental tasks identified have to do with: coming out, positive self-concept, primary relationships, homophobia and harassment, discrimination, and dealing with rejection. Issues for the campus environment include institutional policies, personal attitudes, and harassment. The college union and student activities staff can provide guidance for student organizations, topics in lectures or films, campus leaders' education, and reading room offerings to help both gay and non-gay students.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN EDUCATION: A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS IN A COLLEGE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, STEPHEN M. CLIFT, BRITISH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL, 1988, VOL 14(1), P31-50.
Investigated the attitudes of 80 first-year teacher education students towards lesbian women, gay men, and "homosexuality and education" using specially constructed scales. Results showed significant differences in the attitudes of male and female students. An attempt to alter the students' views is reported and the scales for measuring the attitudes are included.
TEACHERS AND ISSUES OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION, G. SQUIRRELL, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1989, VOL 1(1), P17-34.
This exploratory paper seeks to examine some of the effects of a differing sexual orientation on teachers' daily lives in the staffroom and classroom. The data analysed were mainly collected in interviews with gay and lesbian teachers. It is hoped that by opening up some of the issues surrounding teachers and sexual orientations, this paper will help to lessen the stigma so typically attached to gays and lesbians who work in occupations that deal with young children or in jobs that entail moral responsibility.
LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH IN ENGLAND, KEN PLUMMER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(3/4), P195-223.
The experience of being gay and young has been seriously neglected in youth culture research and in youth service provision. This stems in part from the pervasiveness of both the heterosexual assumption and the sexual stigma. Since the advent of the gay movement, however, some modest research into gay youth has been conducted and some has been generated through the activity of gay organizations themselves. This paper reviews the experience and problems of being young and gay in Britain as revealed through three research studies. It outlines some key changes that have occurred during the 1980's, especially the emergence of gay youth organizations. It concludes by suggesting the diversity of the gay youth experience in England.
LESBIANS AND GAY MEN ON CAMPUS: VISIBILITY, EMPOWERMENT, AND EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, PEABODY JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 1989, VOL 66(3), P124-142.
TEACHING ABOUT GAY AND LESBIAN SEXUAL AND AFFECTIONAL ORIENTATION USING EXPLICIT FILMS TO REDUCE HOMOPHOBIA, JOEL W. WELLS, JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT, SEP 1989, VOL 28(1), P18-34.
An educational approach to reduce homphobia effectively among undergraduate university students using explict films, lectures, discussions, and a gay-lesbian panel was investigated.
LESBIANS' AND GAY MEN'S EXPERIENCES OF DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT IN A UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, 1989, VOL 17(3), P317-321.
A survey of 125 lesbians and gay men in a university community was conducted to determine the incidence of discrimination, harassment, and violence. Nearly three fourths had experienced verbal abuse; 26% were threatened with violence; and 17% had personal property damaged. Students and roommates were most often those responsible. Most incidents were not reported to authorities, and many made changes in their daily routines to avoid harm. Over half of the sample feared for their personal safety; their fear was related to the amount of harassment and previous property damage. Men were more often victimized than women.
WRITERS WHO ARE GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CONTEXT, LESLIE SMITH, 1989, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
Teachers of writing are well trained to take the lead in inspiring a change in communication and behavior within the classroom to create more positive schooling experiences for gay and lesbian students. Many gay teenagers become aware of their sexuality at an early age; however, by the time most of them reach college composition, they have still not been able to use classroom writing as a vehicle for unraveling conflict or finding clarity about one of the most pressing issues in their lives. Writing teachers unknowingly inherit a minority group which has faced an adolescence marked by peer isolation, fear of harassment and violence, familial estrangement, and a lack of positive role models and resources. Teachers can take several steps to serve gay and lesbian students: (1) begin by assuming that not all their students are heterosexual (2) actively work to eliminate name-calling and put-downs and (3) work with curriculum committees and their unions to begin acknowledging gay students.
WRITING IN THE REAL WORLD: HOMOPHOBIA VS. COMMUNITY IN THE COMPOSITION CLASSROOM, SARAH HOPE PARMETER, 1989, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
If lesbian and gay students are to be moved into the classroom writing communities consciously and aggressively, in the same way other "minorities" are included, then first-person narratives are an effective starting place for their own work and as material for reading and discussion. Half of the reading selections in one composition teacher's classroom are by gay or lesbian writers, and half of those are not white. The benefits for students of addressing gay and lesbian issues include bridging the gap between their own writing and writing for school. When homosexuality is not normal in the classroom, a particular group of writers is silenced, a group whose lives are already bounded by silence on far too many sides. When this happens, students are encouraged to keep to themselves, separate from the world of academic interchange for which the classroom is supposed to be preparing them.
OPENING UP THE CLASSROOM CLOSET: RESPONDING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, ERIC ROFES, HARVARD EDUCTIONAL REVIEW, 1989, VOL 59(4), P444-453.
Eric Rofes, gay community activist and author, explores the issues surrounding the schools' failure to meet the educational needs of gay and lesbian youth. He argues that there has been an across-the-board denial of the existence of gay and lesbian youth, and that this has taken place because "their voices have been silenced and because adults have not effectively taken up their cause." Rofes goes on to present some promising initiatives that are designed to change the status quo: Project 10 in Los Angeles and the Harvey Milk School in New York City. He concludes by proposing needed changes in U.S. schools if they are to become truly accessible to gay and lesbian youth.
LITERACY AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF LESBIAN AND GAY STUDENTS, ELLEN LOUISE HART, 1989, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
The ability to function indepently as a reader and writer in society is defined here as "functional literacy" and includes, for gay or lesbian students, access to their own cultural literature and the recognition of a multi-cultural literacy that includes gay and lesbian culture. Two central beliefs are at the heart of the discussion of literacy and the lesbian and gay student: (1) narrative writing - telling their own stories and telling the truth about their own experience - is essential to the attainment of literacy and (2) for lesbians and gay men whose experience has been taboo, who have never had a consistent oral tradition on which to depend for information, literacy is fundamental to identity, culture, and survival. The need to tell "coming out stories" is a compelling drive for lesbian and gay writers. Writing teachers must face their responsibilities and rededicate themselves to seeing that all of their students have access to a fundamental literacy that is more than functional, that is truly multi-cultural and human.
THE CAMPUS ENVIRONMENT FOR GAY AND LESBIAN LIFE, JOHN D'EMILIO, ACADEME, 1990, JAN-FEB, P16-19.
Suggests that college administrators need to be active in counteracting misinformation about homosexuals and cultural prejudices and the growing problem of hate-motivated incidents.
SHARED INTEREST: OBERLIN'S GROUP FOR GAY AND LESBIAN ALUMNI PROVIDES A CASE STUDY IN GETTING SET FOR NEW AFFILIATES, MIDGE WOOD BRITTINGHAM, CASE CURRENTS, 1990, APRIL, P42-43.
Oberlin College's alumni association group for lesbian and gay alumni gives a case study in setting up new affiliates. Comprehensive and practical guidelines that any interested alumni group can follow are needed. Groups that develop around sensitive issues raise the toughest questions for alumni administrators.
