RESEARCH

CUMULATIVE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(4), P447-462.

A CRITIQUE OF ANTHROPLOGICAL RESEARCH ON HOMOSEXUALITY, THOMAS K. FITZGERALD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 2(4), P385-397.

Since the 1970 resolutions of the American anthropoligical Association, encouraging more research activity among anthropologists on the topic of homosexuality, there has been less than enthusiastic response. Rather than directly attempting to provide reasons for this research failure, this paper takes a look at what actually has been done by anthropologists with an eye to assessment of their major contributions. Thus, summarized are the studies on the role of te "berdarche" in primitive cultures, with a critique of the terminological problems associated; a review of some of the ethnographic accounts of homoerotic behavior among primitive folk, with comments on the weaknesses of such treatments; and, finally, a discussion of the current typological approach to the study of the homosexual community, with its multimodal rather than unimodal emphasis. In short, this is a review article that tries to assess the impact of anthropological research for the ultimate understanding of this facet of humankind.

AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HOMOSEXUALITY, COMPILED BY VERN L. BULLOUGH, W. DORR LEGG, BARRETT W. ELCANO, JAMES KEPNER, GARLAND PRESS, 1976, REVIEW BY SCOTT C. MCDONALD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 4(2), P185-194.

THE SOCIOLOGY OF MALE HOMOSEXUALITY AND LESBIANISM: AN INTRODUCTORY

BIBLIOGRAPHY, MARTIN P. LEVINE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979-1980, VOL 5 (1-4)

THE SOCIOLOGY OF MALE HOMOSEXUALITY AND LESBIANISM: AN INTRODUCTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY, COMPILED BY MARTIN P. LEVINE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(3), P249-275.

THE SAN FRANCISCO LESBIAN AND GAY HISTORY PROJECT, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(3), P277-279.

THE BELL AND WEINBERG STUDY: FUTURE PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH ON HOMOSEXUALITY, FREDERICK SUPPE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 6(4), P69-97.

The Bell and Weinberg Homosexualities study attempts to subject important prior studies on homosexuality to systematic large-sample retests and also to break new ground in our positive understanding of homosexuality. In this article, defects in prior studies are surveyed, and then the adequacy of Bell and Weinberg's work is subjected to methodological evaluation. Issues discussed include the validity of the MMP1 Mf scale, questions of sample representativeness, whether "straights" can do adequate research on homosexuality, differences in heterosexual and homosexual sexuality, the role of suculture acculturation in homosexual psychological adjustment, and the use of cluster-analysis to generate typologies of homosexualities.

HETEROSEXUAL BIAS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON LESBIANISM AND MALE HOMOSEXUALITY (1979-1983), UTILIZING THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND TAXONOMIC SYSTEM OF MORIN (1977), ALAN T. WATTERS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P35-58.

Utilizing the concept of heterosexual bias, recent research on homosexuality is evaluated to see if this bias has lessened in recent years. In 1977 the suggestion was made that a new vision of homosexuality as an alternate and equally valid lifestyle would result in changes in the questions posed, the data collected, and the interpretation made in research on homosexuality. Recent journal article asbstracts are examined and weighed to find the extent to which they reflect a change in the social values of the behavior under study. These findings are compared to those of the original study in 1977 and assessed to see if the predicted changes have come about. Strong evidence of such a change was found.

DEVELOPING PHENOMENOLOGICAL METHOD FOR RESEARCHING LESBIAN EXISTENCE, ROWENA J. HUNNISETT, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF COUNSELLING/REVUE CANADIENNE DE COUNSELING, 1986, VOL 20(4), P255-268.

This paper argues a complementary relationship between phenomenological method and feminist theory; then develops a research method suited to the study of lesbians in their communities. A comparison of three phenomenological methods produces one new method with metholodogical innovations in interviewing, mapping and data analysis. Findings of the study under discussion are summarized. Pitfalls and challenges of phenomenological research, and implications for counsellors and researchers are outlined.

NEW DIRECTIONS IN LESBIAN RESEARCH, THEORY, AND EDUCATION, BARBARA E. SANG, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, , P92-96.

In the last decade some exciting research has taken place within the lesbian community that has more to do with what is relevant to lesbian life-styles and less to do with proving to society that 'homosexuality' is a viable life-style. Current lesbian research tends to be descriptive and phenomenological as opposed to being formal empirical research. There is also a movement toward less reliance on existing theoretical models, which tend to be sexist and homophobic, to guide these obvservations. We need to discover our own voice.

RESEARCHER-PARTICIPANT RELATIONSHIPS IN JOURNAL REPORTS ON GAY MEN AND LESBIAN WOMEN, RICHARD T. WALSH-BOWERS, SYDEY J. PARLOUR, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(4), P93-112.

To assess the ethical nature of research relationships between investigators and gay and lesbian participants we reviewed 351 reports on homosexuality in three major and 75 miscellaneous journals from 1974 to 1988. We found that authors rarely involved participants beyhond the role of providing data, generally did not report conditions of consent, rarely reported feedback, and almost never indicated using data to promote social action. In additon, authors typically relied on the term "subjects" and on a depersonalized, decontextualized writing style. There were some differences among journals, over time, and among authors' disciplines. Male authors tended to study men exclusively, wherereas female authors' relation to participants' gender was more varied. Believing that research with gay men and lesbian women should not detract from their emancipation, we offer some recommendations for research practice and report-writing which are designed to better protect research participants and to produce more valid knowledge.

PRIOR INTERPERSONAL CONTACT WITH AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS GAYS AND LESBIANS IN AN INTERVIEWING CONTEXT, A. L. ELLIS, R. B. VASSEUR, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUAITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P31-45.

