LESBIANS, GAYS AND SOCIAL WORK
This Resource List is one in a series. The idea to produce Resource Lists came during research we were conducting into the needs of young lesbians. We discovered that there has been little research in Britain concerning lesbians and gays but quite a lot in the U.S.A., most of which, whilst being accessible through the British Library, was not widely known about here. All of the papers listed can be obtained via any library by completing a request form (cost about 25p if unemployed or 50p); they will have to send off to the British Library for a photocopy and it will take about a month.
AN ADVOCATE MODEL FOR INTERVENTION WITH HOMOSEXUALS, R.M. BERGER, SOCIAL WORK, 2, 1977, P280-283.
Homosexual behavior has received little attention from social workers. Starting with the premise that homosexuality is a legitimate variation of life-style, the author suggests a model for social work intervention with the homosexual.
LESBIAN FAMILIES: CULTURAL AND CLINICAL ISSUES, M. HALL, SOCIAL WORK, 23, 1978, P380-385.
To counteract society's hostility toward homosexuality, effective social work with lesbian couples and families must include cultural as well as clinical work. This article suggests a multilevel approach, including self-exploration on the part of the worker, acquisition of specific clinical tools, and assumption of an advocacy stance with lesbian clients and other professionals.
HOMOSEXUALITY: A SOCIAL WORKER'S IMBROGLIO, C. TULLY, J.C. ALBRO, JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL WELFARE, VOL 6(2), 1979, P154-165.
Few members of our society take time to put into historical context their prejudices about homosexuality. This article examines the historical context of these prejudices as well as how social workers may become co-opted by society into overlooking the social service needs of homosexual clients. How to combat institutional homophobia is also discussed.
LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS IN RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT, AUDREY I. STEINHORN, SOCIAL CASEWORK: THE JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL WORK, 1979, VOL 60, P494-498.
SOCIAL WORK AND THE INVISIBLE MINORITY: AN EXPLORATION OF LESBIANISM, SANDRA J. POTTER, TRUDY E. DARTY, SOCIAL WORK, VOL 26(3), MAY 1981, P187-192.
Studies student lesbians as part of the client population social workers serve, but as a group who has received little attention
from the profession. Considers some myths about lesbianism, explores various forms of discrimination that lesbians experience, and suggests ways in which social workers can serve lesbian clients more effectively.
IMPROVING SERVICES TO GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, D.D. DULANEY AND J. KELLY, SOCIAL WORK, 27 MARCH 1982, P178-183.
Estimates indicate that 10 percent of the clients of mental health agencies are gay or lesbian, yet social workers receive little theoretical or clinical training in helping the homosexual client. The authors examine the reasons for this apparent gap in social work education and propose specific approaches for
improving services to clients who are gay or lesbian.
THE UNSEEN MINORITY: OLDER GAYS AND LESBIANS, RAYMOND M. BERGER, SOCIAL WORK, 1982, VOL 27(3), P236-242.
The helping professions ignore older homosexual men and women, groups that have special strengths and needs. This article describes the institutional, legal, emotional, and medical problems older homosexuals face and suggests how social workers can provide services to these groups.
HOMOPHOBIA: A NEW CHALLENGE, J. GRAMICK, SOCIAL WORK, VOL 28(2), 1983, P137-141.
If social workers are to be effective in helping their clients, they must deal with homophobia, that is, the irrational fear of homosexuality. This article gives a history of attitudes toward homosexuality and discusses the consequences of homophobia. It stresses that social workers must understand that feelings and fantasies about same-sex behavior are natural before they can help clients cope with the social problems engendered by homophobia.
HOMOPHOBIC VIOLENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, TED R. BOHN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK & HUMAN SEXUALITY, VOL 2(3/3), 1983/1984, P91-110.
Homophobic violence, that is, violence directed at an individual perceived by his/her assailants to be homosexual is a pervasive social problem in the U.S. Research indicates that anti-gay violence differs markedly from generic violence (that is, violence not motivated by hatred of homoseuals) on several variables. These differences appear to affect the course of treatment and recovery for gay victims, and make necessary specialized interventions. Strategies for service delivery to, and engaging victims of, homophobic violence are considered, as are idiosyncratic clinical concerns, and preventive interventions. The relationship of homophobic violence to the maintenance of the male sex role is also examined.
