LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH
SEXUAL IDENTITY CONFLICT IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS, RICHARD GREEN, REVIEW BY ETHEL SPECTOR PERSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(2), P217-219.
CASEWORK INTERVENTION WITH A HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENT, R. NEEDHAM, SOCIAL CASEWORK, JULY 1977, VOL 58, P387-394.
Mental health professionals must see the gay client as a person who frequently needs supportive casework in an often hostile, prejudicial environment.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION SURVEY OF STUDENTS ON THE SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS, MICHAEL G. SHIVELY, JOHN P. DE CECCO, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 4(1), P29-39.
This study examined the sexual orientations of students on the campus of San Francisco State University. The sample consisted of 1,039 students who responded to a questionnaire administered in their classes. The results were as follows: (a) significantly more males than females reported the homosexual orientation for both behavior and feeling; (b) about the same proportion for whites and nonwhites reported the homosexual orientation for behavior; and (c) significantly more students in majors emphasising "divergent" thinking than those in majors emphasising "convergent" thinking reported the homosexual orientation for behavior. The first two findings were explained in terms of the differentiated and related development of social sex-roles and sexual orientation in females and males and minority and majority groups. The last finding was explained in terms of divergent and convergent thinking of students who choose particular disciplines.
COLLEGE AGE LESBIANISM AS A DEVELOPMENT PHENOMENON, ANN FLECK HENDERSON, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH ASSOCIATION, 1979, VOL 28(3), P176-78.
The clinical phenomenon of young lesbianism is seen as psychologically meaningful in terms of ongoing ego development rather than in terms of arrested psychosexual development.
LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS IN RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT, AUDREY I. STEINHORN, SOCIAL CASEWORK: THE JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL WORK, 1979, VOL 60, P494-498.
HALLUCINOGENIC DEPENDENCY DURING ADOLESCENCE AS A DEFENSE AGAINST HOMOSEXUAL FANTASIES: A REENACTMENT OF THE FIRST SEPARATION-INDIVIDUATION PHASE IN THE COURSE OF TREATMENT, R.M. GONZALEZ, JOURNAL OF YOUTH AND ADOLESCENCE, 1979, VOL 8(1), P63-71.
COUNSELLING THE YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN, RHODA MILLER, JOURNAL OF THE NAWDAC, 1980, VOL 43(3), P44-47.
This paper focuses on the common problems faced by the young adult lesbian when she first realizes that she might be gay. The author suggests counselors should: (1) encourage the counselee to "dump"; (2) guide her in a decision of how, when and with whom to come out, (3) explain the legal rights and restrictions concerning homosexuality, (4) provide ongoing support on an individual basis for those who choose to socialize openly, and (5) publicly promote gay rights.
A STUDY OF THERAPY OF HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENT DRUG USERS IN A RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT SETTING, DAVID K. WELLISCH, CARL PATERNITE, ADOLESCENCE, 1981, VOL 16(63), P689-700
LEARNING TO HIDE: THE SOCIALIZATION OF THE GAY ADOLESCENT, A. DAMIEN MARTIN, ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, 1982, VOL 10, P52-65.
This article gives an excellent overview of discrimination and is very good about the situation facing young gay men. However, there is little specific about young lesbians.
ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, FOR PARENTS, THESE 10 DON'TS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT, BEVERLY T. MEAD, CONSULTANT, 1983, VOL 23(4),P107-111.
CARING FOR A KID WHO'S GAY, EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 1984, VOL 16(11), P96-122).
An adolescent whose sexual orientation is different - or sometimes uncertain - not only has special medical needs but often needs your support and counsel as well.
THE COMING-OUT PROCESS FOR LESBIANS: INTEGRATING A STABLE IDENTITY, LOU ANN LEWIS, SOCIAL WORK, 1984, VOL 29(5), P464-469.
Social workers have lacked models for understanding the process of a client's self-identification as a lesbian. This article describes several developmental phases a woman may go through to form a healthy self-concept as a lesbian and discusses practice implications for this process.
MEETING THE NEEDS OF SEXUAL MINORITY YOUTH: ONE PROGRAM'S RESPONSE, TACIE L. VERGARA, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK & HUMAN SEXUALITY, (SPECIAL ISSUE: HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK), 1984, VOL 2(2/3), P19-38.
This article brings the needs of sexual minority youth to the attention of the social work profession. The author describes the experiences of the Eromin Center, Inc. in developing a comprehensive youth services program to meet the special needs of sexual minority youth and provides practical guidelines for social workers who wish to work effectively with this population.
CHANGING HOMOPHOBIC ATTITUDES THROUGH COLLEGE SEXUALITY EDUCATION, WILLIAM J. SERDAHELY, GEORGIA J. ZIEMBA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 10(1/2), P109-116.
It was hypothesized that a unit on homosexuality (which emphasized role playing and the debunking of myths) in an undergraduate college sexuality course would alter students' homophobic attitudes. A modified version of the Hudson/Ricketts Index of Homophobia was used to measure homophobia. At the completion of the course, for those students in the treatment group with pretest scores above the median, the homophobic scores decreased significantly when compared to the scores of control counterparts. The results of this study also showed that there was no significant difference in homophobia scores at the end of the course for those students in the treatment group with pretest scores below the median when compared to the appropriate controls.
BLACK MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS: TRADITIONAL AND NEW POPULATIONS, G.I. JOSEPH, SAGE: A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ON BLACK WOMEN, 1984, VOL 1(2), P17-21.
Discusses the emergence of two groups of Black women with differing needs: adolescent mothers and lesbian mothers. Implications for understanding the attitudes of Black families and communities toward these groups and for childrearing practices are discussed.
CRISIS COUNSELING FOR DISPARATE ADOLESCENT SEXUAL DILEMMAS: PREGNANCY AND HOMOSEXUALITY, GARY ROSS-REYNOLDS, BARBARA S. HARDY, SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, 1985, VOL 14(3), P300-312.
Issues and considerations in counseling adolescents confronted by the two unrelated potential sexual dilemmas of pregnancy and homosexuality are presented. Within the framework of crisis counseling theory, roles and activities of the school psychologist confronting these issues are articulated. As crisis counselor the psychologist is called upon to facilitate rapid reduction of acute stress and to enhance adolescents' coping skills by helping them access personal and community resources. The psychologist's role in primary prevention is also discussed.
ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, ISSUES FOR PEDIATRICIANS, GARY J. REMAFEDI, CLINICAL PEDIATRICS, SEP 1985, P481-485.
Homosexuality is among the most complex and controversial issues of adolescent health care. Although homosexual activity is common during adolescence, the prevalence and origins of homosexuality per se are poorly understood. Homosexual identity formation is a potentially tumultuous process that begins in childhood and extends through adulthood. The adolescent's experiences may ultimately contribute to a variety of physical and mental health problems. The sociological, psychological, and medical issues are considered, and guidelines for the care of homosexual youths are proposed.
MEDICAL PROBLEMS OF THE HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENT, W.F. OWEN JR, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1985, VOL 6(4), P278-285.
Physicians treating adolescents should take a complete sexual history, including sexual orientation and practices, to determine whether their patients are homosexually active. Lesbians are at very low risk for
sexually transmitted diseases, but they do have other health concerns. Four general groups of conditions may be encountered in homosexually active men: classical sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, herpes simplex infections, genital warts, pubic lice, scabies); enteric diseases (infections with Shigella species, Campylobacter jejuni, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis non-A, non-B, and cytomegalovirus); trauma (fecal incontinence, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, foreign bodies, rectosigmoid tears, allergic proctitis, penile edema, chemical sinusitis, inhaled nitrite burns, and sexual assault of the male patient); and the AIDS. Clinicians can assist homosexual teenagers by understanding their special health needs, by counseling them about safe sexual practices, and by accepting their relationships nonjudmentally.
TRAINING SERVICE PROVIDERS TO WORK WITH GAY OR LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS: A WORKSHOP, M.S. SCHNEIDER & B TREMBLE, JOURNAL OF COUNSELLING & DEVELOPMENT, 1986, VOL 65(2), P98-99.
Describes a 3 hour workshop for service providers of male and female homosexual adolescents designed to address issues such as developmental tasks, informing the family of one's homosexuality, confusion over sexual identity, the relevance of sexual orientation to other personal problems, stereotypes concerning homosexuality and the placement of a homosexual identity in an appropriate perspective. Questionnaire data from participants indicate that they acquired a more positive attitude toward homosexuality and a more accurate perception of the homosexual population.
WORKING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, GARY REMAFEDI, ROBERT BLUM, PEDIATRIC ANNALS, 1986, VOL 5(11), P773-783.
Due to the epidemic of the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, adolescent homosexuality has become one of the most critical issues of pediatrics and adolescent health care in the 1980s. However, the controversies surrounding the issue often discourage health professionals, educators, researchers, and the gay community alike from being involved in the care of young people struggling with the problems of sexual identity; the general lack of data regarding homosexual youths perpetuates the emotionalism of the subject. Our intent here is to provide practical information from the literature and from our own experience to pediatricians and other professionals who are interested in working with young gays and lesbians.
SUICIDE RISK AMONG GAY MEN AND LESBIANS: A REVIEW, JUDITH M. SAUNDERS, S.M. VALENTE, DEATH STUDIES, 1987, VOL 4(1), P1-23.
Without adequate death statistics from completed suicide data, the suicide risk for gay men and lesbians must be determined from empirical studies and from a theoretical understanding of suicide risk. Three large, well designed studies found that gay men and lesbians attempt suicide two to seven times more often than heterosexual comparison groups. Gay men and lesbians have significantly high rates of risk factors that increase suicide risk such as suicide attempts, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and interrupted social ties.
Durkheim suggests that groups with low social status and integration who are denied society's usual privilege and rights are at risk for alienation and anomic suicide unless protected by internal cohesion, religion or antisuicide norms. Durkheim's theory applied to gay men and lesbians illustrates how the extensive and diverse alienation reported may lead to suicide. Diverse groups of gay people have not yet successfully decreased alienation or suicide.
Empirical evidence, risk factors and Durkheim's theory of anomic suicide thus supports the proposition that gay men and lesbians are at high risk for suicide. The need for sensitive research methodology, decreased heterosexual bias, creative network sampling strategies, and confidentiality are discussed. Future research should clarify the completed suicide rates among diverse groups of homosexuals of different age, sex, race, and demographic variables.
ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY: GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES, JIM A. CATES, CHILD WELFARE, 1987, VOL 16(4), P353-364.
Dynamics and interventions with adolescents who express concern regarding gay/lesbian issues are described, with a focus both intrapsychic and social. Both psychological and emotional aspects of sexual preference, and cultural and social expectations for those who identify themselves as gay or lesbian are considered.
GROWING UP GAY OR LESBIAN IN A MULTICULTURAL CONTEXT, B. TREMBLE, M.SCHNEIDER, C. APPATHURAI, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 17(3/4), P253-267.
This study investigates the influence of ethnicity on the relationships of gay and lesbian young people and their families. A framework for conceptualizing the influence of culture is presented. Modes of family responses are described and the conflicts involved in maintaining an ethnic identity, and a gay or lesbian identity are discussed. Implications for researchers and practitioners are identified.
YOUTH, IDENTITY, AND HOMOSEXUALITY: THE CHANGING SHAPE OF SEXUAL LIFE IN CONTEMPORARY BRAZIL, RICHARD PARKER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 17(3/4), P269-289.
This essay examines the relationship between homosexuality and adolescence in contemporary Brazil, focusing on a distinction between two rather different systems of sexual meanings that have structured the experience of same-sex relations: a traditional model of the sexual universe that continues to dominate sexual life in rural areas, and a more modern set of notions that has become increasingly important in the cities. It examines the ways in which these rather different systems have affected the experience of same-sex desires and practices during youth or adolescence, and suggests some of the ways in which the emergence of a gay subculture in urban Brazil has transformed the range of sexual possibilities and choices currently available to young men and women.
A VERY SILENT AND GAY MINORITY, GLORIA J. KRYSIAK, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, 1987, VOL 34(4), P304-307.
Suggests some special considerations which might be given the gay or lesbian high school student. Examines knowledge, beliefs and values about homosexuality. Encourages counselors to help lesbian and gay students develop healthy identities and self-disclosure skills and help them come to terms with disclosing or not disclosing their sexuality.