DON'T PASS US BY: KEEPING LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES ON THE AGENDA, JANE ANDREWS, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1990, VOL 2(3), P351-355.
The implication of equal opportunities policies in relation to lesbian and gay issues in education is enormously difficult and controversial. Meaningful policies must start from a perspective which challenges heterosexism, the assumption that gay relationships are of less value than heterosexual ones. All teachers and education workers, not only those who are gay, have a responsibility to keep lesbian and gay issues on the equal opportunities agenda.
LEGALIZED INVISIBILITY, THE EFFECT OF BILL 7 ON LESBIAN TEACHERS, DIDI KHAYATT, WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM, 1990, VOL 13(3), P185-193.
This paper addresses the lived reality/realities of being a lesbian teacher currently in Ontario. Based on interviews with working elementary and secondary teachers, the author looks at the teachers perceptions of the effects of Bill 7, an amendment to the Ontario Human Rights Code which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
Starting from the perspective of the teachers, this paper undertakes to address the Canadian social, political, and economic contexts which give meaning to the experiences of lesbian teachers, and in which their experiences arise. The paper raises such questions as "What kind of protection from discrimination is actually possible under the new Bill?" and how the teachers themselves see it affecting their lives both in the private and the public realms. The central discussion is whether the teachers feel safe enough to "come out," how and to whom, as well as the more specific ways they may experience change/no change in attitudes toward homosexuality in their everyday lives.
HELPING A CAMPUS UNDERSTAND: LOOKING FOR NEW ATTITUDES, WILLIAM W, GELLER, PAPER PRESENTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NATIONAL ASOCIATION OF STUDENT PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATORS, 1990, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C. MICRO FICHE)
This document describes, in a narrative mode, a simulated public education campaign to stimulate cross-campus awareness of, and dialogue about, attitudes toward homosexuality. The campaign described begins with a letter to incoming freshmen, alerting them to the presence of gay and lesbian students and emphasizing the need for mutual respect and common decency. This is followed, during orientation, by a survey of student attitudes toward homosexuals. Next comes a series of public notices, overhead displays, and a kiosk, providing information and stimulating public debate about homosexual issues, all prepared by a Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual support group. Many examples of student responses, both supportive and hostile, are provided. The campaign culminates with a Declaration of Support, delivered to all students, which called on the university to "promote" learning, understanding, and acceptance of others' sexual orientation. Handouts from the simulation are included.
WORKING WITH LESBIAN AND GAY PARENTS AND THEIR CHILDREN, JAMES W. CLAY, YOUNG CHILDREN, 1990, VOL 45(3), P31-35.
Research on lesbian and gay parents is presented to help teachers become sensitive to working with children of such parents. Lesbian mothers show higher self-reliance than other mothers although some may feel guilt about their sexual orientation. The children of homosexual parents may derive added benefits and added stresses from the structure of their family. The chances of developing a homosexual orientation are equal for children of both homosexual and heterosexual parents. Suggestions are made to teachers for dealing with lesbian and gay parents and their children.
ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES, AN OVERVIEW, KEVIN T. BERRILL, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P274-294.
This article provides a general description of the nature and scope of violence and harassment against lesbians and gay men in the United States. It summarizes the results of local, state, and national surveys, and discusses gender and racial/ethnic differences in types and incidence of victimizations. The article examines anti-gay violence and harassment in such contexts as the home, schools, college and university campuses, and prisons and jails. There is a discussion of the perpetrators of anti-gay violence and the growing role of organized hate groups in such attacks. The article also examines time trends in anti-gay violence and the possible relationship between such violence and increasing public awareness about AIDS. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing data and the need for greater attention to the issue.
DEVELOPING SERVICES FOR LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS, MARGARET SCHNEIDER, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH, 1991, VOL 19(1), P133-151.
The needs of lesbian and gay adolescents for service provision are discussed in this paper. These needs are identified through research investigating milestones in the coming-out process. In addition, the way in which the research results influenced community development initiatives is described. The social context in which the research was conducted is also described.
DEALING WITH PREJUDICE AND CONFLICT IN THE CLASSROOM: THE PINK TRIANGLE EXERCISE, MARK A. CHESLER, XIMENA ZUNIGA, TEACHING SOCIOLOGY, 1991, VOL 19, P173-181.
A classroom exercise designed to explore students' attitudes and encounters with homophobia and discrimination against gay males and lesbians asked students to wear a pink triangle for one day. Students reported their internal conflicts - fears and anxieties - about identifying with gay and lesbian people, their external conflicts - encounters with peer pressure and prejudice - and their own efforts to assert a progressive and anti-discriminatory stance in the midst of these situations. In classroom discussion a heated encounter between a straight male and a gay male brought these issues into direct, personal focus and mandated the use of creative conflict management techniques to preserve open dialogue and positive learning. The exercise, and the classroom encounter, have great utility for examining other forms of oppression and discrimination and for experiential learning about important social psychological principles.
GAY NINETIES: ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF HOMOSEXUAL COMMUNITY AND JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS AND FACULTY, JUDITH A. BAKER, COMMUNITY/JUNIOR COLLEGE, 1991, VOL 15, P25-32.
This paper outlines the needs of lesbians and homosexuals in community and junior colleges in terms of heterosexism. An interactionist approach and research are used to identify sources of heterosexism on campus. Specific solutions to the problem are addressed.
SPEAKING OUT AGAINST THE SILENCE: PAT GRIFFIN, PENELOPE A. PORTMAN & TERESA B. CARLSON, TEACHING EDUCATION, 1991, VOL 4(1), P183-187.
Discusses the work of Pat Griffin, a physical education teacher in the U.S.A. Griffin includes social diversity, such as gender, race, ability and sexual orientation in her work as a physical education teacher. Griffin later taught about the same issues in teacher training.
ATTITUDES TOWARDS GAYS AND LESBIANS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY, WILLIAM W. GELLER, 1991, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C.)
As part of a new student orientation at a rural northeastern state college, incoming students (N = 150) were surveyed in fall 1989 regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality. Students (N = 140) were surveyed again in April 1991 after four semesters of educational intervention. The results indicated that new students were uncomfortable with and lacked knowledge about homosexuals, with less than half expressing comfort with particular situations involving most feeling statements. Greater levels of comfort with homosexual matters and increased knowledge were reported between the time of the first survey and the second. One-third or more of the students were informed and were comfortable with homosexuals. Two factors, the necessity of dialogue, and having contact with a homosexual person, emerged from this study as strategy elements that can make a difference. Homosexual, lesbian, and bisexual role models are important in shifting the attitudes of heterosexuals. Based on these findings and other research it seems reasonable to conclude that many peoples' feelings can change as they come to know a homosexual person.
MAKING LIFE MORE LIVABLE FOR GAYS AND LESBIANS ON CAMPUS, SIGHTINGS FROM THE FIELD, TONI McNARON, EDUCATIONAL RECORD, 1991, WINTER, P19-22.