FAMILY THERAPY FOR LESBIAN AND GAY CLIENTS, MICHAEL J. SHERNOFF, SOCIAL WORK, 1984, VOL 4, JULY 29, P393-396.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, VOL 2 (2/3), 1984. (SPECIAL DOUBLE ISSUE). INCLUDES:
A SYSTEMATIC INSPECTION OF AFFECTIONAL PREFERENCE ORIENTATION AND THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN, JACK LOUIS DEVINE, P9-17.
Clinical intervention with families of origin where a child has a same-gender affectional preference orientation has led to the synthesis of a five-staged developmental model reflective of the systemic changes that the family undergoes as it attempts to cope with the affectional preference issue. The first three stages of the process attempt to maintain homeostatic function, whereas, the latter two bring about resolution and integrate the child back into the system. The three system variables that have a profound effect on the outcome of the family's movements are cohesion, regulative structure and family themes. Strategies for positive interventions are presented.
MEETING THE NEEDS OF SEXUAL MINORITY YOUTH: ONE PROGRAM'S RESPONSE, TACIE L VERGARA, P19-38.
This article brings the needs of sexual minority youth to the attention of the social work profession. The author describes the experiences of the Eromin Center, Inc. in developing a comprehensive youth services program to meet the special needs of sexual minority youth and provides practical guidelines for social workers who wish to work effectively with this population.
COUNSELING GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, BEVERLY DECKER, P39-52.
Although lesbians and gay men in relationships are part of the client population that social workers serve, the critical dynamic and cultural issues involved in providing optimal help for same-sex couples have received little attention in the profession. The author discusses some of the unique characteristics and special problems of same-sex dyads which must be taken into consideration when theoretical and clinical issues are combined to form an effective treatment approach. Topics addressed include: How problems in defining boundaries of same-sex couples are intensified by the absence of social 'rules' relating to them, the effects of homophobia on issues of oneness and differentiation, and the impact of gender socialization on differences between gay male and lesbian relationships.
THE SAGE MODEL FOR SERVING OLDER LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, MORGAN GWENWALD, P53-61.
There may be 3,560,000 older gay men and lesbians in the U.S. Senior Action in a Gay Environment (SAGE) is one model of a
community's efforts to recognize this population and provide services to it. This paper examines the history of SAGE and its efforts to service this community of older gay men and lesbians.
CONFRONTING HOMOPHOBIA IN HEALTH CARE SETTINGS: GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, ALICE E. MESSING, ROBERT SCHOENBERG, ROGER K. STEPHENS, P65-74.
Describes homophobia, understanding and countering homophobia in social workers, understanding internalized homophobia in patients, what social workers can do about homophobia: communication link, advocate, educator, service developer.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND ALCOHOLISM: SOCIAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES, MARTA ANN ZEHNER, JOYCE LEWIS, P75-89.
Among the gay and lesbian population probably 20%-30% are alcoholic, twice to three times as large a percentage as in the general population. Thus, there is compelling reason to examine the relationship between homosexuality and alcoholism. That is the primary purpose of this article. The article is divided into three areas: a general description and definition of alcoholism as a problem in our society; special issues for gays and lesbians and their vulnerability to alcoholism; services for alcoholics generally and services geared specifically to lesbian and gay alcoholics.
HOMOPHOBIA: A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY, TERESA D. DECRESCENZO, P115-135.
A 20-page questionnaire was administerd to 140 mental health professionals employed in a variety of service delivery agencies, both public and private. Respondents were asked a variety of demographic questions covering 23 variables, and were asked their opinions on a number of issues related to attitudes toward homosexuality. Statistically significant differences were found among various disciplines and within disciplines on certain items. The findings illuminate some sources of attitude development, including family of origin, religious background, parental education level and other sources as well.
TEACHING SOCIAL WORKERS TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE HOMOSEXUALLY ORIENTED, HARVEY L. GOCHROS, P137-156.
THE COMING-OUT PROCESS FOR LESBIANS: INTEGRATING A STABLE IDENTITY, LOU ANN LEWIS, SOCIAL WORK, 1984, VOL 29(5), P464-469.
Social workers have lacked models for understanding the process of a client's self-identification as a lesbian. This article describes several developmental phases a woman many go through to form a health self-concept as a lesbian and discusses practice implications for this process.
PRACTICE DIGEST, 1984, VOL 7(1), CONTAINS:
OBSERVATIONS: A CHALLENGE TO THE PROFESSION, P3.
ON "MAINSTREAMING" GAY AND LESBIAN SERVICES INTO TRADITIONAL AGENCIES, JOHN GRACE, P5-8.
SUPPORT GROUPS FOR PARENTS OF GAYS AND LESBIANS, AMY ASHWORTH, P9-12.
