THE ROLE OF SOCIAL ISOLATION IN SUICIDE, DEBORAH L. TROUT, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR, 1980, VOL 10(1), P10-23.
This paper reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. Social isolation seems to be related to suicidal behaviors in a direct and fundamental way. Implications for helping contacts and the community are addressed.
ATTEMPTED SUICIDE AND HOMOSEXUALITY, JOSE CATALAN, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, 1983, FEB, P11-14.
SAN DIEGO SUICIDE STUDY: COMPARISON OF GAY TO STRAIGHT MALES, CHARLES L. RICH, RICHARD C. FOWLER, MARY BLENKUSH, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BERAVIOR, 1986, VOL 16(4), P448-457.
Previous large studies of completed suicides have not considered sexual orientation in their data analyses. In this study, data from the known homosexual subpopulation (13 males, aged 21-42) in a series of 283 suicides were examined. They were compared with all other aged male suicides 21-42 (n = 106). Both groups showed considerable substance abuse plus a variety of other psychiatric diagnoses. Both also had a high frequency of relationship difficulties near the time of death. Gays who committed suicide did not have a history of more police trouble and were no more likely to be living alone than the comparison group. They did not have more prior suicide attempts or previous psychiatric treatment. We conclude that, among the factors examined here, there appears to be little differences between gay and heterosexual male suicides.
SUICIDE RISK AMONG GAY MEN AND LESBIANS: A REVIEW, JUDITH M. SAUNDERS, S.M. VALENTE, DEATH STUDIES, 1987, VOL 4(1), P1-23.
Without adequate death statistics from completed suicide data, the suicide risk for gay men and lesbians must be determined from empirical studies and from a theoretical understanding of suicide risk. Three large, well designed studies found that gay men and lesbians attempt suicide two to seven times more often than heterosexual comparison groups. Gay men and lesbians have significantly high rates of risk factors that increase suicide risk such as suicide attempts, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and interrupted social ties.
Durkheim suggests that groups with low social status and integration who are denied society's usual privilege and rights are at risk for alienation and anomic suicide unless protected by internal cohesion, religion or antisuicide norms. Durkheim's theory applied to gay men and lesbians illustrates how the extensive and diverse alienation reported may lead to suicide. Diverse groups of gay people have not yet successfully decreased alienation or suicide.
Empirical evidence, risk factors and Durkheim's theory of anomic suicide thus supports the proposition that gay men and lesbians are at high risk for suicide. The need for sensitive research methodology, decreased heterosexual bias, creative network sampling strategies, and confidentiality are discussed. Future research sould clarify the completed suicide rates among diverse groups of homosexuals of different age, sex, race, and demographic variables.
SUICIDE AMONG HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, RONALD F.C. KOURANY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P111-117.
Little attention has been given in the professional literature to suicide among homosexual adolescents. Sixty-six adolescent psychiatrists responded to a questionnaire on the subject. Results from this survey suggest that many experts are not working with homosexual adolescents. On the other hand, the majority of those treating them considered them to be at higher risk for suicide and agreed that their suicidal gestures were more severe than those of other adolescents.
INCREASED RISK OF SUICIDE IN PERSONS WITH AIDS, PETER M. MARZUK, HELEN TIERNEY, KENNETH TARDIFF, ELLIOT M. GROSS, EDWARD B. MORGAN, MING-ANN HSU, J. JOHN MANN, JOURNAL OF AMERCIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 1988, VOL 259(9), P1333-1337.
The rate of suicide has been reported to be higher in persons with chronic and life-threatening illnesses (eg, cancer, Huntington's disease, and renal failure). We studied the rate of suicide in 1985 in New York City residents diagnosed with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). There were 668 suicides in New York City residents in 1985, yielding a rate of 9.29 per 100,000 person-years. In men aged 20 to 59 years without a known diagnosis of AIDS, the rate was 18.75 per 100,000 person-years. There were 3828 individuals who lived with the diagnosis of AIDS for some part, or all, of 1985. There were 12 suicides in men aged 20 to 59 years from this group who lived 1763.25 person-years with a diagnosis of AIDS. This yields a suicide rate of 680.56 per 100,000 person-years. Thus, the relative risk of suicide in men with AIDS aged 20 to 59 years was 36.30 times (95% confidence limits, 20.45 to 64.42) that of men aged 20 to 59 years without this diagnosis, and 66.15 times (95% confidence limits, 37.38 to 117.06) that of the general population. We conclude that AIDS represents a significant risk factor for suicide.