STRESSES ON LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS IN SCHOOLS, J. HUNTER & R. SCHAECHER, SOCIAL-WORK-IN-EDUCATION, 1987, VOL 9(3), PAGES 180-190.
An awareness of a homosexual orientation often emerges in students during their high school years. A significant portion of these self-identified youngsters experience unique stresses that the school system needs to recognize and address in an affirmative manner. The authors provide an overview of the problems and briefly describe the role of the school social worker.
HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND THE SCHOOL COUNSELOR, ROBERT EARL POWELL, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, 1987, VOL 34(3), P202-208.
EXTRACT: My purpose in this article is twofold: to examine some of the problems and issues that confront adolescent gay and lesbian students in the school environment and to focus on an understanding of the sexual preference of these youths as a means of delineating roles for the counselor. Some specific recommendations for the school counsellor are also included.
DEVELOPMENT AND IDENTITY ISSUES IN ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, T. SULLIVAN & M. SCHNEIDER, CHILD & ADOLESCENT SOCIAL WORK JOURNAL, 1987, VOL 4(1), P13-24.
This paper argues that homosexual emergence in adolescence must be viewed from a developmentally nonpejorative perspective. In attempting to respond to the special stresses in adolescents who are developing gay or lesbian identities, helping professionals need to develop a familiarity with the unique developmental tasks of gay and lesbian youth, as well as the sexual identity formation literature generally. A review of developmental issues for gay and lesbian youth leads to some thoughts regarding the development of services.
DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES AND THEIR RESOLUTION FOR GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, E.S. HETRICK AND A.D. MARTIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P25-43.
The primary development task for homosexually oriented adolescents is adjustment to a socially stigmatized role. Although the individual homosexual adolescent reacts with diversity and great resilience to societal pressures, most pass through a turbulent period that carries the risk of maladaptive behaviors that may affect adult performance. Despite individual variation, certain issues have been found to concern most homosexual adolescents. Empirical data from the Institute for the Protection of Lesbian and Gay Youth, Inc. in New York city suggests that isolation, family violence, educational issues, emotional stresses, shelter and sexual abuse are the main concerns of youth entering the program. If not resolved, the social, cognitive, and social isolation may extend into adulthood, and anxiety, depressive symptoms, alienation, self-hatred, and demoralization may result. In a non-threatening supportive environment that provides accurate information and appropriate peer and adult role models, many of the concerns are alleviated and internalized negative attitudes are either modified or prevented from developing. The authors discuss the effects of prejudice and the impact of negative societal attitudes on the developing social and personal identities of homosexual youths.
INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND LESBIAN IDENTITY, JOAN SOPHIE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P53-65.
This paper presents suggestions for therapists working with women who are having difficulty accepting their attractions to other women, lesbian behavior and identity, or both, with the goal of promoting self-acceptance and reducing internalized homophobia. After a discussion of the therapeutic relationship, several coping strategies which have been used successfully by many women are described and therapeutic applications are offered. These strategies include cognitive restructuring, avoiding a negative identity, adopting an identity label, self-disclosure, meeting other lesbians, and habituation to lesbianism. Finally, behavioral indications of success or failure to achieve the goal of self-acceptance are presented.
LESBIAN DAUGHTERS AND LESBIAN MOTHERS: THE CRISIS OF DISCLOSURE FROM A FAMILY SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE, JO-ANN KRESTAN, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY & THE FAMILY, 1987, VOL 3(4), P113-130.
Working from a Bowen family systems perspective, a critical aspect of the therapeutic task with lesbian clients is that of coaching them to 'come out' in the family of origin. The disclosure of lesbianism, particularly that of a daughter to mother or a mother to a daughter, is discussed. This article examines the societal context in which a woman makes a lesbian choice and discusses the necessity for disclosure. The particular issues and difficulties involved, the clinical methodology used, and some common results are presented. Case examples illustrate the ideas discussed.
THERAPEUTIC ISSUES AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES WITH YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN CLIENTS: A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH, C. BROWNING, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P45-52.
This paper examines the coming out process within an adult developmental context. Therapeutic issues which surface for the young adult lesbian client include separation from parents, development of social support, exploration of career/vocational goals, and the establishment of intimate relationships. Intervention strategies are suggested which facilitate the coming out process and help the client integrate her sexual orientation within her emerging adult identity.
HEALTH CARE DELIVERY AND THE CONCERNS OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, P.A. PAROSKI, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, MARCH 1987, VOL 8, P188-192.
One hundred and twenty-one self-identified homosexual adolescents presenting to a New York City gay-lesbian community clinic were questioned over a period of 18 months concerning their perceived needs and health care requirements. These individuals reported using various traditional and nontraditional methods to learn about the homosexual lifestyle. Through this socialisation many developed a stereotypical view of homosexuality and its associated lifestyle. Family discovery and other specific concerns of these patients are detailed. The implications of this psychosocial process are important to professionals who provide health care to adolescents.
SUICIDE AMONG HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, RONALD F.C. KOURANY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P111-117.
Little attention has been given in the professional literature to suicide among homosexual adolescents. Sixty-six adolescent psychiatrists responded to a questionnaire on the subject. Results from this survey suggest that many experts are not working with homosexual adolescents. On the other hand, the majority of those treating them considered them to be at higher risk for suicide and agreed that their suicidal gestures were more severe than those of other adolescents.
ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY: PSYCHOSOCIAL AND MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS, G. REMAFEDI, PEDIATRICS, 1987, VOL 79(3), P331-337.
Despite a widespread interest in the health of the gay community, the psychosocial and medical problems of gay and bisexual adolescents have not been adequately investigated. In this study, 29 gay and bisexual male teenagers participated in anonymous and confidential interviews regarding the impact of sexuality on family, employment, education, peers, intimate relationsips, and physical and mental health. The majority of subjects experienced school problems related to sexuality, substance abuse, and/or emotional difficulties warranting mental health interventions. In addition, nearly half of the subjects reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases, running away from home, or conflict with the law. A minority had been victims of sexual assaults or involved in prostitution. Those less than 18 years of age experienced higher rates of psychiatric hospitalization, substance abuse, high school drop-out, and conflict with the law than did older participants. Various explanations for the prevalence of these problems and their implications for health professionals are discussed.
HOMOSEXUAL YOUTH, A CHALLENGE TO CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY, G. REMAFEDI, JAMA, 1987, VOL 258(2), P222-225.
COMING OUT TO MOM AND DAD: A STUDY OF GAY MALES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR PARENTS, DAVID W. CRAMER, ARTHUR J. ROACH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P79-91.
This study explores the relationship between gay men coming out to parents and specific perceived parental variables in an attempt to discriminate between parents who are more or less accepting. In addition, other factors such as how the disclosure occurs and reasons for coming out were investigated.
Results indicate that most parents initially react negatively to the disclosure, but become more accepting over time. Parental values and characteristics associated with homophobia were found to be good predictors of the change in parent-son relationship following disclosure. However, the predictions were often in unexpected directions. The majority of respondents reported having a more positive relationship with their mothers than with their fathers, both before and after coming out.
ON "BEING A PROSTITUTE", PAUL W. MATHEWS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P119-135.
The book "On Being a Prostitute" (Perkins & Bennett, 1985) is a valuable contribution to the sociology of deviance and sexual ideologies. However, comprehensive as it is, the book presents certain omissions and flaws, with implications for both its empirical data and theoretical underpinnings. In focusing on male (homoerotic) prostitution, and drawing upon Bennett's (1983) "Twenty-Ten" survey (which forms the main empirical base of that aspect of the book), I argue that certain categories of male prostitutes have been excluded. These omissions, I suggest, were necessary to allow Bennett's hypothesis that most male prostitution derives from economic necessity - a recurrent economic determinism reminiscent of Havelock Ellis (1906/1936), and somewhat contrary to a broader structural approach (see Mathews, 1983).
ESSENTIAL ISSUES IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, B.R. SLATER, PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH & PRACTICE, 1988, VOL 19(2), P226-235.
Psychologists working with young gay men and lesbians may experience public and agency resistance based primarily on the confusion of moral and rational thinking and on homophobia. To work effectively with young lesbians and gay men, psychologists need to be relatively free of homophobia and knowledgeable about gay male and lesbian life-styles. Provision of developmental process information to the client is very useful. Internal and external homophobia, a lack of healthful role models, coming out to oneself and others, and AIDS are among the most critical problems faced by young gay men and lesbians. Although a discussion of intervention techniques is beyond the scope of this article, bibliotherapy is briefly decribed as one effective intervention in that it provides necessary information to the client and it serves as a springboard for therapy.
THE GAY AND LESBIAN TEEN: A CASE OF DENIED ADOLESCENCE, ROBERT J. BIDWELL, JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 2(1), P3-8.
In 1983 the American Academy of Pediatrics recognised the reality and special needs of those adolescents for whom homosexuality is a natural and valid developmental outcome. Unfortunately, gay and lesbian teens grow up in an environment that is still largely hostile to their sexual and affectional orientation. Society neither affirms their feelings as healthy and legitimate nor allows the exploration necessary for self-understanding and acceptance. The increased morbidity and mortality risk associated with being a gay or lesbian teen is often due to this denial of adolescence. Health care professionals should provide support, accurate information, and anticipatory guidance to adolescents with sexual identity concerns and to their parents. In addition, health care providers should publicly address the realities of growing up gay and the need for a societal change in attitude toward homosexuality that is based on fact rather than myth or ignorance.
MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, J.C. GONSIOREK, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 9(2), P114-122.
Contends that the mental health concerns of gay and lesbian adolescents are best understood within the context of cultural limitations, including a problematic conceptualization of adolescence, homophobia, and erotophobia. Within this framework, background information about homosexuality is presented; and the special social pressures and psychological problems of gay and lesbian youth are discussed, with particular attention paid to internalized homophobia, developmental issues, and the "coming out" process. Differences between gay and lesbian mental health issues are highlighted. Practical suggestions regarding treatment planning are provided.
LESBIANS, FAMILY PROCESS AND INDIVIDUATION, L. BERG-CROSS,
JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1988, VOL 3(1), P97-112,
This paper presents an overview of the unique problems that face college-age lesbians as they try to individuate from their family of origin. The first set of obstacles involves the dual developmental tasks of "coming out" and escaping the suffocating fusion typical of many early lesbian relationships. The second set of difficulties concerns parental reactions to the lesbian relationship. The third set of problems (which are intimately intertwined with the first two) concerns how lovers are perceived and received as "in-laws." The paper concludes with five recommended psychotherapy strategies.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN EDUCATION: A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS IN A COLLEGE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, STEPHEN M. CLIFT, BRITISH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL, 1988, VOL 14(1), P31-50.
The present study investigated the attitudes of 80 first-year students in a college of higher education towards homosexuals, lesbian women, gay men and 'homosexuality and education' using specially constructed scales. An attempt was also made to assess the effect of a short unit on 'homosexuality and education' on the attitudes of students following a foundation course in Educational Studies. Test-retest reliabilities over a one-week interval were very satisfactory and the scales were highly inter-correlated. Consistent with earlier research evidence significant sex differences emerged, with men being less tolerant than women towards homosexuals in general, gay men and greater openness in education. For the lesbian women scale, in contrast, men expressed more positive attitudes, with particularly clear and significant differences in this direction emerging for three lesbian items. Students who rated themselves as other than exclusively heterosexual and as having lesbian and gay acquaintances, were generally more positive in their attitudes, with the exception of men in relation to the 'homosexuality and education' scale. Finally, experience of a unit homosexuality and education appeared to result in a significant shift in male students' attitudes towards gay men, but in general the changes observed between pre-test and post-test were slight. The implications and shortcomings of the present investigation are discussed and suggestions for further studies in a neglected area of British research outlined.
HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: A MOTHER'S PERSPECTIVE, M.V. BORHEK, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 9(2), P123-128.
Gay and lesbian youths confront a number of difficult problems, including telling their parents about their sexual orientation and helping their families adjust to the news. Ineffective communication, poor self-esteem, and unresolved grief and anger often complicate the adolescent's telling his/her parents. Frequently, misinformation about homosexuality, religious beliefs, and homophobia adversely influence parental reactions. Impediments to the relationship between parents and sexual minority youth are discussed and strategies to promote positive family adjustment are presented.