COUNSELING FOR GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, KARIN WANDREI, P13-16.
SENIOR ACTION IN A GAY ENVIRONMENT: SAGE, MICHELE SCHWARTZ, P17-20.
WORKING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, STEVE ASHKINAZY, P21-23.
HELPING PEOPLE WITH AIDS, DIEGO LOPEZ, P23-26.
A BEREAVEMENT GROUP OF LESBIANS, E. SUE BLUME, P27.
WHAT NON-GAY THERAPISTS NEED TO KNOW TO WORK WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, JOSEPHINE STEWART, P28-30.
FURTHER READING, P30-31.
SOCIAL WORK, TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS AND LESBIAN INVISIBILITY, SANDEE POTTER, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1985, P59-68.
Lesbians encounter many problems in obtaining adequate health care from traditional health care systems that are organized on heterosexual assumptions. This article discusses the special health care needs of lesbians and the implications for social workers when serving lesbians in relation to illness and health care. The author's survey of social work courses in health care reveals that they are seriously deficient in content relating to lesbians and gays.
STRESSES ON LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS IN SCHOOL, JOYCE HUNTER AND ROBERT SCHAECHER, SOCIAL WORK IN EDUCATION, 1987, VOL 9, P180-190.
An awareness of a homosexual orientation often emerges in students during their high school years. A significant portion of these self-identified youngsters experience unique stresses that the school system needs to recognize and address in an affirmative manner. The authors provide an overview of the problems and briefly describe the role of the school social worker.
HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE FAMILY: LESBIAN AND GAY SPOUSES, NORMAN L. WYERS, SOCIAL WORK, 1987, VOL 32(2), P143-148.
A 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers is reviewed. Differences between the men and the women were discovered in five areas: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. Many similarities also surfaced. The author posits that if social service providers are aware of the characteristics described they will be of more assistance to these lesbian and gay clients.
ARE SOCIAL WORKERS HOMOPHOBIC? J. WISNIEWSKI, B. TOOMEY, SOCIAL WORK, 32(5) 1987, P454-455.
A VERY SILENT AND GAY MINORITY, GLORIA J. KRYSIAK, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, VOL 34(4), MAR 1987, P304-307.
Suggests some special considerations that might be given the homosexual or lesbian high school student. Examines knowledge, beliefs and values about homosexuality. Encourages counselors to help homosexual students develop healthy identities and self-disclosure skills and help them come to terms with disclosing or not disclosing their sexuality.
THE STIGMATIZATION OF THE GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENT, A.D. MARTIN, E.S. HETRICK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY VOL 15, 1988, P163-183.
Discusses presenting problems of clients at a social service agency serving homosexually oriented adolescents. Identifies these problems as isolation, family discovery and violence suffered because of sexual orientation. Offers suggestions for the management of problems.
AIDS-PHOBIA, CONTACT WITH AIDS, AND AIDS-RELATED JOB STRESS IN HOSPITAL WORKERS, JOSEPH H. PLECK, LYDIA O'DONNELL, CARL O'DONNELL, JOHN SNAREY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P41-54.
In a survey of 237 hospital workers involved in the care of AIDS patients and AIDS inpatient-care facility, negative attitudes toward AIDS and AIDS patients (AIDS-phobia) and AIDS-related job stress (AIDS-stress) were common. In multivariate analyses, AIDS-phobia is significantly higher among older staff, those having low contact with AIDS patients (AIDS-contact), and those holding homophobic attitudes. AIDS-phobic attitudes and low AIDS-contact can be interpreted as predicting each other. Finally, AIDS-stress is predicted by low contact with AIDS and AIDS-phobic attitudes.
HOMOSEXUAL CLIENTS AND HOMOPHOBIC SOCIAL WORKERS, DEBRA L. TIEVSKY, CHILD & ADOLESCENT SOCIAL WORK, 1988, VOL 2(3), P51-62.
People of gay sexual orientation struggle with the same problems that confront everyone else, and they face some problems that are unique. However they must carry out this struggle in the context of a largely rejecting and fearful society. For them to have the same opportunities for help that exist for others, it is important that professionals are free of bias and homophobia. This paper looks at the historical and current attitudes that professional social workers, as well as the public, have had toward homosexuals. It considers the workers' responsibility for self-awareness in attitudes toward homosexuals and makes recommendations for achieving helpful non-homphobic clinical practice.
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND THE GAY COMMUNITY: COUNSELING AND CLINICAL ISSUES, DAVID J. MARTIN, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P67-72.
