ROLE EXPECTATIONS AND DEFINITIONS: A COMPARISON OF FEMALE TRANSSEXUALS AND LESBIANS, ELIZABETH A. MCCAULEY, ANKE A. EHRHARDT, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(2), P137-145.
A new study on female transsexuals and lesbians is reported. A matched-group comparison of 15 women in each sample suggests that the two groups do not differ in overall intelligence, although lesbians, unlike female transsexuals, tended to have a significantly higher verbal IQ than perforance IQ. Both groups showed a similar reponse pattern on the Embedded Figures Test but differed on the Draw-A Person Test, The Guilddord-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, and the Bem Androgny Scale. Whereas the female transsexual group reflected a more rigid gender role stereotype, the lesbians saw their options as more androgynous.
DETECTABILITY AND PERCEPTIONS OF A TRANSSEXUAL: IMPLICTIONS FOR THERAPY, LOUS R. FRANZINI, MARTIN A. MAGY, ALAN J. LITROWNIK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 2(3), P269-279.
Transsexuals are concerned with being acceped in straight society, that is, "passing" successfully. Ninety-one undergraduates were shown a videotaped discussion of interracial dating by five heterosexual biological females and one cross-dressed male transsexual. Experimental subjects, who had been previously informed of the presence of the transsexual, were all able to identify her, significantly more than control subjects who had not been given this set. Ratings were obtained on eight personal attributes of the transsexual and the five biological females prior to the subjects' attempts to identify the transsexual in the group. The results of these ratings indicated that detection of the transsexual was related to perceived femininity and happiness. Based on the findings and subjects' reports of how they correctly identified the transsexual, suggestions were made for a therapy package to assist transsexuals in minimizing the probability of their detection.
FEMALE TO MALE TRANSSEXUALS COMPARED TO LESBIANS: BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS OF
CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT, A.A. EHRHARDT, G. GRISANTI, E.A.
MCCAULEY, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1979, 8, 6, NOV 481-490.
We report detailed interview data on a clinical sample (N = 15) of female-to-male transsexuals (FTs) compared to a matched research sample (N = 15) of lesbians (Ls). Both groups were relatively young, with a mean age of 21 years 10 months (FTs) and 23 years 8 months (Ls), respectively, and were of middle or lower SES. Both groups did not differ from each other in respect to fequency of tomboyish behavior or interest in doll play and other aspect of maternal rehearsal. Male peer preference was more often remembered among the FTs, but the difference between the groups was only of borderline significance. The groups differed significantly regarding childhood cross-dressing (80% FTs, 0% for Ls), gender identity confusion in adolescence (absent among Ls), and negative reaction to breast development and menarche (approxiamte 70% for FTs, 10% for Ls). The similarities and differences between the two groups in childhood and adolescent development are relevant for clinical management and the differential diagnosis of transsexualism vs lesbianism.
FOLLOW-UP OF FEMALES WITH GENDER IDENTITY DISORDERS, E. MCCAULEY, A.A.
EHRHARDT, JOURNAL OF NERVOUS MENTAL DISORDERS, 1984, JUNE, VOL 172(6) 353-8.
The present paper reports on the course of 15 young female to male transsexual applicants followed for 1 to 9 years after initial evaluation. Each patient completed a lengthy evaluation process including
detailed semistructured interviews and a battery of psychological tests. Of the 15 applicants, 10 went on to live full time in the male role; however, one of these later returned to living as a female. This woman
and three others were living as lesbians at last follow-up, while the two other patients continued to live in a more ambigusouly male-female role. Psychosocial functioning at the time of follow-up in terms of
employment, partners, and psychiatric status is reviewed. A supportive problem-solving psychotherapy program was offered to all of these patients and seven became actively involved in therapy. The potential
benefits and limitations of psychotherapy with female gender dysphoric patients are discussed.
A COMPARISON OF GENDER SCHEMA CONSTRUCTS AND CONFORMITY AMONG FEMALE-TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALS, LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, HOLLY J. DEVOR, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL, 1990, VOL 51(6) P2160.
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