THE STIGMATIZATION OF THE GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENT, A.D. MARTIN, E.S. HETRICK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(1/2), P163-183.
Discusses presenting problems of clients at a social service agency serving homosexually oriented adolescents. Identifies these problems as isolation, family discovery and violence suffered because of sexual orientation. Offers suggestions for the management of problems.
ALCOHOLISM AND NON-ACCEPTANCE OF GAY SELF: THE CRITICAL LINK, ROBERT J. KUS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 15(1/2), 1988, P.25-41.
As part of a larger research project designed to generate grounded theory on the nature of gay sobriety, this study was designed to explore the etiology of alcoholism among gay American men and how etiology is related to gay bars or non-acceptance of gay self or both. In-depth interviews were conducted in Seattle, Iowa City, Chicago, and Oklahoma City with 20 gay recovering alcoholic men, each of whom had at least one year of sobriety. It was found that: (a) Gay bars were totally unrelated to the etiology in any of the informants, yet most thought that this gay bar ethnotheory could explain why there was a high incidence of alcoholism in the gay community; (b) none of the men saw being gay as a positive thing before sobriety, yet many didn't realize their non-acceptance until after sobriety was chosen; (c) accepting being gay as a positive aspect of self occurred only after sobriety was chosen and lived; and (d) not accepting being gay as a positive thing may therefore explain the etiology and thus the high incidence of alcoholism among gay American men.
GAY YOUTH AND AIDS, DOUGLAS A. FELDMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P185-193.
Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.
GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS: A CRITICAL CHALLENGE TO COUNSELORS, ELI COLEMAN, GARY REMAFEDI, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P36-40.
Meeting the health care needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual teenagers has become a public health imperative, and mental health professionals should be prepared for the challenge. The stigma of homosexuality often gives rise to psychosocial problems for adolescents, who are in the process of sexual identity development. The stigma also may complicate delivery of appropriate, ethical, and sound mental health treatment. Suggestions are offered to support healthy development, to assist recovery from stigma, and to avert the disastrous consequences of suicide and AIDS.
OPENING UP THE CLASSROOM CLOSET: RESPONDING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, ERIC ROFES, HARVARD EDUCTIONAL REVIEW, 1989, VOL 59(4), P444-453.
Eric Rofes, gay community activist and author, explores the issues surrounding the schools' failure to meet the educational needs of gay and lesbian youth. He argues that there has been an across-the-board denial of the existence of gay and lesbian youth, and that this has taken place because "their voices have been silenced and because adults have not effectively taken up their cause." Rofes goes on to present some promising initiatives that are designed to change the status quo: Project 10 in Los Angeles and the Harvey Milk School in New York City. He concludes by proposing needed changes in U.S. schools if they are to become truly accessible to gay and lesbian youth.
LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH IN ENGLAND, KEN PLUMMER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(3/4), P195-223.
The experience of being gay and young has been seriously neglected in youth culture research and in youth service provision. This stems in part from the pervasiveness of both the heterosexual assumption and the sexual stigma. Since the advent of the gay movement, however, some modest research into gay youth has been conducted and some has been generated through the activity of gay organizations themselves. This paper reviews the experience and problems of being young and gay in Britain as revealed through three research studies. It outlines some key changes that have occurred during the 1980's, especially the emergence of gay youth organizations. It concludes by suggesting the diversity of the gay youth experience in England.
SAPPHO WAS A RIGHT-ON ADOLESCENT: GROWING UP LESBIAN, M. SCHNEIDER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P111-129.
Beginning with the interaction between the coming-out process and adolescent development this paper explores the young lesbian experience. The words and perceptions of over 20 young lesbians are used to depict the experience from their own points of view.
MALE PROSTITUTION AND HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITY, DEBRA BOYER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P151-183.
The documentary film on transvestites, The Queen, has a scene where a young man tells a friend about a recent job interview (Litvinoff, 1968). His friend asks, "Did you tell them you were a homosexual?" The young man, who did not get the job, answers, "No, they told me." What this interaction reflected was not just the fact of the young man's homosexuality, but the social fact: What it means to be homosexual in his culture and society. In this paper, I discuss the conduct of prostitution as one enactment of those meanings: Prostitution, as a social fact in the life of adolescent gay males, is understood by them to be linked with their homosexual identity.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MALE PROSTITUTION ACTIVITY AMONG GAY AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (1/2), P131-149.
The current research literature regarding male-juvenile prostitution activity is reviewed. An attempt is made to develop some theoretical understanding of the development of this activity among gay and bisexual adolescents. A predisposition, resulting from faulty psychosexual and psychosocial development, appears to make these boys vulnerable to the situational variables that they encounter. More severe disruptions in psychosexual and psychosocial development seem to result in more destructive and non-ego-enhancing prostition activities. A clinical case study is presented which illustrates the development of this activity. Recommendations are made to help reduce the amount of self-destructive prostitution activity among male adolescents.
LESBIAN WOMEN IN A RURAL HELPING NETWORK: EXPLORING INFORMAL HELPING RESOURCES, ANTHONY R.D. D'AUGELLI, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P119-130.
An important article which outlines the special isolation experienced by lesbians who live in rural settings. Includes a case illustration of The Women's Network followed by a discussion of the implications for therapy.
WIDENING CIRCLES: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF A YOUTH GROUP, C.J. GERSTEL, A.J. FERAIOS, G. HERDT, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P75-92.
Introduces work-in-progress on the ethnography of a gay and lesbian youth group in Chicago. The surrounding neighborhood is sketched and aspects of the supporting agency, within which the group functions, are described. Both are seen as contributing contexts for the "coming out" process. The youth group is described in part, including the age, ethnicity, and related factors of its composition. Youth are found to be involved in a process of dual socialization entailing roles and knowledge in the gay and straight normative communities.
SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT GAY MEN, STEPHEN G. SCHNEIDER, NORMAN L. FARBEROW, GABRIEL N. KRUKS, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR, 1989, VOL 19(4), P381-394.
The relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior was explored by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay-and-lesbian college organizations and 56 men in gay rap groups. A family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting of homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with a history of suicidal ideation, reported by 55% of the participants. Racial/ethnic minorities tended to be overrepresented among suicidal as compared to nonsuicidal gay men. Suicide attempts, reported by 20% of the sample, were most often associated with intrapersonal distress, and occured most often while individuals were "closeted" and/or in the context of recent rejection for being homosexual. Nearly all attempters were aware of their homosexual feelings, but had not yet established a "positive gay identity" at the time of their first suicide attempt. Suicidal behavior in gay youths may be the product both of familial factors that predispose youths to suicidal behavior, and of social and intrapersonal stressors involved in coming to terms with an emerging homosexual identity.
GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, REVIEW AUTHORS SAVIN-WILLIAMS R.C. MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3-4), P197-216.
EXTRACT: Distinguishing among sexual orientation, behavior, and identity is a primary goal of this paper. Another is to reduce the invisibility of lesbian and gay adolescents - to social scientists, health care providers, the lesbian and gay communities, gay/lesbian youths and their parents. Finally, a third goal is to alert parents and health care providers to some of the issues, such as irrational fears, peer ridicule, lack of support, and misunderstandings, that are directly responsible for the poor physical and psychological health of some lesbian and gay youth.
COUNSELLING PRACTICE: COUNSELLING HOMOSEXUAL/BISEXUAL PEOPLE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO YOUNG LESBIAN WOMEN, C. SMART, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE AND YOUTH, 1989, VOL 1(4), P379-93.
This account is written to explore issues connected with homosexuality and bisexuality in so far as these dispositions relate to the counselling of young people and adolescents. It is directed to those professionals and caring adults who may be called upon to help young people deal with their own sexuality and who, in consequence will be called upon to demonstrate a high level of acceptance and empathic understanding.
ETHNIC MINORITY FAMILIES AND MINORITY GAYS AND LESBIANS, EDWARD S. MORALES, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14 (3/4), P217-239.
Attitudes toward sexuality differs within the diverse ethnic and racial communities that exist in the U.S., and the cultural values and beliefs surrounding sexuality play a major role in determining how individuals behave within their sociological context. The family unit is the domain where such values and beliefs are nurtured and developed. An individual's value system is shaped and reinforced within the family context which usually reflects the broader community norms. Disclosure of a gay or lesbian sexual preference and lifestyle by a family member presents challenges to ethnic minority families who tend not to discuss sexuality issues and presume a heterosexual orientation.
For ethnic minority gays and lesbians the 'coming out' process present challenges in their identity formation processes and in their loyalties to one community over another. Ethnic gay men and lesbians need to live within three rigidly defined and strongly independent communities: the gay and lesbian community, the ethnic minority community, and the society at large. While each community provides fundmental needs, serious consequences emerge if such communities were to be visibly integrated and merged. It requires a constant effort to maintain oneself in three different worlds, each of which fails to support significant aspects of a person's life. The complications that arise may inhibit one's ability to adapt and to maximize personal potentials.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction and processes between ethnic minority communities and their gay and lesbian family members. A framework for understanding the process of change, that occurs for the gay or lesbian person as they attempt to resolve conflicts of dual minority membership, is presented. Implications for the practitioner is also discussed.
SOCIAL SERVICE NEEDS OF LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS: TELLING IT THEIR WAY, L.R. MERCIER AND R.M. BERGER, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK & HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 8(1), P75-95.
Examined the range and type of psychosocial problems experienced by 49 lesbian and gay adolescents (aged 15-21 years) and assessed the personal and social support services they used to address these problems. The most common problems (experienced by over half of the students) were telling others you are lesbian or gay, depression, being misunderstood, dating, and getting along with your family. 90% of students used friends as a resource for support. While almost half of the students had turned to a parent or to a girl/boyfriend for help with problems relatively few sought help from siblings or from adults outside the family (counselors, therapists, teachers, other school personnel).
PSYCHOTHERAPY AND THE "COMING OUT" PROCESS, PEGGY HANLEY-HACKENBRUCK, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P21-39.
This is an important article which identifies internalisation of a stigmatised identiy in relation to race, physical or mental disability, religion or sexual orientation and suggests that individuals with a stigmatised identity go through a similar 'coming out' process. The author acknowledges the problems facing lesbians and gays living in rural areas and the specific issues facing lesbians. The coming out stages are discussed followed by general considerations and details of therapeutic support needed by clients going through the different stages.
PROVIDING SENSITIVE HEALTH CARE TO GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, N.D. SANFORD, NURSE PRACTICE, 1989, MAY, VOL 14(5), P30-47.
While the years of adolescence are usually very difficult, for gay and lesbian youth they are tremendously traumatic. Gay and lesbian youth face many problems because of the homophobia in our culture; such a young person often hides his or her gay or lesbian identity, and health care professionals often deny its existence. Increased anxiety and fear cause gay and lesbian youth to be particularly vulnerable to the major problems of adolescence, such as drug and alcohol abuse, sexual acting-out, pregnancy, AIDS, homelessness and suicide. The etiology of homosexuality is still not understood, and a number of theories are discussed in this article. Troiden's model of gay and lesbian identity development is presented, covering sensitization, identity confusion, assumption and commitment. A lack of appropriate role models has been a significant problem, although some change is occurring. Specific ways of helping these troubled adolescents are given, with a particular emphasis on education and providing methods of support.
"YOU'RE A WHAT?" FAMILY MEMBER REACTIONS TO THE DISCLOSURE OF HOMOSEXUALITY, ERIK F. STROMMEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(1/2), P37-58.
The present review summarizes what is known about reactions of family members to disclosure of homosexual identity, both within the family of origin and in families where the disclosing member is a spouse or parent. It is suggested that the traumatic nature of family member reaction consists of two related processes: (a) the application of negative values about homosexuality to the disclosing member, and (b) a perception that homosexual identity negates or violates previous family roles. Future research in this complex and understudied area could reveal much about the nature of both homosexual identity and family relationships.
ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES, AN OVERVIEW, KEVIN T. BERRILL, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P274-294.
This article provides a general description of the nature and scope of violence and harassment against lesbians and gay men in the United States. It summarizes the results of local, state, and national surveys, and discusses gender and racial/ethnic differences in types and incidence of victimizations. The article examines anti-gay violence and harassment in such contexts as the home, schools, college and university campuses, and prisons and jails. There is a discussion of the perpetrators of anti-gay violence and the growing role of organized hate groups in such attacks. The article also examines time trends in anti-gay violence and the possible relationship between such violence and increasing public awareness about AIDS. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing data and the need for greater attention to the issue.
FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN THE CARE OF HOMOSEXUAL YOUTH, G. REMAFEDI, MEDICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA, 1990, VOL 74(5), P1169-1179.
The development of a homosexual identity spans the entire life cycle, but adolescence is a critical period. Various pre- and postnatal biologic and environmental factors are believed to determine sexual orientation early in life. An emerging homosexual identity may be reflected in youths' sexual attractions, fantasies, and cultural affiliations, as well as their behaviors. The adolescent experiences of lesbians and gays profoundly affect health outcomes. The goals of care are to assist in normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. Comprehensive and coordinated educational, mental health, social, and medical services are suggested.
ATTITUDES AND ISSUES OF PARENTS OF GAY MEN AND LESBIANS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY, BARBARA E. BERNSTEIN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P37-53.
Sixty-two parents of a gay son or lesbian daughter were seen in individual or family therapy, support groups, or interviewed in-depth about their feelings, attitudes, behavior and experiences centering around their child's homosexuality. Five major themes emerged. These were: social stigma, self- and/or spouse-blame, parental losses, fears and concerns for the gay child, and fear of losing their son or daugher if parents did not accept the child's homosexuality. Other prominent issues were those of causality, possibility of change of sexual orientation, and telling family and friends. Therapeutic issues and strategies to foster parental adjustment are discussed.
VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, JOYCE HUNTER, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P295-300.
This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behaviour. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to 21 years, were predominantly minority (35% black, 46% latino) and typically were referred by peers, media, schools and emergency shelters. Of the youths, 41% in the sample reported having suffered violence from families, peers or strangers; 46% of that violence was gay-related. These reports of violence occurred in conjunction with a high rate of suicide attempts; 41% of the girls and 34% of the boys who experienced violent assaults reported having attempted suicide. These alarming rates indicate the need for more systematic monitoring of violence toward and suicidal behaviour among lesbian and gay male youths.
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN THE COUNSELLING OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS: ISSUES OF AUTONOMY, COMPETENCE AND CONFIDENTIALITY, M.R. SOBOCINSKI, PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH & PRACTICE, 1990, VOL 21(4), P240-247.
Ethical dilemmas in counseling gay and lesbian adolescents are analyzed according to underlying ethical principles. Developmental issues and their relevance to therapy are emphasized. Conflicts among client autonomy, claims of paternalism, and limits of confidentiality are examined. Competence to enter therapy for issues of sexual identity is assessed. The author concludes that adolescents are generally competent to explore issues of sexual identity.
PATHS TOWARD DIVERSITY: AN INTRAPSYCHIC PERSPECTIVE, SUSAN E. BARRET, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P41-52.
The life experience of an individual woman has an impact on the ideas she contributes to feminist therapy theory. One critical dimension of her life is her personal journey of identifying as a member of a minority group and learning self-value as a result. The Minority Identity Development Model developed by Sue (1981) and Atkinson, Morton, and Sue (1983) is used here to describe a process of self-valuation. The connection between self-valuing and the development of feminist therapy theory is explored, with emphasis placed on the need for diversity in the development of a feminist theory.
DEALING WITH PREJUDICE AND CONFLICT IN THE CLASSROOM: THE PINK TRIANGLE EXERCISE, MARK A. CHESLER, XIMENA ZUNIGA, TEACHING SOCIOLOGY, 1991, VOL 19 (APRIL), P173-181.
A classroom exercise designed to explore students' attitudes and encounters with homophobia and discrimination against gay males and lesbians asked students to wear a pink triangle for one day. Students reported their internal conflicts - fears and anxieties - about identifying with gay and lesbian people, their external conflicts - encounters with peer pressure and prejudice - and their own efforts to assert a progressive and anti-discriminatory stance in the midst of these situations. In classroom discussion a heated encounter between a straight male and a gay male brought these issues into direct, personal focus and mandated the use of creative conflict management techniques to preserve open dialogue and positive learning. The exercise, and the classroom encounter, have great utility for examining other forms of oppression and discrimination and for experiential learning about important social psychological principles.
RISK FACTORS FOR ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTH, G. REMAFEDI, J.A. FARROW, R.W. DEISHER, PEDIATRICS, 1991, VOL 87(6), P869-875.
Studies of human sexuality have noted high rates of suicidality among homosexual youth, but the problem has not been systematically examined. This work was undertaken to identify risk factors for suicide attempts among bisexual and homosexual male youth. Subjects were 137 gay and bisexual males, 14 through 21 years of age, from the upper Midwest and Pacific Northwest. Forty-one subjects (41/137) reported a suicide attempt; and almost half of them described multiple attempts. Twenty-one percent of all attempts resulted in medical or psychiatric admissions. Compared with non-attempters, attempters had more feminine gender roles and adopted a bisexual or homosexual identity at younger ages. Attempters were more likely than peers to report sexual abuse, drug abuse, and arrests for misconduct. The findings parallel previous studies' results and also introduce novel suicide risk factors related to gender nonconformity and sexual milestones.
MEETING THE CHALLENGE: ADDRESSING THE HEALTH CARE NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, S.K. PARRISH, CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL QUARTERLY, 1991, VOL 3(4), P235-238.
The medical concerns facing gay and lesbian adolescents have received much attention in the medical and popular press over the preceding 10 years. However, many barriers to adequate and appropriate health services remain for this group of young people. Barriers exist within schools, communities, families and among health care providers. The lack of appropriate role models for gay and lesbian adolescents remains a problem for most teens facing concerns of sexual identity. Gay and lesbian adolescents also face many challenges to healthy development including substance abuse, suicide, mental health problems, homelessness as well as sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Health care providers working with teenagers must recognize the challenges to health facing gay and lesbian teens and work towards providing more accessible and appropriate services within this group of young people.
STREETWISE ON STREETLIFE, TIM BURKE, YOUNG PEOPLE NOW, NOVEMBER 1991, P23-24.
DEVELOPING SERVICES FOR LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS, MARGARET SCHNEIDER, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH, 1991, VOL 19(1), P133-151.
The needs of lesbian and gay adolescents for service provision are discussed in this paper. These needs are identified through research investigating milestones in the coming-out process. In addition, the way in which the research results influenced community development initiatives is described. The social context in which the research was conducted is also described.
GAY AND LESBIAN HOMELESS/STREET YOUTH: SPECIAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS, GABE KRUKS, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, (SPECIAL ISSUE: HOMELESS YOUTH), 1991, VOL 12(7), P515-518.
Data on homeless and runaway youth were collected through a consortium of agencies, including one that provides services to a high percentage of gay- lesbian-, and bisexual-identified youth. Gay and bisexual male youth appear to be at increased risk for both homelessness and suicide. Gay male street youth may have been forced out of their homes because of their sexual orientation, and are more likely to engage in survival sex (prostitution) than their nongay male counterparts. In one sample, 53% of gay-identified street youths had attempted suicide, compared with 32% of a cohort of street youths that included both gay and nongay youths. Prejudice, discrimination, and homophobia are still rampant in society today; these factors contribute to a multiplicity of problems that face the young person who is gay.
STREET YOUTH: ADAPTATION AND SURVIVAL IN THE AIDS DECADE, G. CAJETAN LUNA, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, 1991, VOL 12, P511-514.
This article discusses adaptational and survival strategies of homeless youth and describes how pilot research, begun in 1982 on these strategies in the western United States, led to additional research and activity focused upon the related international street youth problem. The results of this research suggest that a critical relationship exists between survival strategies and the AIDS pandemic. The impact of this pandemic on street youth can be mitigated only by immediate and comprehensive preventive actions at both national and international levels.
ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH: THE ORIGINS OF PROJECT 10 AND SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION, VIRGINIA URIBE, KAREN M. HARBECK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P9-28.
This research chronicles the formation and expansion of a counseling and educational program for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth called PROJECT 10 at Fairfax High School. A model program was tested during the academic year 1985-1986, and is now being implemented throughout the Los Angeles Unified School District and in other schools actoss the nation. Fifty self-identified homosexual students were inteviewed in order to clarify the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual teenagers in relation to their school experiences. Additionally, a questionnaire study of 342 respondents from the general student population was undertaken in order to chart the beliefs and attitudenal changes of those teenagers who experienced school-based educational programs that portrayed homosexuality and bisexuality as variations on a continuum of human sexual expression and emotional attachment. Suggestions for further research are discussed.
EDUCATORS, HOMOSEXUALITY, AND HOMOSEXUAL STUDENTS: ARE PERSONAL FEELINGS RELATED TO PROFESSIONAL BELIEFS? JAMES T. SEARS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P29-79.
This study is based on interviews with Southern lesbian and gay young adults and survey data from school counselors and prospective teachers living in the South. The essay explores adolescents' perceptions of the beliefs and abilities of school counselors and teachers with regard to issues of homosexuality and the treatment of gay and lesbian students. As a complement and a contrast, it also presents educators' personal beliefs about homosexuality, and how these attitudes are actualized in the schools. One major conclusion is that while school counselors and, to a lesser extent, classroom teachers often expressed the feeling that they should be more proactive and supportive as professionals committed to the welfare of all of their students, due to countervailing expressions of high levels of personal prejudice, igonorance, and fear, the realities of their profesional intervention and support were negligible.
IMAGES OF GAYS AND LESBIANS IN SEXUALITY AND HEALTH TEXTBOOKS, MARIAMNE H. WHATLEY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P197-211.
Photographs have become a major form of illustration in college level health and sexuality textbooks and may be more memorable than the text itself. Unlike other forms of illustration, photographs are often viewed as objective and unable to "lie." Photographs of individuals from nondominant groups, in addition to being seen as objective representations of reality, are often seen as representing the group to which they belong. To study the representation of non dominant groups in textbooks, it is, therefore, as important to analyze the photographs as the text itself. This paper examines photographs of gay men and lesbians in 14 health and 16 human sexuality college level textbooks. The photographs of individuals present an inaccurate portrait of lesbians and gay men as white, young, and physically-abled. Individual and large group photographs of activism (31% of the total photographs of gay men and lesbians) were positive images that emphasized issues of civil rights. The paper discusses various interpretations of the photographs of gay men and lesbians, subtle homophobia or heterosexism in the texts, and progress that has been made.
TEACHING LESBIAN/GAY DEVELOPMENT: FROM OPPRESSION TO EXCEPTIONALITY, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P213-227.
Few opportunities exist for young lesbians and gay men to learn about their lives. A university course on lesbian and gay development is described and its impact on students' lives is presented. The course focuses on the exceptional talent of lesbians and gay men in creating lives in a stigmatizing culture. The course's emphasis on how individuals develop or are oppressed by their social environment produces personal change and social action in students.
HIV EDUCATION FOR GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH: PERSONAL RISK, PERSONAL POWER, AND THE COMMUNITY OF CONSCIENCE, KEVIN CRANSTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P247-259.
Adolescent gay and bisexual males face a higher risk of infection with HIV than most other young people because of their behaviors and because HIV prevention programs have failed to address their unique concerns. Ironically, current efforts to heighten public awareness about the AIDS pandemic may be nullifying the potential for gay, lesbian, and bisexual young persons at high risk to form the support networks needed to modify their behavior. The personal and group empowerment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people is a necessary prerequisite to their ability to make healthy behavioral choices around HIV and other health issues. This paper proposes a comprehensive health education model for HIV prevention for gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. Current health education efforts would be augmented by broader self and group empowerment training that would develop self-esteem, social skills, support networks, and access to risk reduction materials. An integrated system of care involving school-based programs, multi-service youth agencies and self-help groups would be in a position to deliver appropriate educational, mental health, medical, and social support services. Such a system of care presents gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth with their best chance to reduce their risk of infection with HIV and develop into emotionally healthy individuals.
HOW DO LESBIAN WOMEN DEVELOP SERENITY? S. DEEVEY, L.J. WALL, HEALTH CARE WOMEN INTERNATIONAL, VOL 13(2), 1992, P199-208.