The gay community has been and continues to be disproportionately affected by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Need for risk-reduction education, mental health service provision, and assistance in grieving the ongoing loss of loved ones continues to exist among members of the gay community. Clinicians who work with gay clients should be aware of the critical issues confronting gay men who are at risk for infection, those who may already be infected with HIV, and their loved ones. This article highlights critical issues in introducing prevention in therapy and counseling, in supporting asymptomatic seropositive gay men and gay men with AIDS-related complex (ARC) and AIDS in their attempts to cope, and in assisting in the grieving process for those who have lost loved ones to AIDS-related illnesses.
COMBATING HOMOPHOBIA IN AIDS EDUCATION, JAMES M. CROTEAU, SUSANNE MORGAN, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P86-91.
Homophobia is a central theme in response to the AIDS epidemic. In this article we review literature explicating the connection between homophobia and AIDS and then call for the integration of antihomophobia elements into AIDS education. We discuss negative messages in portrayals of gay and bisexual men and in discussions of safer sexual practices, as well as materials and educational strategies that explicitly contradict such homophobic messages. We then discuss the emerging trend to exclude lesbian women and gay men in education and programs, suggest guidelines for countering such exclusion, and give examples of creative approaches to inclusion.
GAY YOUTH AND AIDS, DOUGLAS A. FELDMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P185-193.
Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.
SOCIAL SERVICE NEEDS OF LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS: TELLING IT THEIR WAY, L.R. MERCIER AND R.M. BERGER, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK & HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 8(1), P75-95.
Examined the range and type of psychosocial problems experienced by 49 lesbian and gay adolescents (aged 15-21 years) and assessed the personal and social support services they used to address these problems. The most common problems (experienced by over half of the students) were telling others you are lesbian or gay, depression, being misunderstood, dating, and getting along with your family. 90% of students used friends as a resource for support. While almost half of the students had turned to a parent or to a girl/boyfriend for help with problems relatively few sought help from siblings or from adults outside the family (counselors, therapists, teachers, other school personnel).
HIDDEN BRANCHES AND GROWING PAINS: HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE FAMILY TREE, ERIK F. STROMMEN, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, VOL 14(3/4), 1989, P9-34.
In reviewing the effects of having a gay or lesbian member in the family of origin, one is repeatedly drawn to the central role played by the social stigma surrounding homosexuality. The present paper suggests that social stereotypes and prejudices toward homosexuals create an image of homosexuality as incompatible with the family, and that the family's reactions to having a homosexual member depend upon their acceptance or rejection of these prejudices. When homosexual family members are discovered, heterosexual family members experience a conflict between their conceptions of homosexual persons and the familiar family role of the homosexual member. The origin and nature of this conflict, and differences among family members in their reactions are reviewed. Long-term resolution and possible models of positive and negative outcome are also described. It is suggested that the conflict experienced by family members is in many ways similar to the 'coming out' process of homosexual identity acquisition, and that this similarity may reflect common mechanisms for coming to grips with a pejorative, negatively
labeled social identity.
ETHNIC MINORITY FAMILIES AND MINORITY GAYS AND LESBIANS, EDWARD S. MORALES, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, VOL 14(3/4), 1989, P217-239.
Attitudes toward sexuality differs within the diverse ethnic and racial communities that exist in the U.S., and the cultural values and beliefs surrounding sexuality play a major role in determining how individuals behave within their sociological context. The family unit is the domain where such values and beliefs are nurtured and developed. An individual's value system is shaped and reinforced within the family context which usually reflects the broader community norms. Disclosure of a gay or lesbian sexual preference and lifestyle by a family member presents challenges to ethnic minority families who tend not to discuss sexuality issues and presume a heterosexual orientation.
For ethnic minority gays and lesbians the 'coming out' process present challenges in their identity formation processes and in their loyalties to one community over another. Ethnic gay men and lesbians need to live within three rigidly defined and strongly independent communities: the gay and lesbian community, the ethnic minority community, and the society at large. While each community provides fundamental needs, serious consequences emerge if such communities were to be visibly integrated and merged. It requires a constant effort to maintain oneself in three different worlds, each of which fails to support significant aspects of a person's life. The complications that arise may inhibit one's ability to adapt and to maximize personal potentials.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction and processes between ethnic minority communities and their gay and lesbian family members. A framework for understanding the process of change, that occurs for the gay or lesbian person as they attempt to resolve conflicts of dual minority membership, is presented. Implications for the practitioner is also discussed.