HOMOSEXUALITY, SUICIDE, AND PARASUICIDE IN AUSTRALIA, NEIL BUHRICH,
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(1/2), P
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, 1989, FOUR VOLUMES, VOLUME 3: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN YOUTH SUICIDE INCLUDES:
GAY MALE AND LESBIAN YOUTH SUICIDE, PAUL GIBSON, P110-142.
Gay and lesbian youth belong to two groups at high risk of suicide; youth and homosexuals. A majority of suicide attempts by homosexuals occur during their youth, and gay youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide than other young people. they may comprise up to 30 percent of completed youth suicides annually. The earlier youth are aware of their orientation and identify themselves as gay, the greater the conflicts they have. Gay youth face problems in accepting themselves due to internalization of a negative self image and the lack of accurate information about homosexuality during adolescence. Gay youth face extreme physical and verbal abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers. They often feel totally alone and socially withdrawn out of fear of adverse consequences. As a result of these pressures, lesbian and gay youth are more vulnerable than other youth to psychosocial problems including substance abuse, chronic depression, school failure, early relationship conflicts, being forced to leave their families, and having to survive on their own prematurely. Each of these problems presents a risk factor for suicidal feelings and behaviour among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transsexual youth.
The root of the problem of gay youth suicide is a society that discriminates against and stigmatizes homosexuals while failing to recognize that a substantial number of its youth has a gay or lesbian
orientation. Legislation should be introduced to guarantee homosexuals equal rights in our society. We need to make a conscious effort to promote a positive image of homosexuals at all levels of society that provides gay youth with a diversity of lesbian and gay male adult role models. We each need to take personal responsiblility for revising homophobic attitudes and conduct. Families should be educated about the development and positive nature of homosexuality. They must be able to accept their child as gay or lesbian. Schools need to include information about homosexuality in their curriculum and protect gay youth from abuse by peers to ensure they receive an equal education. Helping professionals need to accept and support a homosexual orientation in youth. Social services need to be developed that are sensitive to and reflective of the needs of gay and lesbian youth.
SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT GAY MEN, STEPHEN G. SCHNEIDER, NORMAN L. FARBEROW, GABRIEL N. KRUKS, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR, 1989, VOL 19(4), P381-394.
The relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior was explored by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay-and-lesbian college organizations and 56 men in gay rap groups. A family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting of homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with a history of suicidal ideation, reported by 55% of the participants. Racial/ethnic minorities tended to be overrepresented among suicidal as compared to nonsuicidal gay men. Suicide attempts, reported by 20% of the sample, were most often associated with intrapersonal distress, and occured most often while individuals were "closeted" and/or in the context of recent rejection for being homosexual. Nearly all attempters were aware of their homosexual feelings, but had not yet established a "positive gay identity" at the time of their first suicide attempt. Suicidal behavior in gay youths may be the product both of familial factors that predispose youths to suicidal behavior, and of social and intrapersonal stressors involved in coming to terms with an emerging homosexual identity.
RISK FACTORS FOR ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTH, G. REMAFEDI, J.A. FARROW, R.W. DEISHER, PEDIATRICS, 1991, VOL 87(6), P869-875.
Studies of human sexuality have noted high rates of suicidality among homosexual youth, but the problem has not been systematically examined. This work was undertaken to identify risk factors for suicide attempts among bisexual and homosexual male youth. Subects were 137 gay and bisexual males, 14 through 21 years of age, from the upper Midwest and Pacific Northwest. Forty-one subjects (41/137) reported a suicide attempt; and almost half of them described multiple attempts. Twenty-one percent of all attempts resulted in medical or psychiatric admissions. Compared with non-attempters, attempters had more feminine gender roles and adopted a bisexual or homosexual identity at younger ages. Attempters were more likely than peers to report sexual abuse, drug abuse, and arrests for misconduct. The findings parallel previous studies' results and also introduce novel suicide risk factors related to gender nonconformity and sexual milestones.