This article considers how lesbian women recover from alcoholism and develop serenity in the context of a homophobic society. We review what is known about the incidence and lethality of alcoholism in lesbian women. We critique Finnegan and McNally's (1987) five-stage conceptual framework of lesbian and alcoholic identity development, which is based on the disease model of recovery. We present our own model, based on our own recovery experiences. The Devey-Wall model describes factors that may determine how shaming social environments may affect drinking behavior and recovery in lesbian women. In conclusion, we explain Wall's theory of self-hate as a survival mechanism in traumatically hostile environments.
AN EXPLORATION OF LESBIANS' IMAGES OF RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOL PROBLEMS, J.M. HALL, HEALTH CARE WOMEN INTERNATIONAL, VOL 13(2), 1992, P181-198.
The author's purposes in this article are to explore the images lesbians use to describe their recovery from alcohol problems and to derive from this exercise relevant implications for health care. Lesbians' experiences in recovery are particularly significant because of growing concerns about the prevalences of alcohol problems among lesbians, the vulnerability of lesbians as an aggregate, and the cultural trend away from substance use in lesbian communities. Images of recovery are the descriptions that people offer about their healing from alcohol problems. They are the frameworks by which problem drinkers interpret the meanings of their experiences and determine which aspects of their lives are most pertinent to their recovery efforts. The images persons use to represent their progress and the difficulties they encounter in recovery also provide important bases for developing relevant resources, therapeutic techniques, and social support. Excerpts from an ongoing ethnographic interview study about the recovery experiences of lesbians with alcohol problems illustrate the diversity of recovery images that are characteristic of this population.
FOSTERING WITH PRIDE, FRANCES RICKFORD, SOCIAL WORK TODAY, 28 MAY 1992, P11-14.
ADDRESSING SEXUAL ORIENTATION IN A PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL, KAY L. WILLIAMS, MARY S. DOYLE, BARBARA A. TAYLOR, GLORIA FERGUSON, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1992, VOL 62(4), P154-156.
THE GAY PEDIATRICIAN: A REPORT, CHARLES R. FIKAR, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P53-63.
Since no articles in the medical literature could be found dealing with the subject of the gay pediatrician, a complete bibliographic search was conducted in order to find information about gay health professionals. Using both manual and computerized methods of access to information in many data bases, much pertinent material was found.
Reports were accessed which demonstrated that gay pediatricians most certainly exist and that, in addition to their standard role in pediatric and adolescent medicine, they have special and unique contributions to make to the care of our nation's 2.9 million gay youth.
Gay pediatricians need to be accepted as valuable professionals by peers and by society. Whenever possible, gay pediatricians need to act as role models to our gay youth. Pediatricians who happen to be gay have much to contribute to medicine.
CREATING A SAFER SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT FOR LESBIAN AND GAY STUDENTS, L. TREADWAY, J. YOAKAM, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1992, VOL 62(7), P352-357.
Information obtained from clinical experiences of the University of Minnesota Youth and AIDS Project (YAP), a primary AIDS prevention program for gay and bisexual males ages 14-21, is described. More than 300 YAP clients have been interviewed regarding sexual behavior, suicide attempts, drug use, and experiences in disclosing their homosexuality to peers and parents during their high school years. The authors also have drawn from their experiences as support group leaders for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in high school and community settings. Constructive and destructive coping strategies employed by gay, lesbian, and bisexual students are described. Roles and responsibilities of school professionals to create a safer school environment also are presented. Key issues include how school professionals support or deny the existence of homosexuality in young people; how adults' biases against homosexuality, as well as institutionalized heterosexism, prevent lesbian and gay students from succeeding in school; how language, behaviors, and environmental cues contribute to school professionals' approachability; how children of lesbian and gay parents suffer when negative attitudes toward homosexuality are not challenged; and what resources and referals can help lesbian and gay young people.
CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY IN GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, F. SHIFRIN, M. SOLIS, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT, 1992, VOL 5(1), P67-76. (SPECIAL ISSUE: LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT ISSUES)
ISSUES RELATING TO THE TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT LESBIANS AND HOMOSEXUALS, J.B. TEAGUE, JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING, 1992, VOL 14(4), P422-439.
Homosexuality as a life-style can be many things to many people. For the gay or lesbian adolescent, it can lead to confusion, isolation, or a number of other problems such as attempted suicide. As a means of finding support and accurate information, these teens may seek out a mental health professional. This article reviews the current theoretical literature with respect to a number of key issues that can help mental health counselors be more aware and more effective in their delivery of services to this population. Etiological, developmental, treatment, and resource issues are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are provided.
COMING OF AGE IN A HETEROSEXIST WORLD: THE DEVELOPMENT OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, D. ZERA, ADOLESCENCE, 1992, VOL 27(108), P845-854.
The general developmental struggles of gay and lesbian adolescents are described as delineated in recent research. Three developmental areas were selected as a focus: the consolidation of sexual identity and the effects of both parental and peer relationships on gay adolescents' development. Weaknesses are noted in current research and theory, and suggestions are offered which could facilitiate the development of both homosexual and heterosexual youth.
GAY AND NO PLACE TO GO: ASSESSING THE NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS IN OUT-OF-HOME CARE SETTINGS, G. MALLON, CHILD WELFARE, 1992, VOL 71(6), P547-556.
Gay and lesbian adolescents, whether self-declared or in the throes of sexual identity struggles, are and have been in out-of-home care settings. Their placements are often negative experiences because their feelings of difference are frequently aggravated by the attitudes of those around them, including other children and some staff members. This article discusses factors that can help make placement a positive experience for these youths.
SERVING THE NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH IN RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTERS, G.P. MALLON, RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT FOR CHILDREN & YOUTH, 1992, VOL 10(2), P47-61.
Stigmatization of the lesbian and gay adolescent and their lack of access to appropriate Residential Treatment settings has evolved from decades of fear, misinformation, and the mistaken belief that this population of youngsters should be able to "fit into" the existing youth services systems. Planning for the gay and lesbian adolescent in care presents unique challenges for Residential Treatment agencies.
Education and training of staff, board members and other residents about issues pertaining to gay and lesbian adolescents and encouraging them to examine their own responses to homosexual orientation, can enhance opportunities for identifying, addressing, and serving the needs of this client group.
LESBIAN AND GAY MALE UNDERGRADUATES' EXPERIENCES OF HARASSMENT AND FEAR ON CAMPUS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1992, VOL 7(3), P383-395.
Harassment and discrimination based on sexual orientation was studied in a sample of 121 undergraduate students between 19 and 22 years of age. Over three fourths of the respondents reported verbal abuse and over one fourth had been threatened with violence. Other students were the most frequent victimizers. Few reported victimization to authorities. Fear for one's personal safety on campus was related to frequency of personal harassment. The implications of harassment and discrimination on the development of young lesbians and gay men are discussed.
BUILDING ACADEMIC COMMUNITIES OF DIFFERENCE, GAYS, LESBIANS, AND BISEXUALS ON CAMPUS, W.G. TIERNEY, CHANGE, 1992, VOL 24(2), P40-46.
A STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG GAY MEN USING THE GHQ-30, ADRIAN COYLE, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 32, P218-220.
This study uses the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) to examine the psychological well-being of 140 gay men from the London area. These men exhibited a level of psychological well-being comparable to that shown by single men from the general population in a study by Cox, et al. (1987) and higher than that of divorced/separated and widowed men. This finding suggests that homosexuality per se is not inimical with psychological well-being.
A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALS' LIFE EXPERIENCES: RAMIFICATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PERSONNEL, SUSAN K. TELLJOHANN, JAMES H. PRICE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P41-56.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine life experiences of homosexual youths in regard to selected topics of relevance to high school personnel. An open-ended questionnaire was given to 120 homosexual youths (14-21 years of age), 89 males and 31 females. Approximately one third of the students claimed they knew they were homosexual between the ages of four and ten, with equal numbers aware of their sexual orientation 11-13 years of age and 14-17 years of age. Forty-two percent of the females and 30% of the males indicated that their families responded in a negative manner toward them because of their sexual orientation. Only about one fourth of the students claimed they were able to talk with school counselors about the issue. Half of the students claimed that homosexuality had been discussed in their classes and 50% of the females and 37% of the males claimed it was handled negatively. Less than one in five students could identify someone who had been supportive of them. Further information is reported regarding the challenges schools will need to address to play a role in reducing the stresses faced by a significant minority population of at risk youths.
A VISITATION OF DIFFERENCE: RANDALL KENAN AND BLACK QUEER THEORY, R. MCRUER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXULAITY, 1993, VOL 26(2/3), P221-232.
This essay is a consideration of the position of "region" in queer theory, particularly black queer theory. Although only minimal analysis has been directed at black gay cultural production, most attention given to black gay cultural production has focussed predominantly on urban areas/communities re-presented in films such as Tongues Untied and Paris Is Burning. This paper employs Randall Kenan's novel A Visitation of Spirits, which focusses on a black gay youth growing up in the rural African-American community of Tims Creek, North Carolina, to consider what cultural work is done when queer desire turns up in such an apparently unlikely and inhospitable place. Examining how region plays a role in the construction of centers and margins, this article argues against always shuffling queer desire "safely" off to the big city, and considers what transformative cultural work can be done on the "margins" of the queer world.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO SERIOUS ATTEMPTS OR CONSIDERATIONS OF SUICIDE, T.L. HAMMELMAN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1993, VOL 2(1), P77-89.
This is a study of gay and lesbian youths' tendencies for suicide and the extent to which these tendencies are influenced by sexual orientation, violence, age, substance abuse, physical or emotional abuse, family rejection, or gender. Based on a sample of 48 respondents, nearly one-half seriously considered suicide while one-third actually attempted suicide. Close to three-quarters of this population cited sexual orientation as some or most of the reason for their suicide consideration or attempt with the majority revealing that they had done so at age 17 or before. Fifty percent or more of those who (1) had a substance abuse problem, (2) were physically or emotionally abused, or (3) experienced family rejection, reported that sexual orientation was the main reason for these problems. These results are clinically significant for therapists who work with this population. The mere existence of suicide considerations or attempts because of sexual orientation calls for a proactive stance which includes conducting a thorough psycho-social assessment, performing crisis intervention and assisting youth to increase their coping mechanisms.
A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH TO GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, W.P. MCFARLAND, JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1993, VOL 32, P17-29.
Literature concerning homosexual identity development is reviewed. At-risk issues and developmental difficulties for gay and lesbian youth are discussed. Developmental guidance program responses are proposed.
CLASSROOM CONCERNS OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, THE INVISIBLE MINORITY, G. LOPEZ & N. CHISM, COLLEGE TEACHING, 1993, VOL 41(3), P97-103.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOMOPHOBIA AND SELF-ESTEEM IN GAY MALES WITH AIDS, G. LIMA, C.T. LO PRESTO, M.F. SHERMAN, S.A. SOBELMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P69-76.
Fifty-seven participants from various mental health centers and volunteers responding to an ad in a gay newspaper completed questionnaires designed to assess homophobia and self-esteem. Results indicated a significant relationship between homophobia and self-esteem. Moreover, it was found that gay males with AIDS displayed higher levels of homophobia and lower levels of self-esteem than healthy gay males. Results were interpreted employing attribution theory and self-theory.
A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH TO GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, W.P. MCFARLAND, JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1993, VOL 32, P17-29.
Literature concerning homosexual identity development is reviewed. At-risk issues and developmental difficulties for gay and lesbian youth are discussed. Developmental guidance program responses are proposed.
SOCIAL WORK WITH GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, D.F. MORROW, SOCIAL WORK, 1993, VOL 38(6), P655-660.
Gay and lesbian adolescents are a socially oppressed group discriminated against by a heterosexist and homophobic society. Because of the negative stigma society places on lesbian and gay adolescents, they face numerous difficulties that require social support and intervention. Issues pertinent to social work with lesbian and gay adolescents are examined in the context of three main social institutions: the family, the social culture, and the educational setting. Suggestions are made for improving intervention with this population, including increasing personal awareness of one's own homophobia and heterosexist bias in working with client groups; educating oneself and client groups about homosexuality; establishing positive social support programs to serve lesbian and gay adolescents; advocating for sanctions to end gay and lesbian harassment in the educational system; supporting the hiring of openly gay and lesbian teachers to serve as positive role models; and advocating for the inclusion of sexual orientation information in school sex education curricula.
LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS: PERSONAL CHALLENGES AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, S.L. HERSHBERGER, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 21(4), P421-448.