INCLUDING CURRICULUM CONTENT ON LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES, BERNIE S. NEWMAN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION, 1989, FALL, NO. 3, P202-211.
This paper presents a rationale for requiring content on lesbian and gay issues in the social work curriculum. Recent research suggests that a considerable percentage of social workers possess homophobic attitudes. Some support exists for making education a tool to reduce negative attitudes toward the gay population. However, students are unlikely to receive adequate information about this population before they enter the social work curriculum. The goals of including content on lesbian and gay issues are to decrease homophobic attitudes and to prepare students to provide effective social work practice with lesbian and gay clients. Methods and resources for incorporating content on lesbian and gay issues in human behavior, direct practice, policy, community organization and research courses of social work curriculum are presented.
LESBIAN MOTHERS: ETHICAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, KAREN LEE ERLICHMAN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P207-224.
COMPETENT CHILD-FOCUSED PRACTICE: WORKING WITH LESBIAN AND GAY CARERS, HELEN COSIS BROWN, ADOPTION & FOSTERING, VOL 15(2), 1991, P11-17.
A LIFE-REVIEW WORKSHOP FOR GAY AND LESBIAN ELDERS, FRANK S. GALASSI, JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGICAL SOCIAL WORK, 1991, VOL 16(1/2), P75-86.
A Life-Review Model to serve the specific needs of Gay and Lebian Elders has been very much needed. A workshop has been developed through which the gay and lesbian elderly community may articulate both its personal and collective history, and its current psychological and physical health priorities. The workshop model reveals formerly undisclosed data which can be utilized in printed, audio and video cassette presentations by geriatric practitioners, social workers, medical school faculties and community service administrators on behalf of gay and lesbian elders.
GAY AND NO PLACE TO GO: ASSESSING THE NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS IN OUT-OF-HOME CARE SETTINGS, G. MALLON, CHILD WELFARE, 1992, VOL 71(6), P547-556.
Gay and lesbian adolescents, whether self-declared or in the throes of sexual identity struggles, are and have been in out-of-home care settings. Their placements are often negative experiences because their feelings of difference are frequently aggravated by the attitudes of those around them, including other children and some staff members. This article discusses factors that can help make placement a positive experience for these youths.
RELATIONSHIP QUALITY IN A SAMPLE OF LESBIAN COUPLES WITH CHILDREN AND CHILD-FREE LESBIAN COUPLES, LESLIE KOEPKE, JAN HARE, PATRICIA B. MORAN, FAMILY RELATIONS, 1992, VOL 41(2), P224-229.
The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of lesbian relationships by three factors: presence of children, extent of disclosure concerning the nature of the relationship, and longevity of the relationship. Overall, findings indicate that solid and happy relationships existed for the total sample of couples. However, couples with children scored significantly higher on relationship satisfaction and sexual relationship. No differences were found by longevity of the relationship or disclosure. Implications for family life educators and family practitioners are discussed.
SERVING THE NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH IN RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTERS, G.P. MALLON, RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT FOR CHILDREN & YOUTH, 1992, VOL 10(2), P47-61.
Stigmatization of the lesbian and gay adolescent and their lack of access to appropriate Residential Treatment settings has evolved from decades of fear, misinformation, and the mistaken belief that this population of youngsters should be able to "fit into" the existing youth services systems. Planning for the gay and lesbian adolescent in care presents unique challenges for Residential Treatment agencies.
Education and training of staff, board members and other residents about issues pertaining to gay and lesbian adolescents and encouraging them to examine their own responses to homosexual orientation, can enhance opportunities for identifying, addressing, and serving the needs of this client group.
REWORKING DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY: THE CASE OF LESBIAN IDENTITY FORMATION, KATHARINE LEE H. WEILLE, CLINICAL SOCIAL WORK JOURNAL, 1993, VOL 21(2), P151-159.
Numerous theorists and researchers have challenged the underlying assumptions of traditional, psychoanalytically based developmental theories. Many of them imply that the internal and interpersonal experiences typified by these models as pathologically regressive may actually be normative variations of human experience. Efforts to include the formation of lesbian identity as a normal outcome of early development serve as a paradigmatic case study of the broader endeavors to rework traditional theory. Several recent theoretical and empirical works are integrated, with an examination of common themes and implications for Social Work practice and research.
SOCIAL WORK WITH GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, D.F. MORROW, SOCIAL WORK, 1993, VOL 38(6), P655-660.