INTERPRETING THE EVIDENCE: COMPETING PARADIGMS AND THE EMERGENCE OF LESBIAN AND GAY SUICIDE AS A "SOCIAL FACT", K. ERWIN, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES, 1993, VOL 23(3), P437-453.
Almost two decades after the American Psychiatic Association acknowledged that homosexuality should no longer be considered a pathological condition, studies continue to show significantly higher rates of suicide, depression, substance abuse, and other indicators of psychological distress among lesbians and gay men than among heterosexuals in the United States. If homosexuality is not, in fact, pathological, then what accounts for such self-destructive behavior? This article examines contending causal theories of homosexual suicide and psychological distress ranging from religious and medical-psychiatric theories that problematize individual behavior to societal explanations that locate the cause in social intolerance and internalized oppression. Illuminating the origins of myths that persist today, it demonstrates how historical, social, and political forces have been instrumental in shaping the scientific and medical response to gay and lesbian psychological distress. Emphasis is on the need to question the "objective validity" of scientific theories in order to develop more effective responses to gay and lesbian mental health problems. Finally, this article considers alternative views of sexuality that are emerging from such sources as feminists and gay Native Americans, and proposes new directions for mental health research that encompass issues of diversity within the gay and lesbian population.
SUICIDE AND ATTEMPTED SUICIDE AMONG GAY ADOLESCENTS, J.M. BLACK, 1993, UNPUBLISHED PAPER.
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO SERIOUS ATTEMPTS OR CONSIDERATIONS OF SUICIDE, T.L. HAMMELMAN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1993, VOL 2(1), P77-89.
This is a study of gay and lesbian youths' tendencies for suicide and the extent to which these tendencies are influenced by sexual orientation, violence, age, substance abuse, physical or emotional abuse, family rejection, or gender. Based on a sample of 48 respondents, nearly one-half seriously considered suicide while one-third actually attempted suicide. Close to three-quarters of this population cited sexual orintation as some or most of the reason for their suicide consideration or attempt with the majority revealing that they had done so at age 17 or before. Fifty percent or more of those who (1) had a substance abuse problem, (2) were physically or emotionally abused, or (3) experienced family rejection, reported that sexual orientation was the main reason for these problems. These results are clinically significant for therapists who work with this population. The mere existence of suicide considerations or attempts because of sexual orientation calls for a proactive stance which includes conducting a thorough psycho-social assessment, performing crisis intervention and assisting youth to increase their coping mechanisms.
RISK FACTORS FOR SUICIDE AMONG GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS, CURTIS D. PROCTOR, VICTOR K. GROZE, SOCIAL WORK, 1994, VOL 39(5), P504-513.
The study described in this article explores risk factors for suicide among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths. A convenience sample of 221 self-identified gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths who attended youth groups across the United States and Canada were given the Adolescent Health Questionnaire, which assessed famiy issues, the social environment, and self-perceptions. The youths' scores were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and attempts. Implications for social services are discussed.
I THOUGHT PEOPLE LIKE THAT KILLED THEMSELVES, LESBIANS, GAY MEN AND SUICIDE, ERIC E. ROFES, GREY FOX PRESS, 1983.
DEATH BY DENIAL:STUDIES OF SUICIDE IN GAY AND LESBIAN TEENAGERS, GARY REMAFEDI, EDITOR, ALYSON 1994. (This consists of articles referred to in the Resource List plus a copy of the Paul Gibson article).
NATIONAL LESBIAN HEALTH CARE SURVEY, JUDITH BRADFORD, CAITLIN RYAN, NATIONAL LESBIAN AND GAY HEALTH FOUNDATION, 1988.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
HOMOSEXUALITIES, A SURVEY OF DIVERSITY AMONG MEN AND WOMEN, ALAN P BELL, MARTIN S. WEINBERG, MITCHELL BEAZLEY, 1978.