Studied 194 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth aged 21 and younger who attended programs in 14 community centers to determine the personal challenges they face due to their sexual orientation and their responses to these stresses. First awareness of sexual orientation typically occured at age 10, but disclosure to another person did not occur until about age 16. There was much variability in sexual behavior, and many youths reported both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual experiences. Although most had told at least one family member about their sexual orientation, there remained much concern about family reactions. Suicide attempts were acknowledged by 42% of the sample. Attempters significantly differed from nonattempters on several milestones of sexual orientation development, social aspects of sexual orientation, parents' knowledge of sexual orientation, and mental health problems.
PREVENTING MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG LESBIAN AND GAY COLLEGE STUDENTS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, THE JOURNAL OF PRIMARY PREVENTION, 1993, VOL 13(4), P245-261.
Young adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual experience major stresses in managing their sexual orientation. They are at risk for serious mental health problems, including suicide and depression. The mental health concerns of lesbian and gay male college students are reviewed. These problems result from the difficulties involved in developing a lesbian or gay personal identity, and are exacerbated by widespread negative attitudes, harassment, and violence directed toward lesbians and gay men on college campuses. Several systemic preventive interventions are recommended to decrease mental health problems in this population.
YOUNG GAY & PROUD, MANDY JARVIS, YOUTH CLUBS, SEPTEMBER 1993, P17-19.
BARRIERS TO HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS RELATED RISK REDUCTION AMONG MALE STREET PROSTITUTES, PATRICIA M. SIMON, EDWARD V. MORSE, PAUL M. BALSON, HOWARD J. OSOFSKY, H. RICHARD GAUMER, HEALTH EDUCATION QUARTERLY, 1993, VOL 20(2), P261-273.
Two hundred eleven male street prostitutes between the ages of 18 and 51 years were interviewed and tested for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Economic, social, and emotional barriers to the reduction of HIV-related risk behavior were examined within the context of several concepts present in the Health Belief Model (HBM). Three lifestyle factors were found to function as barriers to engaging in risk reduction behaviour. Subjects who were more economically dependent on prostitution, perceived less control over the hustling encounter, and reported increased pleasure from sexual activitiy with their customers were more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior. Prostitutes' perception of the severity of HIV infection was not significantly associated with their risk behavior. Unexpected findings indicated that increases in perceived susceptibility to HIV and perceived benefit of condom use for HIV prevention were significantly related to increased risk-taking behavior. Practical applications of findings in the design and implementation of future HIV-related preventive health education programs are discussed.
YOUTH COPING WITH SEXUAL ORIENTATION ISSUES, BARBARA A. TAYLOR, GARY REMAFEDI, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL NURSING, 1993, VOL 9(2), P26-39.
HOW TO HELP YOUR LESBIAN TEENAGER, ANNE MCGOWN, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL NURSING, 1993, VOL 31(8) P48.
RISKS OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AMONG ADOLESCENTS ATTENDING THREE DIVERSE CLINICS, ANNA-BARBARA MOSCICKI, SUSAN G. MILLSTEIN, JEANETTE BROERING, CHARLES E. IRWIN, JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, 1993, VOL 122(5 PART1), P813-820.
This study was performed to identify specific high-risk behaviors, such as unprotected oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse and substance abuse, associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection among adolescents attending three diverse clinics located in a localized geographic area: a university-based clinic, a Planned Parenthood clinic, and an inner-city public health clinic (PHC). Six hundred seventy-one female and 207 male adolescents attending one of the three clinics completed a structured questionnaire. Similarities among patients at the clinic sites inclued high rates of anal intercourse (21%), unprotected vaginal sex (95%), oral sex (73%), and poor communication skills (42%). Some differences appeared as well, including higher rates of homosexual experiences, no birth control use, and having multiple partners among adolescents attending the PHC (p <0.001). In contrast, adolescents attending either the university-based clinic or the Planned Parenthood Clinic had higher rates of substance abuse around sexual activity than those who attended the PHC (p <0.001). We conclude that adolescents attending general medical clinics in the San Francisco Bay area engage in high-risk behaviors that place them at risk for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus even though many have had previous education about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted disease. Specific risk factors include unprotected receptive anal intercourse, unprotected vaginal intercourse with new and unknown partners, experience in homosexual behavior, high rates of oral sex, multiple partners, poor communication skills, and frequent use of illicit substances in conjunction with sex. The differences found among sites indicate the need for health care providers and prevention programs to provide emphasis on practices specific to the adolescents in their service area.
THE IMPACT OF TRAINING ON SCHOOL PROFESSIONALS' KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS, AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING HIV/AIDS AND ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, GARY REMAFEDI, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1993, VOL 63(3) P153-157.
The impact of training on secondary school professionals knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS and adolescent homosexuality was examined. Subjects (79 introductory and 50 advanced trainees) and 58 controls (no prior training) were systematically sampled from professionals in a statewide demonstration program to prevent HIV transmission among gay and bisexual youth. Subjects completed mailed, self-administered surveys based on the curriculum. The overal response rate was 79%. Trainees scored significantly higher than controls on knowledge pertaining to HIV and adolescent homosexuality. They also reported using greater numbers of strategies to teach students about homosexuality and to improve the milieu for homosexual students. Training at any level was independently associated with constructive behaviors, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Advanced learners were most knowledgeable and least reliant on informal sources of information. They were more likely than others to teach about homosexuality and to refer homosexual students to community services. Findings supported the hypothesized benefits of the intervention. Schools that mandate AIDS education should help staff confront the difficult issue of adolescent homosexuality.
HIV RISK ACTIVITY AMONG PERSONS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS, FRANCINE COURNOS, KAREN MCKINNON, HEINO MEYER-BAHLBURG, JEANINE R. GUIDO, ILAN MEYER, HOSPITAL AND COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY, 1993, VOL 44(11) P1104-1107.
GAY YOUTH MANCHESTER, DAVID SANDHU, YOUNG PEOPLE NOW, AUGUST 1994, P22-23.
LESBIAN & GAY YOUTH CONFERENCE, YOUTH CLUBS, JUNE 1994, P35.
AN ESSAY: AIDS AND THE SOCIAL BODY, N. SCHEPER-HUGHES, SOCIAL SCIENCE AND MEDICINE, 1994, VOL 39(7), P991-1003.
THE SEXUAL EXPERIENCES OF MEN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES HAVING SEX WITH MEN - ISSUES FOR HIV PREVENTION, DAVID THOMPSON, SEXUALITY AND DISABILITY, 1994, VOL 12(3), P221-242.
Only recently have both outreach work and police operations found men with learning difficulties having sex in public toilets. This paper will describe the men's experience and understandings of such encounters based on discussions with nineteen men with learning difficulties receiving a specialist sex education service. The work demonstrates how commonly men with learning difficulties engage in sexual acts which are emotionally and physically painful. A major aim of the work with the men was to enable them to negotiate safer sex. However, even after intense work, confidence for the men to avoid unsafe sex remains limited because of their passivity. Service providers are encouraged to be more sensitive to issues of power for sex between men and to examine the extent of their responsibilities in protecting men with learning difficulties from HIV infection.
VERBAL AND PHYSICAL ABUSE AS STRESSORS IN THE LIVES OF LESBIAN, GAY MALE, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH SCHOOL PROBLEMS, RUNNING AWAY, SUBSTANCE ABUSE, PROSTITUTION, AND SUICIDE, R C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1994, VOL 62(2), P261-269.
A common theme identified in empirical studies and clinical reports of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths is the chronic stress that is created by the verbal and physical abuse they receive from peers and adults. This article reviews the verbal and physical abuse that threatens the well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. This response to gay male, lesbian and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away from home, conflict with the law, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Although the causal link between these stressors and outcomes has not been scientifically established, there is suggestive evidence that these outcomes are consequences of verbal and physical harassment.
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE CHILD WELFARE SERVICE WITH GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS, T. RICHARD SULLIVAN, CHILD WELFARE, 1994, VOL 73(4) P291-304.
Agencies attempting to develop effective child welfare services for gay and lesbian youths must strive for effectiveness within a policy context that is politically polarized and generates more obstacles than directions. This article argues for a reconceptualization of service delivery that begins with a recognition of the unique developmental challenges facing sexual minority youths and proceeds to an examination of the systemic obstacles to providing competent services in their behalf. An ecological perspective informs the connections between developmental considerations, service issues, and human rights questions.
HOMOPHOBIA: A COFACTOR OF HIV DISEASE IN GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, A.H. GROSSMAN, JOURNAL ASSOC. NURSES AIDS CARE, 1994, VOL 5(1), P39-43.
Whether they 'come out' or hide their sexual orientation, most gay and lesbian youth experience the effects of prejudice and stigmatization emanating from society's homophobia. Having to cope with a disparaging and oppressive society creates unique stresses and developmental variations in identity development that are cofactors for HIV infection and disease. These cofactors include cognitive, emotional, and social isolation; feelings of alienation and despair; suicidal ideation; alcohol and other substance abuse; and furtive sexual contacts. Nurses and other providers need to be informed about these cofactors so they may provide meaningful HIV/AIDS prevention education to gay and lesbian youth.
RISK FACTORS FOR SUICIDE AMONG GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS, CURTIS D. PROCTOR, VICTOR K. GROZE, SOCIAL WORK, 1994, VOL 39(5), P504-513.
The study described in this article explores risk factors for suicide among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths. A convenience sample of 221 self-identified gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths who attended youth groups across the United States and Canada were given the Adolescent Health Questionnaire, which assessed family issues, the social environment, and self-perceptions. The youths' scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and attempts. Implications for social services are discussed.
THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE FOR HOMELESS YOUNG LESBIANS & GAY MEN, CENTREPOINT, 1994, BEWLAY HOUSE, 2 SWALLOW PLACE, LONDON, W1R 7AA.
HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: NEW POLICIES, NEW PROGRAMS, NEW PRACTICE, ED. T. DECRESCENZO (also published as Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 1994, Vol 1(3/4), INCLUDES:
GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH, DENNIS D. DURBY, P1-37.
Adolescence is a period fraught with developmental challenges for all individuals. Those encountered by gay, lesbian, bisexual, and other sexual minority youth are particularly difficult. The knowledge that they are "different" somehow, although not yet necessarily fully aware of how they are different, leaves many isolated and unable to work through some typical developmental issues having to do with establishing romantic relationships and learning diverse social skills. Such teens may develop a host of coping mechanisms to ease the dissonance experienced when their forming identities are in conflict with peer, parental or, more broadly, societal expectations.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: CHALLENGING THE POLICY OF DENIAL, NANCY TAYLOR, P39-73.
Social policy tends to reflect community standards regarding a population's individual rights, expected conduct, and entitlement to public services. Populations, therefore, must be defined and acknowledged by their communities and by their policy makers if they are to be included in these codified standards. Lesbian and gay youth have yet to be clearly defined as a population. The origins and subsequent development of the current lesbian and gay movement offer a framework in which to consider future efforts to change social policy regarding lesbian and gay youth. The lesbian and gay community, despite the significant loss of leadership and experience as the result of AIDS, has continued its development as a force for social change. Organisations such as Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, and other groups focused on bombatting bigotry and expanding civil rights, are of crucial importance to the future of lesbian and gay youth and to the development of enlightened policy. The sooner enlightened policies are developed, the sooner these youngsters will be able to lead happier, healthier, and more productive lives.
COUNSELING STRATEGIES WITH GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, GERALD P. MALLON, P75-91.
Counseling needs of gay and lesbian youth have not been adequately researched. Identification of these issues has only been underway for approximately ten years, as service providers and researchers turned their attention to this population. Factors which contribute to a presenting clinical picture include stigmatization, hiding and isolation, a sense of being different, lack of family support, harassment, and violence. Each of these areas is discussed, integrating case vignettes and research findings.
DEVELOPMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF HOMOPHOBIA FOR LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS: ISSUES IN POLICY AND PRACTICE, DARRYL JACKSON, RICHARD SULLIVAN, P93-109.
This essay seeks to provide a critical analysis of how the developmental obstacles faced by lesbian and gay adolescents and the limitations on helping them are both byproducts of institutionalized homophobia. Implications for ethical practice grounded in advocacy are presented. Adolescence is above all else a transition to a more complex set of roles which have to be integrated into the totality of the self. We argue that most of the difficulties identified among sexual minority youth need not burden their development, and that it is an obligation of the helping professions to work toward the eradication of encumbrances to their optimal development. That work must begin with a critical analysis of our own theories and perspectives.
SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS FOR GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, GREGG GREELEY, P111-130.
This paper discusses six youth service organizations that represent different solutions to the same problem: the acceptance of sexual minority youth. These solutions include youth-led groups, organizations dedicated to training and education, and agencies that provide direct services to youth. This chapter tries to bring some insight into the forces that formed these groups and discusses some of the new directions in the youth service community. Although each of these groups started with different structures and services, many have evolved to offer a common set of services. Future organizations will be able to benefit from this by assembling programs from the model components that have already been implemented. Future work should enhance those effective service components that have received little attention and develop new models to meet youth needs.
HIV RISK IN GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, WILLIAM B. PEDERSON, P131-147.
Adolescents, regardless of sexual orientation, are at increased risk for HIV infection. Although the number of infected adolescents remains small, the number of adolescent AIDS cases is approximately doubling each year. This suggests that the rate of HIV infection among adolescents is expanding in a similar fashion to that seen among gay men in the early years of the epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the problems of HIV infection as it relates to the gay and lesbian adolescent. This framework is grounded in developmental theory, though key social, political, economic, and policy factors which are believed to contribute to the infection of HIV among gay and lesbian adolescents will also be presented. It will be argued that social practitioners who are working in the HIV and AIDS arena would do well to reexamine the paradigm which governs existing practice methodology.
LEGAL CHALLENGES FACING LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH, ABBY ABINATI, P149-169.
Legal constraints on minors can be especially problematic for lesbian and gay youth, who frequently lack support from their families and from school authorities, and whose circumstances are often misunderstood or disregarded by authorities throughout the juvenile system. Legal mechanisms exist or can be crafted to meet the needs of lesbian and gay youth who have been rejected by their families of origin. School, welfare, and juvenile justice administratiors must become sensitive to the personal, economic, and societal pressures faced by lesbian and gay youth, and must tailor bureaucratic responses to the youth's particular needs. Finally, it is imperative that adults in the lesbian and gay communities take responsibility for protecting the interests of younger members of the community.
THE VICTIMIZATION OF GAY TEENAGERS IN SCHOOLS: HOMOPHOBIA IN EDUCATION, IAN RIVERS, PASTORAL CARE, MARCH 1995, P35-41.
Evidence presented in this paper suggests that bullying is a problem for a number of pupils in school, either because they are gay or are perceived as being so. For some of these pupils the effects have been traumatic and long term. As the paper points out, the support of gay pupils coming to terms with their sexuality has never been an area that many schools handle effectively, and recent legislation has done little to encourage the development of effective work in this area. However, the author believes that not only do schools have a responsibility to respond to this particular dimension of bullying, but also that the lowering of the age of consent for sexual intercourse between males will mean that it will be even more important for schools to include homosexuality in the issues raised and discussed with pupils.
BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES, SCHOOL BULLYING, IAN RIVERS, ATTITUDE, 1995, P45-48.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS FOR PEER COUNSELLING: DEALING WITH HOMOPHOBIC ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS, IAN RIVERS, PEER COUNSELLING NETWORKER, 1995, ISSUE 1, P8.
MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES AMONG YOUNG LESBIANS AND GAY MEN BULLIED IN SCHOOL, IAN RIVERS, HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, 1995, VOL 3(6), P1-3.
VICTIMIZATION OF LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS, NEIL W. PILKINGTON, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1995, VOL 23, JANUARY, P33-56.
One hundred ninety-four lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth between the ages of 15 and 21 were surveyed about victimization due to their sexual orientation. Three areas were assessed: (1) the prevalence of different kinds of victimization, ranging form verbal abuse to armed assault; (2) the specific social contexts in which anti-lesbian/gay victimization occurred, including family, school, work, and the broader community; and (3) correlates of anti-lesbian/gay victimization, including age-related sexual orientation milestones, concealability of sexual orientation, sex, race/ethnicity, and safety fears. Most respondents had experienced some form of victimization, with no social environment being free from risk of harm. Particularly vulnerable for abuse were youth who self-labeled or self-disclosed at an earlier age and those whose sexual orientation was less concealed or concealable.
THE IMPACT OF VICTIMIZATION ON THE MENTAL HEALTH AND SUICIDALITY OF LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS, SCOTT L. HERSHBERGER AND ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1995, VOL 31(1), P65-74.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths 15 to 21 years old were studied to determine the impact of verbal abuse, threat of attacks, and assault on their mental health, including suicide. Family support and self-acceptance were hypothesized to act as mediators of the victimization and mental health-suicide relation. Structural equation modeling revealed that in addition to a direct effect of victimization on mental health, family support and self-acceptance in concert mediated the victimization and mental health relation. Victimization was not directly related to suicide. Victimization interacted with family support to influence mental health, but only for low levels of victimization.
A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALCOHOL USE AND HIV-RELATED SEXUAL RISK-TAKING IN YOUNG PEOPLE, CATHERINE DONOVAN, ROBERT MCEWAN, ADDICTION, 1995, VOL 90, P319-328.
Young people have been targeted as a potentially vulnerable population for the spread of HIV. The influence of alcohol on sexual behaviour is part of the popular knowledge. More recently, studies have attempted to illuminate the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking in relation to HIV transmission. In our review of the literature three important points are highlighted for researchers in this area. First, methodological problems make establishing any relationship extremely difficult. Secondly, the concept of sexual risk-taking has to be developed to include acknowledgement of the context in which sex takes place rather than defining risk only in terms of sexual acts. Finally, populations of gay men and men who have sex with men and lesbians are sufficiently different from heterosexuals, with regard to the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviour, to make generalizations about one population inappropriate for the other.
TEACHING ABOUT SEXUAL ORIENTATION BY SECONDARY HEALTH TEACHERS, SUSAN K. TELLJOHANN, JAMES H. PRICE, MOHAMMAD POURESLAMI, ALYSSA EASTON, JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, 1995, VOL 65(1), P18-22.
Less than half of a random sample (N = 211) of high school health teachers formally teach about homosexuality. When taught, it most commonly is taught for less than one class period. Only one-in-four teachers perceived themselves as very competent in teaching about homosexuality. This is not surprising given the fact that teachers were most likely to identify the mass media as the most commonly used source of information regarding homosexuality. One-in-five teachers claimed students in their classes often used abusive language when describing homosexuals. One-third of health teachers perceived the schools were not doing enough to help homosexual adolescents. Finally, more than half the health teachers indicated gay/lesbian support groups would not be supported by their school administrator. Perceptions and behaviors regarding adolescent homosexuality varied by the teachers' gender, age, educational level, and teaching status regarding homosexuality.
ADOLESCENT READERS' RESPONSES TO THE BOOKLET ON SEX, SINI HANNONEN, M. HEALTH CARE AND PERTTI KEKKI, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, 1995, VOL 16(4), P328-333.
Purpose: To investigate the reception and the readers' reactions to a booklet about sex, which is mailed annually to all 16-year old Finnish adolescents.
Methods: Eight hundred youngsters were randomly selected to the study. A questionnaire was sent to them six weeks after the mailing of the booklet, the Sextiin. After three rounds, a response rate of 65% (N = 521) was achieved.
Results: The booklet reached 97% of the respondents, of whom 72% read all of it. The respondents' attitudes towards and reactions to the Sextiin were mainly positive. They reacted least positively to the articles on homosexuality and masturbation. Twelve percent of the respondents indicated that they opened the condom package that was attached to the Sextiin.
Conclusions: The study shows that the campaign reached its target group well. As the adolescents' reactions to the Sextiin proved to be mainly positive, a claim for further use of the mass media for educational purposes is justified.
A HIDDEN TRAGEDY: LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH SUICIDE, TERRY SANDERSON, GAY TIMES, APRIL 1996, P16-18.
The most recent research carried out in Britain suggests that at least one in five young lesbians, gay men and bisexuals have attempted suicide. Terry Sanderson examines the reasons why and asks what can be done.
UNDER ATTACK, VICKY POWELL, GAY TIMES, APRIL 1996, P12-14.
The threat of homophobic violence is one which all lesbians and gay men have to live with. But for young people, as a shocking new survey reveals, the threat all too often translates into a brutal reality.
PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS OF BINGE EATING AND PURGING BEHAVIORS AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETES MELLITUS, DIANNE NEUMARK-SZTAINDER, MARY STORY, ELANAH TOPOROFF, NADAV CASSUTO, MICHAEL D. RESNICK, ROBERT W. BLUM. JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, 1996, VOL 19(4), P289-296.
Purpose: This study aims to compare dieting, binge eating, and purging behaviors, and to examine predictors of binge eating and purging behaviors among adolescents with and without Diabetes Mellitus (DM).
Methods: The index group included 310 adolescents who reported that they had DM on a statewide population survey of 36,284 adolescents in grades 7-12 in Minnesota. The comparison group included a random sample matched for socioeconomic status (SESA), of 850 adolescents without chronic illness. Disordered eating behaviors assessed in the present study included binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, and diuretic use. Potential predictor variables assessed included weight loss behaviors, body image, sexual abuse, sexual attractions, emotional well-being, family connectedness, poor school performance, age, race, Body Mass Index (MMI), and SES.
Results: Binge eating and purging were significantly more prevalent among adolescnts with DM than among the comparison group. Different risk profiles were found for adolescents with and without DM and for males and females. Predictors of binge eating and purging among females with DM included weight dissatisfaction, bisexual/homosexual attractions, and younger age. Predictors among males with DM included bisexual/homosexual attractions, younger age, sexual abuse, and an interaction between sexual abuse and emotional well-being.
Conclusions: Adolescents with DM should be screened for unhealthy weight control practices and eating disorders. If disordered eating is present, clinicians need to be sensitive to the variety of factors possibly associated with these behaviors among different individuals.
DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE IN GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, A PROACTIVE CLINICAL APPROACH TO A POPULATION AT RISK, LAURA BROWN ALLEN, ANITA DUHL GLICKEN, PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT, 1996, VOL 20(4), P44-60.
Homosexual (gay and lesbian) adolescents are at increased risk for dropping out of school, depression, drug abuse, and suicide. PAs are in a position to identify these high-risk teenagers and provide them and their families with health education and support group referrals. A clinicial approach that encourages open discussion between health care providers and adolescents about issues of sexuality is essential to this process. This article presents theories on the etiology of human homosexuality and the development of a homosexual identity. Emotional problems of gay and lesbian youth are discussed, including specific suicide risk factors. Other issues in medical practice include avoiding assumptions of heterosexuality, ensuring confidentiality, the nonbiased wording of questions, and making appropriate referrals to support groups, mental health services, and family counselling.
THE CHALLENGE OF HIV PREVENTION AMONG HIGH-RISK ADOLESCENTS, T. RICHARD SULLIVAN, HEALTH & SOCIAL WORK, 1996, VOL 21(1), P58-65.
This article reports findings from an exploratory study of HIV knowledge and risk behaviors among 60 teenagers and young men engaged in the street life of Hollywood, California. The sample was composed largely of youths of homosexual or bisexual orientation who were substance abusers, prostitutes, or both. The data suggest that although community-based education efforts may be associated with lower-risk behavior among this population, the overall risk profiles of these socially marginalized youths remained high. Inferences are drawn about the cofactors of risk that must be addressed and the education needed to enhance the health prospects of these youths.
COUNSELLING GAY TEENAGERS, REUBEN W. ZIMMERMAN, PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT, 1996, VOL 20(7), P15.
PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES IN PRIMARY CARE OF LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER YOUTH, JENNIFER L. KREISS, DIANA L. PATTERSON, JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE, 1997, VOL 11(6). P266-274.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth are at risk for a multitude of physical, emotional, and social health problems. During the past decade it has been well documented that these youth have higher-than-average rates of depression, suicide attempts, substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, school failure, family rejection, and homelessness. The focus of this article is to out-line skills and strategies that can assist the health practitioner in creating an optimal health care experience for sexual minority youth. Models of individual and family adaptation, a clinical path, and a referral list are presented. Current health care delivery sites are examined, and recommendations are given for improvement of both practitioner skills and health care programs targeting these youth.