The impact of previous interpersonal contact or exposure to male homosexuals and lesbians on interviewing strategy was assessed. Previous research on attitudes toward homosexuals suggests that prior exposure reduces the negativity of attitudes toward homosexuals. In support of that research and research looking at the use of confirmatory questioning strategies in social interactions, it was expected that individuals with prior exposure to homosexuals and/or positive attitudes toward homosexuals would choose fewer negative information-seeking questions for a proposed interview. The results support previous research findings regarding attitudes towards gay men and lesbians and suggest that pre-interview attitudes and prior exposure may inflence interviewer strategy.

RESEARCH ON LESBIANISM: SELECTED EFFECTS OF TIME, GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION

AND DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES, J.H. HEDBLOM J.J. HARTMAN,

ARCH-SEX-BEHAV, 1980, JUNE, VOL 9(3), P217-234.

It is the intention of this article both to be descriptive of elements of the lesbian life style that appear to be conistent over time and to examine the results of using widely different data collection techniques

attempting to differentiate such behaviours. In addition, the study from which the data are derived examined areas of change and social movement among selected areas of personal commitment or interaction. Research in the area of covert behavior is extremely difficult. Certain types of covert behavior preclude traditional survey and sampling procedures, making parameter estimates for the general population, as well as precluding the use of inferential statistics for data analysis. The masking of the deviant self is perhaps most pronounced where the covert activity in question is illegal (Klockars, 1974). Given this, a comparison of the impact of different research techniques on the quality of data generated in the study of deviant behavior would appear to be important. The data were collected from three separate groups involving three data collection times spread over a ten year period, involving three geographic locations, and involving two different data collection techniques. A total of 394 lesbians were interviewed or responded to a questionnaire distributed with the cooperation of a large, well-known homophile organization. An analysis was made, and both significant and nonsignificant differences in sample types are discussed. It should be noted that these data represent a small segment of the data generated by

the study. The parts of them presented were chosen because they address pertinent theoretical and methodological questions in the area of researching covert behavior.

 

 

RESEARCH: POSITIONED DIFFERENTLY? ISSUES OF "RACE", DIFFERENCE AND COMMONALITY, ANN PHOENIX, CHANGES, AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1994, VOL 12(4), P299-305.

CROSS REFERENCES

ADOLESCENCE

LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH IN ENGLAND, KEN PLUMMER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(3/4), P195-223.

The experience of being gay and young has been seriously neglected in youth culture research and in youth service provision. This stems in part from the pervasiveness of both the heterosexual assumption and the sexual stigma. Since the advent of the gay movement, however, some modest research into gay youth has been conducted and some has been generated through the activity of gay organizations themselves. This paper reviews the experience and problems of being young and gay in Britain as revealed through three research studies. It outlines some key changes that have occurred during the 1980's, especially the emergence of gay youth organizations. It concludes by suggesting the diversity of the gay youth experience in England.

IDENTITY

BREAKING THE MIRROR: THE CONSTRUCTION OF LESBIANISM AND THE ANTHROPOLO-

GICAL DISCOURSE ON HOMOSEXUALITY, E. BLACKWOOD. JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, SUMMER, VOL 11 (3-4), PAGES 1-17.

This essay reviews the anthropological discourse on homosexuality by examining the assumptions that have been used by anthropologists to explain homosexual behavior, and by identifying current theoretical

approaches. The essay questions the emphasis on male homosexual behavior as the basis for theoretical analysis, and points to the importance of including female homosexual behavior in the study of

homosexuality. Cross-cultural data on lesbian behavior are represented and the influence of gender divisions and social stratification on the development of patterns of lesbian behavior are broadly explored. The article outlines suggestions for examining the cultural context of lesbian behavior as well as the constraints exerted on women's sexual behavior in various cultures.

THE LIFE COURSE OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: AN IMMODEST PROPOSAL FOR THE

STUDY OF LIVES, A.M. BOXER, B.J. COHLER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALTIY, 1989, VOL 17, P315-355.

The authors raise questions about several fundamental assumptions and methods regarding study of the development of gay and lesbian youth. Primary among these are the validity of reliance on respondents' recollections regarding their childhood and adolescent experiences; inferences about developmental processes and outcomes made on the basis of cross-sectional samples; the time-specific, cohort-bound nature of many previous constructs and findings; and the persistent search for continuities between childhood gender behavior and adult sexual orientation. In consequences, the emerging body of theory is largely a developmental psychology of the remembered past. Strategies are suggested for longitudinal, prospective research on homosexual adolescents, shifting attention from child-based "causal" models to those of adolescent and adult-centered perspectives. Aimed at understanding life changes and the developmental processes and course of negotiating them, longitudinal methods will more accurately reflect current experiences of gay and lesbian youth coming of age in a unique historical context. Findings from studies of the life course have direct implications for modification of current developmental theories, particularly those that can inform gay and lesbian-sensitive clinical services for all age grops.

DISCRIMINATION

JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 5(3), 1990, INCLUDES:

ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND MENTAL HEALTH, SETTING AN AGENDA FOR RESEARCH, GREGORY M. HEREK, KEVIN T. BERRILL, P414-423.

Empirical studies are urgently needed of the scope and prevalence of anti-gay violence, its mental health consequnces, its prevention, and institutional response to it. Researchers should seek data from a variety of sources, use representative samples whenever possible, use reliable and valid measures and methods, and design studies that are longitudinal and prospective. Each of these components of a research agenda for studying anti-gay violence and hate crimes is described.

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