Lesbian and gay students are increasingly pressurising institutions to bring their practices in line with their rhetoric in areas such as curricular reform for inclusion of lesbian and gay studies and improvement in campus environment for homosexual students.
GAY AND LESBIAN SPEAKER PANELS: IMPLEMENTATION AND RESEARCH, JAMES M. CROTEAU, MICHAEL T. KUSEK, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1992, VOL 70(3), P396-401.
Speaker panels are educational interventions in which lesbian women and gay men share their personal stories and respond to questions and comments. The panels are frequently used with college and community groups to reduce homphobic attitudes. Counselors, student development professionals, and other human services professionals are given practical information on effective panel presentations. Then the empirical findings concerning panels are discussed, and recommendations are made to human development professionals for research to expand empirical knowledge about this intervention.
SERVICES TO GAY AND LESBIAN PATRONS: EXAMINING THE MYTHS, CAL GOUGH & ELLEN GREENBLATT, LIBRARY JOURNAL, 1992, JANUARY, P59-63.
Discusses library services to homosexuals. Topics include heterosexist prejudices; information needs of gays and lesbians; censorship; inadequate indexing of lesbian and gay materials; inappropriate subject headings; interlibrary loan; reviews of pertinent materials; and services to young adults and children.
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4) INCLUDES:
INTRODUCTION, KAREN M. HARBECK, P1-7.
ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH: THE ORIGINS OF PROJECT 10 AND SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION, VIRGINIA URIBE, KAREN M. HARBECK, P9-28.
This research chronicles the formation and expansion of a counseling and educational program for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth called PROJECT 10 at Fairfax High School. A model program was tested during the academic year 1985-1986, and is now being implemented throughout the Los Angeles Unified School District and in other schools across the nation. Fifty self-identified homosexual students were interviewed in order to clarify the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual teenagers in relation to their school experiences. Additionally, a questionnaire study of 342 respondents from the general student population was undertaken in order to chart the beliefs and attitudenal changes of those teenagers who experienced school-based educational programs that portrayed homosexuality and bisexuality as variations on a continuum of human sexual expression and emotional attachment. Suggestions for further research are discussed.
EDUCATORS, HOMOSEXUALITY, AND HOMOSEXUAL STUDENTS: ARE PERSONAL FEELINGS RELATED TO PROFESSIONAL BELIEFS? JAMES T. SEARS, P29-79.
This study is based on interviews with Southern lesbian and gay young adults and survey data from school counselors and prospective teachers living in the South. The essay explores adolescents' perceptions of the beliefs and abilities of school counselors and teachers with regard to issues of homosexuality and the treatment of gay and lesbian students. As a complement and a contrast, it also presents educators' personal beliefs about homosexuality, and how these attitudes are actualized in the schools. One major conclusion is that while school counselors and, to a lesser extent, classroom teachers often expressed the feeling that they should be more proactive and supportive as professionals committed to the welfare of all of their students, due to countervailing expressions of high levels of personal prejudice, ignorance, and fear, the realities of their professional intervention and support were negligible.
LIBERAL ATTITUDES AND HOMOPHOBIC ACTS: THE PARADOXES OF HOMOSEXUAL EXPERIENCE IN A LIBERAL INSTITUTION, WILLIAM P. NORRIS, P81-120.
Rates of victimization of and attitudes towards lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals at a well-known national liberal arts college were reported and compared to other institutions. Based on two campus-wide surveys of employees and students respectively, differences in degree of exclusion, isolation, sexual harassment, needing to deny one's sexuality, self-censorship, and other factors were found among employees and students, people with varying sexualities, people of color, and whites. The paradoxical finding of extensive attitudinal support and widespread victimization was explored. The explanation suggested for the paradox drew on institutional characteristics, culture, and priorities. Based on the configuration of these, it is suggested that the paradox resulted from two competing values, a liberal ethos focused on equal rights, and a heterosexual orthodoxy, and that many people were pulled between the two. Theoretical implications, counter-explanations, and implications are briefly explored.
GAY AND LESBIAN EDUCATORS: PAST HISTORY/FUTURE PROSPECTS, KAREN M. HARBECK, P121-140.
Although lesbians and gay men in education have been an invisible population, modern computer information retrieval techniques provided a mechanism to investigate the history of case law on gay and lesbian teacher dismissal and credential revocation. This legal framework was then augmented by social history gathered from newspapers and articles, and interviews with the parties involved in the legal or political debates. After presenting a history of the emergence of legal rights and political influence, the author discusses current trends in the employment rights and personal freedoms of gay and lesbian educators.
LIVING IN TWO WORLDS: THE IDENTITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES USED BY LESBIAN PHYSICAL EDUCATORS, SHERRY E. WOODS, KAREN M. HARBECK, P141-166.
Twelve lesbian physical educators participated in an in-depth phenomenological study of their work experiences in relation to their identities as lesbians and teachers. All study participants held two assumptions: that they would lose their jobs if their lesbianism were revealed, and that female physical education teachers are negatively stereotyped as being lesbian. Participants most often engage in identity management strategies designed to conceal their lesbianism, such as passing as heterosexual, self-distancing from others at school, and self-distancing from issues pertaining to homosexuality. The less common risk-taking behaviors included obliquely overlapping their personal lives with their professional, actively confronting homophobia and supporting gay and lesbian students, and overtly overlapping the details of their personal and professional lives. The authors conclude this paper with recommendations for challenging homophobia and heterosexism in physical education.
FROM HIDING OUT TO COMING OUT: EMPOWERING LESBIAN AND GAY EDUCATORS, PAT GRIFFIN, P167-196.
The purposes of this participatory research project were to describe the experiences of thirteen lesbian and gay educators and to empower the participants through collective reflection and action. Each participant was interviewed and given a copy of her or his audio-tape and transcript. Using these materials, each participant developed a profile of themselves to share with the other participants. During a series of group meetings that spanned fifteen months, participants discussed their experiences, searched for common themes, and planned two collective actions. This chapter describes the professional experiences of these lesbian and gay educators and the process of empowerment that changed their lives.
IMAGES OF GAYS AND LESBIANS IN SEXUALITY AND HEALTH TEXTBOOKS, MARIAMNE H. WHATLEY, P197-211.
Photographs have become a major form of illustration in college level health and sexuality textbooks and may be more memorable than the text itself. Unlike other forms of illustration, photographs are often viewed as objective and unable to "lie." Photographs of individuals from nondominant groups, in addition to being seen as objective representations of reality, are often seen as representing the group to which they belong. To study the representation of non dominant groups in textbooks, it is, therefore, as important to analyze the photographs as the text itself. This paper examines photographs of gay men and lesbians in 14 health and 16 human sexuality college level textbooks. The photographs of individuals present an inaccurate portrait of lesbians and gay men as white, young, and physically-abled. Individual and large group photographs of activism (31% of the total photographs of gay men and lesbians) were positive images that emphasized issues of civil rights. The paper discusses various interpretations of the photographs of gay men and lesbians, subtle homophobia or heterosexism in the texts, and progress that has been made.
TEACHING LESBIAN/GAY DEVELOPMENT: FROM OPPRESSION TO EXCEPTIONALITY, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, P213-227.