COMBATING HETEROSEXISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING, LOUSE WALPIN, CLINICAL NURSE SPECIALIST GRADUATE STUDENT SCHOLORSHIP, 1997, VOL 11(3), P126-132.
Gays and lesbians are becomng increasingly visible to the healthcare professional as a result of the AIDS epidemic and the growing number of lesbian mothers. Ethical practice requires that nurses have an undersanding of diverse cultures but focus has historically been on racial and ethnic minorities; little research exists on those with minority sexual or affectional preferences. Heterosexism, the promotion of a heterosexual orientation as the only viable option, has much the same effect as racism. Individuals experience feelings of shame, self-hatred, and lowered self-esteem. The purpose of this article is (1) to present the current state of knowledge regarding individual identity formation and couple development in the gay and lesbian community and (2) to describe the impact of heterosexism. Implications for nursing practice and research will be explored.
GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS: PROVIDING ESTEEM-ENHANCING CARE TO A BATTERED POPULATION, JOHN A. NELSON, NURSE PRACTITIONER: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, 1997, VOL 22(2), P94-109.
Suicide, HIV infection, violent victimization, homelessness, and substance use are known to affect gay (gay males, lesbians, and bisexual persons of both genders) youths at disproportionately high rates. This article explores the difficulties gay youths experience in this society specific to their sexual orientation. These difficulties become internalized by many gay youths, leading to high rates of preventable morbidities and mortalities. Stages of the "coming out" process for gay persons are reviewed within the framework of child and adolescent development. Barriers within the health care system, as well as within other social systems, specific to gay youths are examined. Such barriers include language use by the provider, sexual and social history questions asked by the provider, environmental images in the health care setting, and the responses of the provider to the adolescent. Strategies such as the use of gender-neutral wording, homosexual inclusive questioning in history taking, and the use of inclusive environmental clues to allow gay adolescents to feel safe and accepted are discused. Health care providers are encouraged to employ such strategies to help reduce these barriers within various health care settings.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
LESBIAN WOMAN, DEL MARTIN AND PHYLLIS LYON, 1977, VOLCANO PRESS, INCLUDES:
CHAPTER 6: GROWING UP GAY
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS, SUE KAPLAN AND SUE SAPERSTEIN, P17.
CRISIS INTERVENTION AND SUICIDE COUNSELING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, CHRISTIAN A. FRANDSEN, P100.
RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT FOR YOUTH, PAT TERRY, P107-109.
HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, ED WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1982, INCLUDES:
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE COMING-OUT PROCESS, ELI COLEMAN, P149-158.
SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE, SUSAN MOORE & DOREEN ROSENTHAL, ROUTLEDGE, 1993, INCLUDES:
GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENCE, MARK GOGGIN, P102-123.
LESBIAN,GAY AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES OVER THE LIFESPAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ED ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLIE, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995, INCLUDES:
LESBIAN, GAY MALE, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, P165-189.
REASON TO HOPE: A PSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE ON VIOLENCE AND YOUTH, L.D. ERON, J.H. GENTRY, & P. SCHLEGEL, EDS, AMERCIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, DC, 1995, INCLUDES:
LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI & LAWRENCE J. DARK.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH, ED. T.S. STEIN & R.P. CABAJ, AMERCIAN PSYCHIATRIC PRESS, WASHINGTON, DC, 1996, INCLUDES:
LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL DEVELOPMENT DURING ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI.
PREVENTION OF HETEROSEXISM AND HOMOPHOBIA, SAGE, 1996, INCLUDES:
ENHANCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI.
GETTING IT TOGETHER, AN INFORMATION PACK ABOUT WAYS OF SERVING VULNERABLE YOUNG PEOPLE WITH BOTH HOUSING AND MENTAL HEALTH SUPPORT NEEDS, COMPILED BY JAN SHERLOCK AND CAROLINE HARDING, GOOD PRACTICE IN MENTAL HEALTH , 1996, INCLUDES:
HIDDEN BUT NOT FORGOTTEN: LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH, JAN BRIDGET, P16-19.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, 1989, FOUR VOLUMES, INCLUDES:
VOLUME 2: RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE: SEXUAL IDENTITY ISSUES, JOSEPH HARRY, P131-143.
VOLUME 3: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN YOUTH SUICIDE: GAY MALE AND LESBIAN YOUTH SUICIDE, PAUL GIBSON, P110-142.
THE YOUNG LESBIAN REPORT, A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF ADOLESCENT LESBIANS TODAY, VIC BARBELER, SYDNEY YOUNG LESBIAN SUPPORT GROUP, 1991/2, THE FEMINIST BOOKSHOP, SHOP 9, ORANGE GROVE PLAZA, BALMAIN ROAD, LILYFIELD 2040, AUSTRALIA.
WE'RE COUNTING ON EQUALITY, MONITORING EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WORKPLACE IN RELATION TO SEX, RACE, DISABILITY, SEXUALITY, HIV/AIDS, AND AGE, MAREE GLADWIN, 1994, CITY CENTRE, 32-35 FEATHERSTONE ST, LONDON, EC1Y 8QX.
ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT, STONEWALL SURVEY ON THE AGE OF CONSENT & SEX EDUCATION, ANYA PALMER, 1994, STONEWALL, 2 GREYCOAT PLACE, WESTMINSTER, L0ND0N, SW1P 1SB.
BISEXUALS, GAYS AND LESBIANS - ETHNICITY, HEALTH AND HOUSING: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE, ANDY MULLEN, 1998, REACHOUT LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTH GROUP, READING, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT.
I THOUGHT PEOPLE LIKE THAT KILLED THEMSELVES, LESBIANS, GAY MEN AND SUICIDE, ERIC E. ROFES, GREY FOX PRESS, 1983.
ONE TEENAGER IN TEN, WRITINGS BY GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, EDITED ANN HERON, ALYSON PUBLICATIONS, 1983.
SOMETHING TO TELL YOU...THE EXPERIENCES AND NEEDS OF YOUNG LESBIANS AND GAY MEN IN LONDON, LORRAINE TRENCHARD, HUGH WARREN, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1984.
TALKING ABOUT YOUNG LESBIANS, LORRAINE TRENCHARD, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1985.
TALKING ABOUT SCHOOL, LORRAINE TRENCHARD, HUGH WARREN, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1985.
TALKING ABOUT YOUTH WORK, LORRAINE TRENCHARD, HUGH WARREN, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1985.
PARENTS MATTER, ANN MULLER, NAIAD, 1987.
SCHOOL'S OUT, LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS IN EDUCATION, THE GAY TEACHER'S GROUP, 1987.
LESBIAN COUPLES, D. MERILLE CLUNIS, G. DORSEY GREEN, SEAL PRESS, 1988.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, GLIBERT HERDT EDITOR, HAWORTH PRESS INC 1989 (This is the Journal of Homosexuality vols 17 and 18, special editions on lesbian and gay youth).
YOUNG, GAY & PROUD, EDITOR SASHA ALYSON, ALYSON PRESS, 1991.
BEING LESBIAN, LORRAINE TRENCHARD, GAY MENS PRESS, 1991.
COMING OUT TO PARENTS, A TWO-WAY SURVIVAL GUIDE FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN AND THEIR PARENTS, MARY V. BORHEK, THE PILGRIM PRESS, 1991.
A STRANGER IN THE FAMILY ... HOW TO COPE IF YOUR CHILD IS GAY, TERRY SANDERSON, THE OTHER WAY PRESS, 1991.
GROWING UP GAY IN THE SOUTH: RACE, GENDER, AND JOURNEYS OF THE SPIRIT, JAMES T. SEARS, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1991.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, HEMISPHERE PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 1990.
GROWING UP GAY IN THE SOUTH: RACE, GENDER AND JOURNEYS OF THE SPIRIT, JAMES T. SEARS, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1991.
SERVING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS, THE ROLE OF CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES, CHILD WELFARE STAFF, CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE AMERICA, 1991.
CHRISTIANITY AND HOMOSEXUALITY, A RESOURCE FOR STUDENTS, SUE VICKERMAN, LGCM, OXFORD HOUSE, DERBYSHIRE STREET, LONDON, E2 6HG, 1992, £2.
UNDERSTANDING SEXUAL IDENTITY: A BOOK FOR GAY AND LESBIAN TEENS AND THEIR FRIENDS, JANICE E. RENCH, 1ST AVE EDN, 1992.
DEATH BY DENIAL:STUDIES OF SUICIDE IN GAY AND LESBIAN TEENAGERS, GARY REMAFEDI, EDITOR, ALYSON 1994. (This consists of articles referred to in the Resource List plus a copy of the Paul Gibson article).
GROWING UP GAY/GROWING UP LESBIAN: A LITERARY ANTHOLOGY, BENNETT L. SINGER, EDITOR, NEW PRESS, 1994.
GROWING UP GAY OR LESBIAN, MARJORIE HILL, CHELSEA HOUSE PUB, 1994.
HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: NEW POLICIES, NEW PROGRAMS, NEW PRACTICE, TERESA DESCRESCENZO, HAWORTH PRESS, 1994.
TWO TEENAGERS IN TWENTY, WRITINGS BY GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, ED. ANN HERON, ALYSON PUBLICATIONS, 1994.
TILTING THE TOWER, LESBIANS, TEACHING, QUEER SUBJECTS, ED. LINDA GARBER, ROUTLEDGE, NEW YORK, 1994.
SCHOOL'S OUT, THE IMPACT OF GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES ON AMERICA'S SCHOOLS, DAN WOOG, ALYSON, BOSTON, 1995.
CHILDREN OF HORIZONS, HOW GAY AND LEBIAN TEENS ARE LEADING A NEW WAY OUT OF THE CLOSET, GILBERT HERDT, ANDREW BOXER, BEACON PRESS, BOSTON, 1993
PASSAGE OF PRIDE, LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH COME OF AGE, KURT CHANDLER, TIMES BOOKS, 1995.
JOINING THE TRIBE, GROWING UP GAY AND LESBIAN IN THE '90'S LINNEA DUE, ANCHOR BOOKS, NEW YORK, 1995.
YOUNG, GAY & PROUD, ED. DON ROMESBURG, ALYCAT BOOKS, 1995.
THE JOURNEY OUT, A GUIDE FOR AND ABOUT LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL TEENS, RACHEL POLLACK AND CHERYL SCHWARTZ, PUFFIN, NEW YORK, 1995.
COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW: EXPLORING ISSUES OF SEXUALITY AND DIFFERENCE, A RESOURCE FOR TEACHERS, GOVERNORS, PARENTS AND CAREERS, SANDRA MOLE, CAMDEN & ISLINGTON COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES NHS TRUST, ST PANCRAS HOSPITAL, LONDON, NW1 0PE, 1996.
NOT THE ONLY ONE, LESBAN & GAY FICTION FOR TEENS, ED. TONY GRIMA, ALYSON PUBLICATIONS, 1995.
GAY & LESBIAN STUDENTS, UNDERSTANDING THEIR NEEDS, HILDA F. BESNER, CHARLOTTE J. SPUNGIN, TAYLOR & FRANCIS 1995.
THE GAY TEEN, EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND THEORY FOR LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, ED. GERALD UNKS ROUTLEDGE, 1995.
THERE MUST BE FIFTYWAYS TO TELL YOUR MOTHER, COMING OUT STORIES, LYNN SUTCLIFFE, CASSELL, 1995.
FREE YOUR MIND, THE BOOK FOR GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH - AND THEIR ALLIES, ELLEN BASS & KATE KAUFMAN, HARPER PERENNIAL, NEW YORK, 1996.
GROWING UP GAY, THE SORROWS AND JOYS OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENCE, RITA REED, W.W. NORTON, NEW YORK, 1997.
PRIDE & PREJUDICE, WORKING WITH LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTH, ED. MARGARFET S. SCHNEIDER, CENTRAL TORONTO YOUTH SERVICES.
YOUNG GAY MEN TALKING, AVERT, 1994, 11-13 DENNE PARADE, HORSHAM, WEST SUSSEX, RH12 1JD.
THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE FOR HOMELESS YOUNG LESBIANS & GAY MEN, CENTREPOINT, 1994.
I THINK I MIGHT BE A LESBIAN ... NOW WHAT DO I DO? LESBIAN INFORMATION SERVICE, 1999.
© Lesbian Information Service, February 1999