ODDS & SODS
YOUNG DYKE REPORT - SHOCK FINDINGS, LESBIANS ON THE LOOSE, VOL 3(8) P1 & 3, AUGUST 1992 (AUSTRALIA).
LESBIAN SUICIDE: A DOUBLE TABOO, FRANCES RAND, LESBIANS ON THE LOOSE, VOL 3(12), DECEMBER 1992
GLAM (1) STUDY: A QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY OF SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOUR IN YOUNG GAY MEN AND LESBIAN WOMEN AS ESTIMATED BY GAY/LEBIAN YOUTH WORKERS, PETER MCCOLL, ST EDWARD'S HOSPITAL, CHEDDLETON, NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE, ST13 7EB.
RURAL YOUTH SUICIDE - A REVISIONIST PERSPECTIVE (OR 'A VIEW FROM THE BUSH') ED. GREEN, 1995?
SUICIDE AND SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN THE LESBIAN AND GAY COMMUNITY, JULIE MILLARD, AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, 1995, VOL 4, P181-189.
The most common suicide theories share a widely recognized set of social factors that contribute to suicide and suicide attempts. This paper discusses additional suicide risk factors that affect the gay and lesbian community such as: discrimination, gay adolescence, coming out, establishment of a gay identity, HIV/AIDS, intrapersonal stressors, drugs and alcohol, racial/ethnic factors and limited support structures. Poor awareness of these additional risks, both within mainstream society and within the gay and lesbian community, is also discussed. A reveiw of the literature is conducted that examines the impact of these risk factors and the implications of these issues to mental health nursing.
LESBIAN USES OF AND SATISFACTION WITH MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES: RESULTS FROM BOSTON LESBIAN HEALTH PROJECT, LENA SORENSEN, SUSAN JO ROBERTS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1997, VOL 33(1) P35-49.
In response to the dearth of specific information about lesbians' health status and practices in the health literature, a national study utilizing a self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 1987 by four associates of the Fenway Community Health Center in Boston to access data in these areas. The questionnaire solicited information about demographics, health practices, stress in personal and work lives, mental and physical health problems, sexual practices, family history of health related problems, and genetic attributes hypothesized to be related to "gayness." Questionnaires from 1,633 lesbian women provided the database for the study.
This paper discusses the portion of the survey that dealt with mental health services and life experiences. Past studies that investigated mental health needs of lesbians focused on the quality of treatment by mental health providers, rates of suicide atempts, and alcoholism. This paper compares these past findings with the responses of the lesbians in this national, community-based study. Findings indicate that although a significant number of the lesbian women in this sample had been in therapy, they sought out therapy as a coping strategy to deal with similar issues as other women, i.e., depression and relationships. Suicide attempts decreased considerably after adolescence and "coming out." Rates of alcohol use and abuse, although difficult to compare with other studies, were higher than other women but similar to other studies investigating a community sample of lesbians. Even with a high family history of alcoholism, less than 5 percent reported having sought out therapy to deal with any issues of alcohol or drug use.
SUICIDE - GENERAL
THE ROLE OF DRUGS IN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS, PATRICK C. MCKENRY, CARL L. TISHLER, COLEEN KELLEY, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR, 1983, VOL 13(3), P166-175.
Drug histories of 46 adolescent suicide attempters and their parents are described. In addition, these attempters and their parents are compared with a group of non-attempters and their parents on selected measures of drug use. Findings indicate that adolescent drug use is closely related to and perhaps symptomatic of suicidal behaviors and overall pathology. The relationship between adolescent suicidal behaviors and parental drug use is unclear because of the discrepancy between parent-adolescent responses.
THE ADOLESCENT SUICIDE PROBLEM, RONALD MARIS, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR, 1985, VOL 15(2), P91-109.
The suicide rate of young people in the United States rose 237 percent between 1960 and 1980. This paper addresses three related issues. First, is this change an epidemic or an artifact? Second, what is there about adolescence as a life-stage in modern society that makes it stressful, even suicide producing? Finally, what are the distinctive traits of the lifestyles or careers of a random sample of young Chicago suicides?