Few opportunities exist for young lesbians and gay men to learn about their lives. A university course on lesbian and gay development is described and its impact on students' lives is presented. The course focuses on the exceptional talent of lesbians and gay men in creating lives in a stigmatizing culture. The course's emphasis on how individuals develop or are oppressed by their social environment produces personal change and social action in students.
EDUCATING MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ABOUT GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES, BIANCA CODY MURPHY, P229-246.
Despite the large number of clients with gay and lesbian concerns, many mental health professionals remain biased and unqualified to serve them. Mental health professionals are poorly prepared to deal with sexuality in general and with gay and lesbian issues specifically. Education and training about gay and lesbian topics is needed both in graduate schools and in the field. This training should focus on three components: (1) information about sexual orientation, gay and lesbian lifestyles, and community resources; (2) the interface between the gay or lesbian client, his or her sexuality, and the effects of living in a heterosexist and homophobic society; and (3) the interaction between the attitudes, feelings, and sexual orientation of the clinician and of the client.
HIV EDUCATION FOR GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH: PERSONAL RISK, PERSONAL POWER, AND THE COMMUNITY OF CONSCIENCE, KEVIN CRANSTON, P247-259.
Adolescent gay and bisexual males face a higher risk of infection with HIV than most other young people because of their behaviors and because HIV prevention programs have failed to address their unique concerns. Ironically, current efforts to heighten public awareness about the AIDS pandemic may be nullifying the potential for gay, lesbian, and bisexual young persons at high risk to form the support networks needed to modify their behavior. The personal and group empowerment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people is a necessary prerequisite to their ability to make healthy behavioral choices around HIV and other health issues. This paper proposes a comprehensive health education model for HIV prevention for gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. Current health education efforts would be augmented by broader self and group empowerment training that would develop self-esteem, social skills, support networks, and access to risk reduction materials. An integrated system of care involving school-based programs, multi-service youth agencies and self-help groups would be in a position to deliver appropriate educational, mental health, medical, and social support services. Such a system of care presents gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth with their best chance to reduce their risk of infection with HIV and develop into emotionally healthy individuals.
BUILDING ACADEMIC COMMUNITIES OF DIFFERENCE, GAYS, LESBIANS, AND BISEXUALS ON CAMPUS, W.G. TIERNEY, CHANGE, 1992, VOL 24(2), P40-46.
LESBIAN AND GAY MALE UNDERGRADUATES' EXPERIENCES OF HARASSMENT AND FEAR ON CAMPUS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1992, VOL 7(3), P383-395.
Harassment and discrimination based on sexual orientation was studied in a sample of 121 undergraduate students between 19 and 22 years of age. Over three fourths of the respondents reported verbal abuse and over one fourth had been threatened with violence. Other students were the most frequent victimizers. Few reported victimization to authorities. Fear for one's personal safety on campus was related to frequency of personal harassment. The implications of harassment and discrimination on the development of young lesbians and gay men are discussed.
OPENING UP THE CANON: THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING LESBIAN AND GAY LITERATURES, GRETA GAARD, FEMINIST TEACHER, 1992, VOL 6(2), P30-33.
CREATING A SAFER SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT FOR LESBIAN AND GAY STUDENTS, L. TREADWAY, J. YOAKAM, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1992, VOL 62(7), P352-357.
Information obtained from clinical experiences of the University of Minnesota Youth and AIDS Project (YAP), a primary AIDS prevention program for gay and bisexual males ages 14-21, is described. More than 300 YAP clients have been interviewed regarding sexual behavior, suicide attempts, drug use, and experiences in disclosing their homosexuality to peers and parents during their high school years. The authors also have drawn from their experiences as support group leaders for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in high school and community settings. Constructive and destructive coping strategies employed by gay, lesbian, and bisexual students are described. Roles and responsibilities of school professionals to create a safer school environment also are presented. Key issues include how school professionals support or deny the existence of homosexuality in young people; how adults' biases against homosexuality, as well as institutionalized heterosexism, prevent lesbian and gay students from succeeding in school; how language, behaviors, and environmental cues contribute to school professionals' approachability; how children of lesbian and gay parents suffer when negative attitudes toward homosexuality are not challenged; and what resources and referals can help lesbian and gay young people.
ADDRESSING SEXUAL ORIENTATION IN A PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL, KAY L. WILLIAMS, MARY S. DOYLE, BARBARA A. TAYLOR, GLORIA FERGUSON, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1992, VOL 62(4), P154-156.
EXPLORING CAMPUS INTOLERANCE: A TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF COMMENTS CONCERNING LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL PEOPLE, LINDA A. LASALLE, PAPER PRESENTED AT ANNUAL MEETING OF AMERICAN EDUCATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, APRIL 1992, MICRO FICHE, SOURCE: ERIC, RIE FEB 1993.
THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON SCHOOL PROFESSIONALS' KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS, AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING HIV/AIDS AND ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXULAITY, GARY REMAFEDI, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1993, VOL 63(3) P153-157.
The impact of training on secondary school professionals knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS and adolescent homosexuality was examined. Subjects (79 introductory and 50 advanced trainees) and 58 controls (no prior training) were systematically sampled from professionals in a statewide demonstration program to prevent HIV transmission among gay and bisexual youth. Subjects completed mailed, self-administered surveys based on the curriculum. The overal response rate was 79%. Trainees scored significantly higher than controls on knowledge pertaining to HIV and adolescent homosexuality. They also reported using greater numbers of strategies to teach students about homosexuality and to improve the milieu for homosexual students. Training at any level was independently associated with constructive behaviors, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Advanced learners were most knowledgeable and least reliant on informal sources of information. They were more likely than others to teach about homosexuality and to refer homosexual students to community services. Findings supported the hypothesized benefits of the intervention. Schools that mandate AIDS education should help staff confront the difficult issue of adolescent homosexuality.
NOT ANOTHER LECTURE ON HOMOSEXUALITY, CELIA KITZINGER, YOUNG PEOPLE NOW, MARCH 1993, P10-11.
Lecturer Celia Kitzinger explains why one of the first things her students learn about is her lesbianism.
ENHANCING ACADEMIC COMMUNITIES FOR LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL FACULTY, WILLIAM G. TIERNEY, NEW DIRECTIONS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING, 1993, NO 53, SPRING, P43-50.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITIES AS A MEANS OF SURVIVAL: CASE OF GAY AND LESBIAN TEACHERS, PETER DANKMEJER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P95-105.
The article, at its most general level, questions the requirement for "coming out" in public, which the author sees as the central demand of gay liberation ideology upon its adherents. Using research on teachers, the article shows that the political demand that teachers come out professionally ignores the central professional and political concerns of several teachers and their need for professional survival. In this study, teachers were found to have varying lifestyles. Coming out fitted the lifestyle only of those teachers who took the role of crusaders for gay liberation. This role was often a secondary concern for women, who were more strongly identified as feminists than lesbians, and for men for whom homosexuality was not a major aspect of their lifestyle. The author suggests that more attention should be given to the homophobic conditions under which such teachers work than the requirement that they all come out.