Gay and lesbian adolescents are a socially oppressed group discriminated against by a heterosexist and homophobic society. Because of the negative stigma society places on lesbian and gay adolescents, they face numerous difficulties that require social support and intervention. Issues pertinent to social work with lesbian and gay adolescents are examined in the context of three main social institutions: the family, the social culture, and the educational setting. Suggestions are made for improving intervention with this population, including increasing personal awareness of one's own homophobia and heterosexist bias in working with client groups; educating oneself and client groups about homosexuality; establishing positive social support programs to serve lesbian and gay adolescents; advocating for sanctions to end gay and lesbian harassment in the educational system; supporting the hiring of openly gay and lesbian teachers to serve as positive role models; and advocating for the inclusion of sexual orientation information in school sex education curricula.
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE CHILD WELFARE SERVICE WITH GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS, T. RICHARD SULLIVAN, CHILD WELFARE, 1994, VOL 73(4) P291-304.
Agencies attempting to develop effective child welfare services for gay and lesbian youths must strive for effectiveness within a policy context that is politically polarized and generates more obstacles than directions. This article argues for a reconceptualization of service delivery that begins with a recognition of the unique developmental challenges facing sexual minority youths and proceeds to an examination of the systemic obstacles to providing competent services in their behalf. An ecological perspective informs the connections between developmental considerations, service issues, and human rights questions.
A PLETHORA OF PRINCIPLES, RHONDA SIDDALL, COMMUNITY CARE, 1 DECEMBER 1994, P20-21.
Widespread anger greeted the Children's Society's ban on gay and lesbian foster carers. Rhonda Siddall considers the question of working with Christian voluntary groups.
VICTIMISED FOR BEING GAY: 'HARASSMENT CENTRES ON A VULNERABILITY WHICH MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO BLOW THE WHISTLE, LAURA MIDDLETON, PROFESSONAL SOCIAL WORK, OCTOBER 1995, P10-11.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
SOCIAL WORK AND SEXUAL PROBLEMS, JUDITH MILNER, PEPAR, 1986, INCLUDES:
GENDER DISORDERS, HOMOSEXUALITY, P43-49.
WOMEN OPPRESSION AND SOCIAL WORK: ISSUES IN ANTI-DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE, EDITOR MARY LANGAN & LESLEY DAY, ROUTLEDGE, 1992, INCLUDES:
LESBIANS, THE STATE AND SOCIAL WORK PRACTIVE, HELEN COSIS BROWN, P201-219.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980.
Whilst this book is gay-biased and concerns social work in the U.S.A., it is, nevertheless, very good and reveals the impressive advances made in social work in the U.S.A. It is divided into two sections. Section I consists of short papers on populations at risk and gives some intervention strategies. My main criticism is that there was not enough about suicide attempts, nothing about class - i.e. Working Class lesbians/gays and, having been in H.M. Forces, I felt the paper regarding lesbians and gays in the forces was quite shallow. Section II is very good. It gives examples of how to change organisations, and includes training programmes, discussions about coming out, therapy, and appendices which include examples of the U.S. National Association of Social Workers policies regarding lesbians and gays. Would that such a book about social work in Britain existed! It is essential reading for all social workers and social work agencies.
WORKING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1984.
HUMAN SERVICES AND THE GAY AND LESBIAN POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY, DONNA TAPPER, M. SAUBER, COMMUNITY COUNCIL GREATER NEW YORK PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT, 1985.
SOCIOCULTURAL AND SERVICE ISSUES IN WORKING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, JOHN OLIVER, LESTER B. BROWN, ROCKERFELLER COLLEGE PRESS, 1987.
SERVING GAY & LESBIAN YOUTHS, THE ROLE OF CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES, CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA, 1991.
WE'RE COUNTING ON EQUALITY, MONITORING EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WORKPLACE IN RELATION TO SEX, RACE, DISABILITY, SEXUALITY, HIV/AIDS, AND AGE, MAREE GLADWIN, 1993, CITY CENTRE, 32-35 FEATHERSTONE ST, LONDON, EC1Y 8QX.
SEXUALITY, YOUNG PEOPLE & CARE, CREATING POSITIVE CONTEXTS FOR TRAINING POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT, JENI BREMNER AND ANTHONY HILLIN, 1994, RUSSELL HOUSE PUBLISHING LTD.
SOCIAL SERVICES FOR GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1994.
JOURNAL OF GAY AND LESBIAN SOCIAL SERVICES, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS.Volume 1 began in 1994.
© Lesbian Information Service, 1995