ADOLESCENT SUICIDE: MYTHS, RECOGNITION, AND EVALUATION, NANCY K. MARTIN, PAUL N. DIXON, SCHOOL COUNSELLOR, 1986, VOL 33(4), P265-271.
YOUTH SUICIDE: UPDATE ON A CONTINUING HEALTH ISSUE, RALPH L.V. RICKGARN, EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS, 1987, VOL 65(3), P128-129.
YOUTH SUICIDE, BEM P. ALLEN, ADOLESCENCE, 1987, VOL 22(86), P271-290.
The literature on youth suicide (ages 15-24) is surveyed for the period 1980-1985. Emphasis is placed on general determinants of suicide, predictors in the form of psychological tests, precipitating events (immediate causes), and signs - clues that may signify impending attempts at self-destruction. Suggestions for prevention, and limitations of research on suicide are offered.
PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK FACTORS FOR FUTURE ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS, P.M. LEWINSOHN, P.ROHDE, J.R. SEELEY, JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1994, VOL 62(2), P297-305.
An array of psychosocial risk factors for making a suicide attempt were examined in a representative sample of 1,508 older (14- to 18-year-old) high school students, 26 of whom made a suicide attempt during the year following entry into the study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by a friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to a teenage mother. The results suggest that adolescents who are depressed and those who attempt suicide share many psychosocial risk factors. The efficacy of two screeeners (one consisting of 4 items and the other of 6 variables) is reported. Potential usefulness for research and communitywide prevention is discussed.
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASIAN ADOLESCENT OVERDOSE, STEPHEN KINGSBURY, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE, 1994, VOL 17, P131-135.
The social and psychological features of Asian and Caucasian adolescents who had taken overdoses were compared. Fifty adolescents were studied: 13 Asians and 37 Caucasians. The two main findings were (1) that the Asians were more socially isolated than their Caucasian peers, and (2) desite the Asians having low suicidal intent, they had higher rates of depression, hopelessness, long premeditation time and previous overdose. The paper suggests that the clinical assessment of Asian adolescent overdose should rely less heavily on the assessment of suicidal intent.
AN ANALYSIS OF AGE, GENDER AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN RECENT NATIONAL TRENDS OF YOUTH SUICIDE, C. RAYMOND BINGHAM, LAYNE D. BENNION, D. KIM OPENSHAW AND GERALD R. ADAMS, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE, 1994, VOL 17, P53-71.
Using estimated poulation figures generated by the National Center for Health Statistics, national mortality data for 1979 and 1984 were converted to rates of suicide per 100,000 living population. Using these adjusted rates of suicide, Multiple Classification Analysis was used to test main and interaction effects of historical time period, race, sex and age group on the adjusted rates of suicide. The data showed no overall change in rates of suicide from 1979 to 1984. Only main effects for race, sex and age were significant predictors of total suicide rates. Results indicate that males are at greater risk for suicide than same-race females and the rates of suicide increase rapidly with age. In addition, race patterns reveal that Caucasian adolescents and adolescents from other non-African American races are at nearly equal risk for suicide, with African American adolescents demonstrating a significantly lower risk of suicide. Future research should examine differences in suicide risk among members of more specifically defined racial groups.
SUICIDE AND DELIBERATE SELF-HARM IN YOUNG PEOPLE, MICHAEL KERFOOT AND PETER HUXLEY, CURRENT OPINION IN PSYCHIATRY, 1995, VOL 8, P214-217.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, 1989, FOUR VOLUMES:
VOLUME 1: OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW, P5-14.
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE TASK FORCE:
DATA DEVELOPMENT, P15-18.
RESEARCH INTO RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE, P19-24.
EVALUATION OF INTERVENTIONS TO PREVENT YOUTH SUICIDE, P25-33.
SUICIDE PREVENTION SERVICES, P34-41.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION, P42-45.
BROADER APPROACHES TO PREVENTING YOUTH SUICIDE, P46-58.
SUMMARIES OF NATIONAL CONFERENCES:
RISK FACTORS, P59-62.
PREVENTION AND INTERVENTIONS, P63-65.
STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION OF YOUTH SUICIDE, P66-72.