A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH TO GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, W.P. MCFARLAND, JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1993, VOL 32, P17-29.
Literature concerning homosexual identity development is reviewed. At-risk issues and developmental difficulties for gay and lesbian youth are discussed. Developmental guidance program responses are proposed.
DOCUMENTING PREJUDICE AGAINST LESBIANS AND GAY MEN ON CAMPUS: THE YALE SEXUAL ORIENTATION SURVEY, G.M. HEREK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P15-30.
College and university communities recently have begun to confront the problems of harassment, discrimination, and violence against lesbians, gay men and bisexual people on campus. A first step in responding to attacks against gay and bisexual people is to document their frequency and the forms that they take. The present article reports the methodology and results of a survey conducted at Yale University in 1986, which subsequently has been replicated on several other campuses. The Yale survey revealed that many lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people on campus lived in a world of secretiveness and fear. Although experiences of physical assault on campus were relatively infrequent, many respondents reported other forms of discrimination and harassment. A majority reported that they feared antigay violence and harassment on campus, and that such fears affected their behavior. Replications on other campuses have yielded similar results. Suggestions are offered for researchers who wish to conduct such a survey on their own campus.
LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS: PERSONAL CHALLENGES AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, S.L. HERSHBERGER, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 21(4), P421-448.
Studied 194 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth aged 21 and younger who attended programs in 14 community centers to determine the personal challenges they face due to their sexual orientation and their responses to these stresses. First awareness of sexual orientation typically occured at age 10, but disclosure to another person did not occur until about age 16. There was much variability in sexual behavior, and many youths reported both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual experiences. Although most had told at least one family member about their sexual orientation, there remained much concern about family reactions. Suicide attempts were acknowledged by 42% of the sample. Attempters significantly differed from nonattempters on several milestones of sexual orientation development, social aspects of sexual orientation, parents' knowledge of sexual orientation, and mental health problems.
PREVENTING MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG LESBIAN AND GAY COLLEGE STUDENTS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, THE JOURNAL OF PRIMARY PREVENTION, 1993, VOL 13(4), P245-261.
Young adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual experience major stresses in managing their sexual orientation. They are at risk for serious mental health problems, including suicide and depression. The mental health concerns of lesbian and gay male college students are reviewed. These problems result from the difficulties involved in developing a lesbian or gay personal identity, and are exacerbated by widespread negative attitudes, harassment, and violence directed toward lesbians and gay men on college campuses. Several systemic preventive interventions are recommended to decrease mental health problems in this population.
CLASSROOM CONCERNS OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, THE INVISIBLE MINORITY, G. LOPEZ & N. CHISM, COLLEGE TEACHING, 1993, VOL 41(3), P97-103.
A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALS' LIFE EXPERIENCES: RAMIFICATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PERSONNEL, SUSAN K. TELLJOHANN, JAMES H. PRICE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P41-56.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine life experiences of homosexual youths in regard to selected topics of relevance to high school personnel. An open-ended questionnaire was given to 120 homosexual youths (14-21 years of age), 89 males and 31 females. Approximately one third of the students claimed they knew they were homosexual between the ages of four and ten, with equal numbers aware of their sexual orientation 11-13 years of age and 14-17 years of age. Forty-two percent of the females and 30% of the males indicated that their families responded in a negative manner toward them because of their sexual orientation. Only about one fourth of the students claimed they were able to talk with school counselors about the issue. Half of the students claimed that homosexuality had been discussed in their classes and 50% of the females and 37% of the males claimed it was handled negatively. Less than one in five students could identify someone who had been supportive of them. Further information is reported regarding the challenges schools will need to address to play a role in reducing the streses faced by a significant minority population of at risk youths.
OPPRESSION: THE EXPERIENCES OF A LESBIAN TEACHER IN AN INNER CITY COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, CLARE SULLIVAN, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1993, VOL 5(1), P93-101.
This article deals with the everyday working life of a lesbian teacher working in a secondary school. It compares her experiences and the problems she faces with those of other lesbian and gay teachers.
VERBAL AND PHYSICAL ABUSE AS STRESSORS IN THE LIVES OF
LESBIAN, GAY MALE, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH SCHOOL PROBLEMS, RUNNING AWAY, SUBSTANCE ABUSE, PROSTITUTION, AND SUICIDE, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1994, VOL 62(2), P261-269.
A common theme identified in empirical studies and clinical reports of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths is the chronic stress that is created by the verbal and physical abuse they receive from peers and adults. This article reviews the verbal and physical abuse that threatens the well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. This response to gay male, lesbian and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away from home, conflict with the law, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Although the causal link between these stressors and outcomes has not been scientifically established, there is suggestive evidence that these outcomes are consequences of verbal and physical harassment.
DISCRIMINATING STUDENTS, WALTER S. FAHEY, YOUNG PEOPLE NOW, MARCH 1995, P18-19.
Fahey reveals the findings of a survey into discrimination against lesbians and gay men in higher education.
TEACHING ABOUT SEXUAL ORIENTATION BY SECONDARY HEALTH TEACHERS, SUSAN K. TELLJOHANN, JAMES H. PRICE, MOHAMMAD POURESLAMI, ALYSSA EASTON, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1995, VOL 65(1), P18-22.
Less than half of a random sample (N = 211) of high school health teachers formally teach about homosexulity. When taught, it most commonly is taught for less than one class period. Only one-in-four teachers perceived themselves as very competent in teaching about homosexuality. This is not surprising given the fact that teachers were most likely to identify the mass media as the most commonly used source of information regarding homosexuality. One-in-five teachers claimed students in their classes often used abusive language when describing homosexuals. One-third of health teachers perceived the schools were not doing enough to help homosexual adolescents. Finally, more than half the health teachers indicated gay/lesbian support groups would not be supported by their school administrator. Perceptions and behaviors regarding adolescent homosexuality varied by the teachers' gender, age, educational level, and teaching status regarding homosexuality.
ADOLESCENT READERS' RESPONSES TO THE BOOKLET ON SEX, SINI HANNONEN, M. HEALTH CARE AND PERTTI KEKKI, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, 1995, VOL 16(4), P328-333.
Purpose: To investigate the reception and the readers' reactions to a booklet about sex, which is mailed annually to all 16-year old Finnish adolescents.
Methods: Eight hundred youngsters were randomly selected to the study. A questionnaire was sent to them six weeks after the mailing of the booklet, the Sextiin. After three rounds, a response rate of 65% (N = 521) was achieved.
Results: The booklet reached 97% of the respondents, of whom 72% read all of it. The respondents' attitudes towards and reactions to the Sextiin were mainly positive. They reacted least positively to the articles on homosexuality and masturbation. Twelve percent of the respondents indicted that they opened the condom package that was attached to the Sextiin.
Conclusions: The study shows that the campaign reached its target group well. As the adolescents' reactions to the Sextiin proved to be mainly positive, a claim for further use of the mass media for educational purposes is justified.