INVENTORY OF DHHS ACTIVITIES IN SUICIDE PREVENTION, P73-96.
VOLUME 2: RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE:
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC, EPIDEMIOLOGIC, AND INDIVIDUAL ATTRIBUTES, PAUL C. HOLINGER, DANIEL OFFER, P19-33.
PREPARATORY AND PRIOR SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR FACTORS, NORMAN L. FARBEROW, P34-55.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE, CAROL HUFFINE, P56-70.
FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS AS RISK FCTORS FOR YOUTH SUICIDE, CYNTHIA R. PFEFFER, P71-87.
CONTAGION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR YOUTH SUICIDE, LUCY DAVIDSON, MADELYN GOULD, P88-109.
STRESS AND LIFE EVENTS, EUGENE S. PAYKEL, P110-130.
SEXUAL IDENTITY ISSUES, JOSEPH HARRY, P131-143.
"MAJOR PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS" AS RISK FACTORS IN YOUTH SUICIDE, MARIA KOVACS, JOACHIM PUIG-ANTICH, P143-159.
PERSONALITY AS A PREDICTOR OF YOUTHFUL SUICIDE, ALLEN FRANCES, SUSAN J. BLUMENTHAL, P160-171.
SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND ABUSE: A RISK FACTOR IN YOUTH SUICIDE, MARC A. SCHUCKIT, JUDITH J. SCHUCKIT, P172-183.
METHODS AS A RISK FACTOR IN YOUTH SUICIDE, J. WILLIAM WORDEN, P184-192.
NEUROTRANSMITTER MONOAMINE METABOLITES IN THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AS RISK FACTORS FOR SUICIDAL EHAVIOR, MARIE ASBERG, P193-212.
POST MORTEM STUDIES OF SUICIDE, MICHAEL STANLEY, P213-234.
THE NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM AND SUICIDE, HERBERT Y. MELTZER, MARTIN T. LOWY, P235-246.
GENETICS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR, ALEC ROY, P0247-272.
SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW OF RISK FACTORS IN SUICIDE, FREDERICK K. GOODWIN, GERALD L. BROWN, P263-271.
VOLUME 3: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN YOUTH SUICIDE:
PRIMARY PREVENTION: A CONSIDERATION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND FINDINGS FOR THE PREVENTION OF YOUTH SUICIDE, ROBERT FELNER, P23-30.
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION EFFORTS IN SUICIDE, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO YOUTH SUICIDE, DAVID SHAFFER, K. BACON, P31-61.
OVERVIEW OF PREVENTION EFFORTS IN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE, BETSY S. COMSTOCK, JANE T. SIMMONS, JACK L. FRANKLIN, P62-71.
COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO ADOLESCENT SUICIDE CLUSTERS, BETSY S. COMSTOCK, JANE T. SIMMONS, JACK L. FRANKLIN, P72-79.
PREVENTION/INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR SUICIDAL ADOLESCENTS, JANE T. SIMMONS, BETSY S. COMSTOCK, JACK OL. FRANKLIN, P80-92.
CHARCTERISTICS OF SUICIDE PREVENTION/INTERVENTION PROGRAMS: ANALYSIS OF A SURVEY, JACK L. FRANKLIN, BETSY S. COMSTOCK, JANE T. SIMMONS, MARK MASON, P93- 102.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AUTOPSIES OF YOUTH SUICIDE, ROBERT E. LITMAN, P103-109.
ISSUES FOR SURVIVORS, CURTIS MITCHELL, P143-151.
PREVENTION OF ADOLESCENT SUICIDE AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE PEOPLES, JAMES W. THOMPSON, P152-156.
SUICIDE PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION AMONG ASIAN YOUTH, ELENA S. YUU, CHING-FU CHANG, WILLIAM T. LIU, MARILYN FERNANDEZ, P157-176.
BLACK YOUTH SUICIDE: LITERATURE REVIEW WITH A FOCUS ON PREVENTION, F.M. BAKER, P177-195.
HISPANIC SUICIDE IN THE SOUTHWEST, 1980-1982, JACK C. SMITH, JAMES A. MERCY, MARK L. ROSENBERG, P196-205.