THE VICTIMIZATION OF GAY TEENAGERS IN SCHOOLS: HOMOPHOBIA IN EDUCATION, IAN RIVERS, PASTORAL CARE, MARCH 1995, P35-41.
Evidence presented in this paper suggests that bullying is a problem for a number of pupils in school, either because they are gay or are perceived as being so. For some of these pupils the effects have been traumatic and long term. As the paper points out, the support of gay pupils coming to terms with their sexuality has never been an area that many schools handle effectively, and recent legislation has done little to encourge the development of effective work in this area. However, the author believes that not only do schools have a responsibility to respond to this particular dimension of bullying, but also that the lowering of the age of consent for sexual intercourse between males will mean that it will be even more important for schools to include homosexuality in the issues raised and discussed with pupils.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS FOR PEER COUNSELLING: DEALING WITH HOMOPHOBIC ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS, IAN RIVERS, PEER COUNSELLING NETWORKER, 1995, ISSUE 1, P8.
MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES AMONG YOUNG LESBIANS AND GAY MEN BULLIED IN SCHOOL, IAN RIVERS, HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, 1995, VOL 3(6), P1-3.
YOUNG, GAY AND BULLIED, IAN RIVERS, YOUNG PEOPLE NOW, JANUARY 1996, P18-19.
A survey by Stonewall, the national lesbian and gay campaign group, found that more than a third of gay men and women - and half of those aged under 18 - have been victims of homophobic violence in the last five years. Ian Rivers, lecturer of psychology at the University of Luton, has conducted extensive research in homophobic abuse in schools and paints a gloomy picture of systematic violence.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
SOCIAL ISSUES & EDUCATION: CHALLENGE & RESPONSIBILITY, ED. ALEX MOLNAR, ALEXANDRIA, ASSOCIATION FOR SUPERVISION AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, 1987, INCLUDES:
PEERING INTO THE WELL OF LONELINESS: THE RESPONSIBILITY OF EDUCATORS TO GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, JAMES T. SEARS, Ch. 6.
TEACHERS, GENDER AND CAREERS, ED. SANDRA ACKER, FALMER PRESS, 1988, INCLUDES:
IN PASSING ... TEACHERS AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, GILLIAN SQUIRRELL, P87-106.
LEARNING OUR LINES, SEXUALITY AND SOCIAL CONTROL IN EDUCATION, CAROL JONES AND PAT MAHONY, EDITORS, THE WOMEN'S PRESS, 1989, INCLUDES:
CHAPTER 2: LESSONING LESBIANS: GIRLS' SCHOOLS, COEDUCATION AND ANTI-LESBIANISM BETWEEN THE WARS, ANNABEL FARADAY, P23-45.
CHAPTER 3: POSITIVE IMAGES IN HARINGEY: A STRUGGLE FOR IDENTITY, DAVINA COOPER, P46-78.
CHAPTER 4: SECTION 28 AND EDUCATION, SUE SANDERS AND GILL SPRAGGS, P79-121.
CHAPTER 8: SEX EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS: KEEPING TO THE 'NORM,' JULIE MELIA, P216-231.
CHAPTER 10: CHALLENGING HETEROSEXISM IN THE CURRICULUM: ROLES FOR TEACHERS, GOVERNORS AND PARENTS, PIP SCHOOT, P249-280.
STORMING THE TOWER: WOMEN IN THE ACADEMIC WORLD, SUZANNE LIE & VIRGINIA O'LEARY, LONDON: KOGAN PAGE, 1991, INCLUDES:
BEYOND THE BOUNDARIES: LESBIANS IN ACADEME, CELIA KITZINGER, P163-177.
SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE, SUSAN MOORE & DOREEN ROSENTHAL, ROUTLEDGE, 1993, INCLUDES:
GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENCE, MARK GOGGIN, P102-123.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, 1989, FOUR VOLUMES, VOLUME 3: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN YOUTH SUICIDE INCLUDES: GAY MALE AND LESBIAN YOUTH SUICIDE, PAUL GIBSON, P110-142.
Gay and lesbian youth belong to two groups at high risk of suicide; youth and homosexuals. A majority of suicide attempts by homosexuals occur during their youth, and gay youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide than other young people. they may comprise up to 30 percent of completed youth suicides annually. The earlier youth are aware of their orientation and identify themselves as gay, the greater the conflicts they have. Gay youth face problems in accepting themselves due to internalization of a negative self image and the lack of accurate information about homosexuality during adolescence. Gay youth face extreme physical and verbal abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers. They often feel totally alone and socially withdrawn out of fear of adverse consequences. As a result of these pressures, lesbian and gay youth are more vulnerable than other youth to psychosocial problems including substance abuse, chronic depression, school failure, early relationship conflicts, being forced to leave their families, and having to survive on their own prematurely. Each of these problems presents a risk factor for suicidal feelings and behaviour among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transsexual youth.
The root of the problem of gay youth suicide is a society that discriminates against and stigmatizes homosexuals while failing to recognize that a substantial number of its youth has a gay or lesbian
orientation. Legislation should be introduced to guarantee homosexuals equal rights in our society. We need to make a conscious effort to promote a positive image of homosexuals at all levels of society that provides gay youth with a diversity of lesbian and gay male adult role models. We each need to take personal responsiblility for revising homophobic attitudes and conduct. Families should be educated about the development and positive nature of homosexuality. They must be able to accept their child as gay or lesbian. Schools need to include information about homosexuality in their curriculum and protect gay youth from abuse by peers to ensure they receive an equal education. Helping professionals need to accept and support a homosexual orientation in youth. Social services need to be developed that are sensitive to and reflective of the needs of gay and lesbian youth.
PROJECT 10 HANDBOOK: ADDRESSING LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN OUR SCHOOLS, A RESOURCE DIRECTORY FOR TEACHERS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, PARENTS AND SCHOOL-BASED ADOLESCENT CARE PROVIDERS, 1993. PRODUCED BY FRIENDS OF PROJECT 10, INC. 7850 MELROSE AVENUE, LOS ANGELES, CA 90046, U.S.A.
Developed by Project 10, a counseling programme on campus within the Los Angeles Unified School District, this handbook covers many of the problems that come up for homosexual high school students. Includes the history of the Project, an overview of the clinical and historical approaches to homosexuality by Robert J. Bidwell, lesbian and gay youth suicide, families of homosexual youth, health issues, minority issues, strategies for counselling and intervention, how to start a similar system in other schools, an essay on homophobia, two model lesson plans on lesbian and gay awareness and an action plan to stop name-calling in the classroom. Also includes a teacher's self-evaluation on non-biased behaviour, strategies for managing homophobia in schools, and strategies for dealing with opposition.
MAKING SCHOOLS SAFE FOR GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH. BREAKING THE SILENCE IN SCHOOLS AND IN FAMILIES, EDUCATION REPORT, THE GOVERNOR'S COMMISSION ON GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, FEBRUARY 25, 1993, STATE HOUSE, ROOM 111, BOSTON, MA 02133, U.S.A.
Identifies some of the problems facing lesbian and gay youth in schools such as harassment, isolation and suicide, drop-out and poor school performance, need for adult role models, families. Also includes recommendations for schools, families and State Agencies and legislature.
*"MIRRORS ROUND THE WALLS - RESPECTING DIVERSITY," FIRST REPORT OF CURRICULUM WORKING PARTY ON LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN EDUCATION, MARCH 1988.
ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT, STONEWALL SURVEY ON THE AGE OF CONSENT & SEX EDUCATION, ANYA PALMER, 1994, STONEWALL, 2 GREYCOAT PLACE, WESTMINSTER, L0ND0N, SW1P 1SB.
*SECTION 28: A GUIDE FOR SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, GOVERNORS, STOP THE CLAUSE EDUCATION GROUP, 1988.
LESBIAN AND GAY EQUALITY NOW! ASSOCIATION OF LONDON AUTHORITIES, 1990 (SECTION 28), Association of London Authorities, 36 Old Queen Street, London, SW1H 9JF.
*SECTION 28: A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE LAW AND ITS IMPLICATIONS, MADELEINE COLVIN, JANE HAWKSLEY, LIBERTY, 1989.
TALKING ABOUT SCHOOL, H. WARREN, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1984, 6-9 MANOR GARDENS, HOLLOWAY ROAD, LONDON, N7.
TALKING ABOUT YOUTH WORK, L. TRENCHARD & H. WARREN, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1984.
SCHOOLS OUT, LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS IN EDUCATION, THE GAY TEACHERS' GROUP, 1987.
*OUTLAWS IN THE CLASSROOM, LESBIANS AND GAYS IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM, CITY OF LEICESTER TEACHER'S ASSOCIATION (NUT), 1987.
*HETEROSEXISM FOR BEGINNERS, A HANDBOOK FOR CHALLENGING ASSUMPTIONS IN F.E. TEACHING, PRODUCED AT NORTH LONDON COLLEGE, 1988.
COUNSELING AND EDUCATION FOR PRACTICE WITH GAY AND LESBIANS, NATALIE J. WOODMAN, IRVINGTON PUB INC 1988.
THE LESBIAN IN FRONT OF THE CLASSROOM: WRITINGS BY LESBIAN TEACHERS, SARAH HOPE PARMETER, IRENE RETI, EDITORS, INLAND BOOK CO 1988.
*CHALLENGING OPPRESSION - LESBIANS AND GAYS IN SCHOOL, A RESOURCE PACK, LEICESTER TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION (NUT), 1988.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, GILBERT HERDT EDITOR, HAWORTH PRESS INC 1989 (This is the Journal of Homosexuality vols 17 and 18, special editions on lesbian and gay youth).
*SEX EDUCATION: PLAYGROUND OR CLASSROOM A PAPER FOR SCHOOL GOVERNORS, NORTH WEST CAMPAIGN FOR LESBIAN AND GAY EQUALITY, 1989.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM, SIMON HARRIS, OPEN UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1990.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, HEMISPHERE PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 1990.
GROWING UP GAY IN THE SOUTH: RACE, GENDER AND JOURNEYS OF THE SPIRIT, JAMES T. SEARS, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1991.
SERVING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS, THE ROLE OF CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES, CHILD WELFARE STAFF, CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE AMERICA, 1991.
BEYOND TOLERANCE: GAYS, LESBIANS AND BISEXUALS ON CAMPUS, (ED) NANCY J. EVANS & VERNON A. WALL, AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION, 1991.
UNDERSTANDING SEXUAL IDENTITY: A BOOK FOR GAY AND LESBIAN TEENS AND THEIR FRIENDS, JANICE E. RENCH, 1ST AVE EDN, 1992.
COMING OUT OF THE CLASSROOM CLOSET: GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, TEACHERS, AND CURRICULA, KAREN M. HARBECK, EDITOR, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1992.
LESBIAN TEACHERS: AN INVISIBLE PRESENCE, MADIHA DIDI KHAYATT, STATE UJNIVERSITY NEW YORK PRESS, 1992.
SEXUALITY AND THE CURRICULUM, ED. JAMES T. SEARS, TEACHER COLLEGE, COLOMBIA UNIVERSITY, 1992.
LESBIAN AND GAY LIFESTYLES: A GUIDE FOR COUNSELLING AND EDUCATION, ED. NATALIE JANE WOODMAN, IRVINGTON PUBLISHERS, 1992.
CHRISTIANITY AND HOMOSEXUALITY, A RESOURCE FOR STUDENTS, SUE VICKERMAN, 1992. LESBIAN AND GAY CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT, OXFORD HOUSE, DERBYSHIRE STREET, LONDON, E2 6HG.
CHILDREN OF HORIZONS, HOW GAY AND LEBIAN TEENS ARE LEADING A NEW WAY OUT OF THE CLOSET, GILBERT HERDT, ANDREW BOXER, BEACON PRESS, BOSTON, 1993
TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGE: LESBIANS AND GAYS IN EDUCATION: BRIDGING THE GAP, SUE MCCONNELL-CELI, EDITOR, INLAND WOMENSOURCE, 1993.
GAY, LESBIAN, AND HETEROSEXUAL TEACHERS: AN INVESTIGATION OF ACCEPTANCE OF SELF, ACCEPTANCE OF OTHERS, AFFECTIONAL AND LIFESTYLE ORIENTATION, MARTIN P. MAYER, MELLEN EDWIN PRESS, 1993.
BECOMING VISIBLE, A READER IN GAY AND LESBIAN HISTORY FOR HIGH SCHOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS, KEVIN JENNINGS, ED, ALYSON, 1994.
CHALLENGING LESBIAN AND GAY INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION, DEBBIE EPSTEIN, OPEN UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1994.
ONE TEACHER IN 10: GAY AND LESBIAN EDUCATORS TELL THEIR STORIES, KEVIN JENNINGS, ALYSON 1994.
TEXTUAL ORIENTATIONS: LESBIAN AND GAY STUDENTS AND THE MAKING OF DISCOURSE COMMUNITIES, HARRIET MALINOWITZ, PETER R. STILLMAN, BOYNTON/COOK PUBLISHERS, 1994.
TILTING THE TOWER: LESBIANS/TEACHING/QUEER SUBJECTS, LINDA GARBER, ROUTLEDGE, 1994.
THE GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL STUDENT'S GUIDE TO COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, AND GRADUATE SCHOOLS, JAN MITCHELL SHERRILL, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1994.
DEATH BY DENIAL:STUDIES OF SUICIDE IN GAY AND LESBIAN TEENAGERS, GARY REMAFEDI, EDITOR, ALYSON 1994.
GROWING UP GAY/GROWING UP LESBIAN: A LITERARY ANTHOLOGY, BENNETT L. SINGER, EDITOR, NEW PRESS, 1994.
GROWING UP GAY OR LESBIAN, MARJORIE HILL, CHELSEA HOUSE PUB, 1994.
HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: NEW POLICIES, NEW PROGRAMS, NEW PRACTICE, TERESA DESCRESCENZO, HAWORTH PRESS, 1994.