THE ROLE OF VOLUNTEER WORKERS IN SUICIDE PREVENTION CENTERS, BARBARA P. WYATT, P206-212.
PREVENTING SUICIDE BY IMPORVING THE COMPETENCY OF CAREGIVERS, BRYAN TANNEY, P213-223.
THE SAMARITANS AND THE PREVENTION OF YOUTH SUICIDE, RICHARD G. KATZOFF, P224-232.
EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDAL RISK IN CHEMICALLY DEPENDENT ADOLESCENTS, JOHN E. MEEKS, P232-238.
OVERVIEW OF EARLY DETECTION AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG PEOPLE, SUSAN J. BLUMENTHAL, DAVID J. KUPFER, P239-252.
SPECIFIC TREATMENT MODALITIES FOR ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTERS, PAUL D. TRAUTMAN, P253-265.
PERSPECTIVES OF YOUTH ON PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION STRATEGIES, IRIS M. BOLTON, P264-275.
MASS MEDIA AND YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION, ALAN L. BERMAN, P276-284.
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES: ENVIRONMENTAL RISK REDUCTION FOR YOUTH SUICIDE, PAMEL C. CAZNTOR, P285-293.
SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION PROGRAMS, BARRY D. GARFINKEL, P294-304.
VOLUME 4: STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION OF YOUTH SUICIDE:
THE FEDERAL ROLE IN YOUTH SUICIDE RESEARCH AND PROGRAMS: THE LEGACY OF RECENT HISTORY, MARGARET GERTEIS, MARK L. ROSENBERG, P21-36.
ESTIMATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS TO PREVENT YOUTH SUICIDES: A REPORT TO THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, DAVID M. EDDY, ROBERT L. WOLPERT, MARK L. ROSENBERG, P37-81.
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF YOUTH SUICIDES AND SUICIDE ATTEMPTS, MILTON C. WEINSTEIN, PEDRO J. SATURNO, P82-943.
SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN TEEN-AGED MEDICAL PATIENTS, LEE N. ROBINS, P94-114.
SUICIDE IDEATION AND ATTEMPTS: THE EPIDEMOLOGIC CATCHMENT AREA STUDY, EVE K. MOSCICKI, PATRICK W. O'CARROLL, DONALD S. RAE, P115-128.
DEVELOPING A SUICIDE SCREENING INSTRUMENT FOR ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS, ROBERT I. YUFIT, P129-144.
PREVENTIVE INTERVENTIONS IN THE HEALTH AND HEALTH-RELATED SECTIONS WITH POTENTIAL RELEVANCE FOR YOUTH SUICIDE, BARBARA STARFIELD, P145-167.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL SERVICES TO PREVENTING YOUTH SUICIDE, JERRY SILVERMAN, P168-170.
PREVENTING YOUTH SUICIDE THROUGH EDUCATION, EDWARD A. WYNNE, P171-185.
INTERVENTION IN THE MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT SECTORS TO PREVENT SUICIDE, ALAN L. BERMAN, P186-194.
INTERVENTIONS THROUGH BUSINESS AND PHILANTHROPY TO PREVENT YOUTH SUICIDE, WENDY EVERETT WATSON, BOBBIE WUNSCH, P195-203.
YOUNG LESBIANS AND MENTAL HEALTH, HILARY WOOD, FIELD STUDY PROJECT, POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN YOUTH AND COMMUNITY WORK, MANCHESTER POLYTECHNIC, SEP 1992.
WHO CARES IF I LIVE OR DIE? SUICIDE IN GREAT BRITAIN, THE SAMARITANS, MAY 1990.
REACH OUT ... WE'LL BE THERE, OUTREACHPROGRAMME, THE SAMARITANS, MAY 1992.
SUICIDE IN CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES, BRIAN BARRACLOUGH, CROOM HELM, 1987.
SUICIDE AND ATTEMPTED SUICIDE AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, KEITH HAWTON, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1986.