TWO TEENAGERS IN TWENTY, WRITINGS BY GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, ED. ANN HERON, ALYSON PUBLICATIONS, 1994.
TILTING THE TOWER, LESBIANS, TEACHING, QUEER SUBJECTS, ED. LINDA GARBER, ROUTLEDGE, NEW YORK, 1994.
SCHOOL'S OUT, THE IMPACT OF GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES ON AMERICA'S SCHOOLS, DAN WOOG, ALYSON, BOSTON, 1995.
NOT THE ONLY ONE, LESBAN & GAY FICTION FOR TEENS, ED. TONY GRIMA, ALYSON PUBLICATIONS, 1995.
GAY & LESBIAN STUDENTS, UNDERSTANDING THEIR NEEDS, HILDA F. BESNER, CHARLOTTE J. SPUNGIN, TAYLOR & FRANCIS, 1995.
THE GAY TEEN, EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND THEORY FOR LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, ED. GERALD UNKS ROUTLEDGE, 1995.
PASSAGE OF PRIDE, LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH COME OF AGE, KURT CHANDLER, TIMES BOOKS, 1995.
JOINING THE TRIBE, GROWING UP GAY AND LESBIAN IN THE '90'S LINNEA DUE, ANCHOR BOOKS, NEW YORK, 1995.
THE JOURNEY OUT, A GUIDE FOR AND ABOUT LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL TEENS, RACHEL POLLACK AND CHERYL SCHWARTZ, PUFFIN, NEW YORK, 1995.
COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW: EXPLORING ISSUES OF SEXUALITY AND DIFFERENCE, A RESOURCE FOR TEACHERS, GOVERNORS, PARENTS AND CAREERS, SANDRA MOLE, CAMDEN & ISLINGTON COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES NHS TRUST, ST PANCRAS HOSPITAL, LONDON, NW1 0PE, 1996.
Sappho was a Right-On Woman, Sidney Abbot & Barbara Love, Stein & Day 1972 (1985).
Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain from the 19th Century to the Present, Jeffrey Weeks, Quarter, 1977.
The Early Homosexual Rights Movement, 1864-1935, John Lausritsen, David Thorstad, Times Change, 1978.
The Men with the Pink Triangle, Heinz Heger, Gay Men's Press, 1980.
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, eds. Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua, Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981.
Christianity, social tolerance and homosexuality: Gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century, John Boswell, University of Chicago Press, 1980.
The Lesbian in Literature, Barbara Grier, Naiad, 1981.
Homosexuality in Renaissance England, Alan Bray, Gay Men's Press, 1982.
Nice Jewish Girls: A Lesbian Anthology, ed Evelyn Torton Beck, The Crossing Press, 1982.
Lesbian Studies Present and Future, Margaret Cruickshank, Ed.,The Feminist Press, 1982.
One Teenager in Ten, Writings by Gay and Lesbian Youth, ed. Ann Heron, Alyson, 1983.
Something To Tell You, L. Trenchard & H. Warren, London Gay Teenage Group, 1984.
Stepping Out of Line, a workbook of lesbianism and feminism, ed by Nym Hughes et al, Press Gang Publishers, 1984.
Talking About Young Lesbians, L. Trenchard, London Gay Teenage Group, 1985.
Scotch Verdict, Lillian Faderman, Quartet, 1985.
Surpassing the love of men, Lillian Faderman, Women's Press, 1985.
Sex Variant Women in Literature, Jeannette H. Foster, The Naiad Press, 1985.
Gay Liberation in the Eighties, Jamie Gough & Mike MacNair, Pluto, 1985.
Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A., Jonathan Katz, Harper Row, 1985.
Out For Ourselves: The Lives of Irish Lesbians & Gay Men, Dublin Lesbian and Gay Men's Collective, Women's Community Press, 1986.
All in a Day's Work, a report on anti-lesbian discrimination in employment in London, Ed. Nina Taylor, Lesbian Employment Rights, 1986.
Gay Men at Work, Phil Greasley, Lesbian and Gay Employment Rights, 1986.
The Spinster and her Enemies, Sheila Jeffreys, Pandora Press, 1986.
A Faith of One's Own, Explorations by Catholic Lesbians, Ed. Barbara Zanotti, The Crossing Press, 1986.
Parents Matter, Parents' Relationships with Lesbian Daughters and Gay Sons, Ann Muller, The Naiad Press, 1987.
Radical Records: Thirty Years of Lesbian and Gay History, 1957-1987, eds. Bob Cant & Susan Hemmings, Routledge, 1988.
Out on the Shelves, Lesbian Books into Libraries, compiled by Jane Allen, Linda Kerr, Avril Rolph and Marion Chadwick, AAL Publishing, 1989.
Not a Passing Phase, Reclaiming Lesbians in History 1840-1985, Lesbian History Group, The Women's Press, 1989.
The Tradition of Female Transvestism in Early Modern Europe, Rudolf M. Dekker and Lotte C. van de Pol, Macmillan Press, 1989.
Being Lesbian, L. Trenchard, Gay Mens Press, 1989.
Lesbian Lists, a look at lesbian culture, history, and personalities, Dell Richards, Alyson, 1990.
A Stranger in the Family, Terry Sanderson, The Other Way Press, 1991.
Young Gay & Proud, Ed. Sasha Alyson, Alyson, 1991.
Coming Out to Parents, a two-way survival guide for lesbians and gay men and their parents, Mary V. Borhek, The Pilgrim Press, 1991.
Eyes of Desire: A Deaf and Lesbian Reader, ed. Raymond Luczak, Alyson, 1993.
Lesbians Talk: Making Black Waves, eds. Valerie Mason-John & Ann Khambatta, Scarlet Press, 1993.
Lotus of Another Color: An Unfolding of the South Asian Gay and Lesbian Experience, ed. Rakesh Ratti.
Assertively Gay, How to Build Gay Self Esteem, Terry Sanderson, The Other Way Press, 1993.
Heterosexism and Work with Young Lesbians and Gay Men, Reading List, National Youth Agency, 1993.
We're Counting on Equality, Monitoring Equal Opportunities in the Workplace in Relation to Sex, Race, Disability, Sexuality, HIV/AIDS, and Age, Maree Gladwin, 1993, City Centre, 32-35 Featherstone Street, London, EC1Y 8QX.
The Issues: Black Lesbians and Black Gay Men, Anne Hayfield, 1994, Lesbian and Gay Employment Rights, St Margarets House, 21 Old Ford Road, London, E2 9PL.
Broadcasting It, An Encyclopedia of homosexuality on film, radio and T.V. in the UK 1923-1993, Keith Howes, Cassell, 1994.
Talking Black, Lesbians of African and Asian Descent Speak Out, ed. Valerie Mason-John, Cassell, 1995.
WHEN YOUR CHILD COMES OUT, ANNE LOVELL, SHELDON PRESS, 1995.
FAMILY OUTING, A GUIDE FOR PARENTS OF GAYS, LESBIANS AND BISEXUALS, ED. JOY DICKENS, PETER OWN, 1995.
© Lesbian Information Service 1995