THE LONG SLEEP, YOUNG PEOPLE AND SUICIDE, KATE HILL, VIRAGO, 1995.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
BLACK FEMALE SUICIDES: IS THE EXCITEMENT JUSTIFIED? DELORES P. ALDRIDGE, THE BLACK WOMAN, ED LA FRANCES RODGERS-ROSE, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1980, P273-284.
ODDS & SODS
ATTEMTPED SUICIDE: A LEAFLET TO ACCOMPANY NOT IN YOUR OWN FAMILY, EVERYMAN, BBC, NOVEMBER 1992.
ISSUES RELATING TO THE TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT LESBIANS AND HOMOSEXUALS, J.B. TEAGUE, JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING, 1992, VOL 14(4), P422-439.
Homosexuality as a life-style can be many things to many people. For the gay or lesbian adolescent, it can lead to confusion, isolation, or a number of other problems such as attempted suicide. As a means of finding support and accurate information, these teens may seek out a mental health professional. This article reviews the current theoretical literature with respect to a number of key issues that can help mental health counselors be more aware and more effective in their delivery of services to this population. Etiological, developmental, treatment, and resource lissues are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are provided.
RESPECT ALL YOUTH PROJECT, FEDERATION OF PARENTS AND FRIENDS OF LESBIANS AND GAYS, ISSUE PAPERS:
NO 1: WHO IS KILLING WHOM?
GAY TEENS AND SUICIDE, CHARLES R. FIKAR, (LETTERS TO THE EDITOR), PEDIATRICS, VOL 89(3), 1992, P519-600.
THE IMPACT OF VICTIMIZATION ON THE MENTAL HEALTH AND SUICIDALITY OF LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS, SCOTT L. HERSHBERGER AND ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1995, VOL 31(1), P65-74.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths 15 to 21 years old were studied to determine the impact of verbal abuse, threat of attacks, and assault on their mental health, including suicide. Family support and self-acceptance were hypothesized to act as mediators of the victimization and mental health-suicide relation. Structural equation modeling revealed that in addition to a direct effect of victimization on mental health, family support and self-acceptance in concert mediated the victimization and mental health relation. Victimization was not directly related to suicide. Victimization interacted with family support to influence mental health, but only for low levels of victimization.
VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, JOYCE HUNTER, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), 295-300.
This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behaviour. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to 21 years, were predominantly minority (35% black, 46% latino) and typically were referred by peers, media, schools and emergency shelters. Of the youths, 41% in the sample reported having suffered violence from families, peers or strangers; 46% of that violence was gay-related. These reports of violence occurred in conjunction with a high rate of suicide attempts; 41% of the girls and 34% of the boys who experienced violent assaults reported having attempted suicide. These alarming rates indicate the need for more systematic monitoring of violence toward and suicidal behavbiour among lesbian and gay male youths.
OPENING UP THE CLASSROOM CLOSET: RESPONDING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, ERIC ROFES, HARVARD EDUCTIONAL REVIEW, 1989, VOL 59(4), P444-453.
Eric Rofes, gay community activist and author, explores the issues surrounding the schools' failure to meet the educational needs of gay and lesbian youth. He argues that there has been an across-the-board denial of the existence of gay and lesbian youth, and that this has taken place because "their voices have been silenced and because adults have not effectively taken up their cause." Rofes goes on to present some promising initiatives that are designed to change the status quo: Project 10 in Los Angeles and the Harvey Milk School in New York City. He concludes by proposing needed changes in U.S. schools if they are to become truly accessible to gay and lesbian youth.
MAKING SCHOOLS SAFE FOR GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH. BREAKING THE SILENCE IN SCHOOLS AND IN FAMILIES, EDUCATION REPORT, THE GOVERNONR'S COMMISSION ON GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, FEBRUARY 25, 1993, STATE HOUSE, ROOM 111, BOSTON, MA 02133, U.S.A. (BOOK)
DOING SOMETHING, TERRY SANDERSON, GAY TIMES MAY 1989, P36-38.
The post bag of an agony aunt is peppered with letters from gay people who threaten suicide. Terry Sanderson considers a growing problem and some solutions.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H.
HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
CRISIS INTERVENTION AND SUICIDE COUNSELING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, CHRISTIAN A. FRANDSEN, P100
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