There has been little research conducted in Britain in regard to Lesbians. During our research we have come across several papers, mostly coming from the U.S.A., copies of which can be obtained through local libraries. You will need to complete a request form (it will cost about 50p per item and take about a month) and your library will have to send off to the British Library for a photocopy. These are academic papers and some are more accessible than others - the abstract gives you an idea of what they are like.
Below you will find abstacts/extracts of articles, followed by a list of books with relevant chapters and a book list. Those books marked with an asterisk can be requested through your library, others can be bought from alternative book shops; we have included a list of book shops at the end of the List.
PERMANENT PARTNER PRIORITITIES: GAY AND STRAIGHT, MARY RIEGE LANER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(1), P21-39.
Based on a design used in previous research with heterosexuals, this study assessed the permanent partner priorities of gay and straight men and women, as well as the perception of those priorities by each gender and sexaul orientation. Heterosexuals and homosexuals did not differ in their rank-ordered priorities, but tended to misperceive the priorities of their own and the other groups studied. Differentials of misperception were explained by varying societal pressures experienced by homo- and heterosexual men and woemn. Implications based on the difference between the competitive nature of courtship and the cooperative nature of permanent pairing were drawn from the findings.
LOVING WOMEN: ATTACHMENT AND AUTONOMY IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, LETITIA ANNE PEPLU, SUSAN COCHRAN, KAREN ROOK, AND CHRISTINE PADESKY, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P7-27.
The love relationships of lesbians were investigated as part of a questionnaire study of a diverse sample of 127 lesbians. The majority of women said their current relationship was extremely close, personally satisfying, and egalitarian. Differences among women's values concerning relationships reflected two distinct dimensions: dyadic attachment and personal autonomy. These relationship values were associated with women's social characteristics and feminist involvement. Relationship values were also related to such characteristics of women's current relationships as measures of love and satisfaction, future commitment, sexual exclusivity, and problems of independence/dependence.
COUPLES: THE HIDDEN SEGMENT OF THE GAY WORLD, NEIL R. TULLER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL5(4), P331-343.
This study explores the relationships of 15 homosexual couples - 5 female and 10 male couples. In duration the relationships ranged from 7 months to 13 years. In age the partners ranged from 19 to 50. Findings indicate that the partners met in social as compared with sexual settings, that relation-ships are more common for females than for males, that female more than male couples require sexual fidelity between partners, that male more than female couples desire children, and that there was no "butch-femme" role playing in the relationships. Social incompatibility of partners and social pressure are seen as causes for the breakup of relationships.
A STUDY OF PERCEPTIONS OF RIGHTS AND NEEDS IN INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS IN HOMOSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS, JOHN P. DE CECCO, MICHAEL G. SHIVELY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(3), P205-216.
A pilot study was conducted to examine the issues of rights and needs in the interpersonal conflicts of couples of the same biological sex and sexual orientation. The sample consisted of 91 men and 34 women who described conflict incidents that occurred in their relationships. The right most frequently perceived as an issue was participation in decision making. The need most frequently perceived as an issue was power. Issues were perceived more frequently as psychological needs, rather than democratic rights. Almost no conflicts were resolved through negotiation.
SATISFACTION IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, L.A. PEPLAU, C. PADESKY, M. HAMILTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 8(2), P23-35.
A questionnaire study of 127 lesbians tested hypotheses from the social psychological literature about factors associated with relationship satisfaction. In general, lesbians in the sample reported fairly high levels of satisfaction and love in their current relation-ship. Results indicated that satisfaction was more strongly related to characteristics of the relationship itself than to the individual attitudes or back-ground characteristics of individual partners. In particular, greater satisfaction was associated with equality of involvement and equality of power in the relationship. Some evidence was also found that similarity was associated with greater satisfaction.
RESEARCH ON HOMOSEXUAL COUPLES: AN OVERVIEW, LETITIA ANNE PEPLUA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 8(2), P3-8.
LESBIAN CLIENT-LESBIAN THERAPIST OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN WORKING TOGETHER, BRONWYN D. ANTHONY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2.3), P45-57.
The author describes her experiences as an openly identified lesbian clinical psychologist working with 50 lesbians over the past 4 years in metropolitan Los Angeles. The women she has worked with have generally been Caucasian and middle class; half were in their 30s, one quarter in their 20s, and another quarter over 40 years of age. The most common presenting problem is difficulty with a lover relationship - either in working out problems in the relation-ship or in dealing with the pain of separation. Single lesbians who wish to meet other lesbians encounter problems due to limited opportunities and undeveloped social skills for initiating contact. The relative lack of courtship rituals among lesbians sometimes results in mis-matched partners who then have great difficulty separating from each other. Fears of rejection and inflexible initiator roles during love-making lead to sexual difficulties. Therapeutic approaches to help lesbians with self-esteem issues and relationship concerns are suggested. Issues of transference and countertransference are discussed in light of the fairly common occurrence of client and therapist seeing each other outside of sessions at lesbian and gay community functions and events.
THE FEMININITY AND MASCULINITY OF PARTNERS IN HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS, RANDALL W. JONES, JOHN P. DE CECCO, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 8(2), P37-49.
This research addressed three questions: (1) Did partners in homosexual relationships perceive themselves as less stereotypically feminine or masculine than partners in heterosexual relationships? (2) Did partners complement or match each other in their self-perceived femininity and masculinity? (3) What was the correlation of partners; femininity and masculinity to their views on attachment and autonomy in their relationships? The high level of androgyny (87%) in the sample precluded making the intended comparisons. There was, however, some evidence in the heterosexual partners to support the assumption of feminine-masculine complementarity and some to support the link between masculinity and devaluation of attachment. In the discussion, questions were raised about the atypicality of the San Francisco Bay Area sample, about the validity and reliability of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire as a measure of social sex-role, and the basic adequacy of questionnaires that assume that self-knowledge is easily elicited from respondents.
GENDER ROLES IN THE RELATIONSHIPS OF LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, JEANNE MARECEK, STEPHEN E. FINN, MONA CARDELL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 8(2), P45-49.
Recent research on gay male and lesbian couples suggests that traditional gender-role-playing sometimes occurs in their relationships, though it is less common than in the relation-ships of heterosexuals. This paper briefly explores three issues raised by these findings. First, we consider reasons why partners of the same gender might engage in gender-role-playing. Second we discuss the processes that might be involved in allocating masculine and feminine roles to partners in a couple. Finally, we consider the finding that traditional gender roles are associated with diminished satsifaction and suggest possible reasons why this might be so.
THE ROLE OF FRIENDSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF LESBIAN LOVE RELATIONSHIPS, VICTORIA A. VETERE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 8(2), P51-65.
The role of friendship in the development and maintenance of lesbian love relationships was investigated by means of a structured interview with 23 lesbian women. Friendship was found to be a key factor in the develop-ment of the respondents' first same-sex love relationships: the first sexual/romantic relationship often grew out of an established friendship between the women. Also, friendship was found to be a prime develop-mental and maintenance factor in the women's current relationships: 78% stated that their current lover had first been their friend, and 77% stated that their current lover had become their closest friend. Some related issues, such as development of a lesbian identity and definitional differences between "lover" and "friend" were also examined. A theoretical discussion interpreting the friendship findings within a feminist framework of women-identification is included.
THERAPEUTIC ISSUES WITH LESBIAN COUPLES, BARBARA M. MCCANDISH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P71-78.
Lesbian relationships are most importantly relationships between two women in a homophobic and sexist society. Women newly exploring a relationship with another woman often experience their relationship as unique, as being the best relationship. They base this evaluation on the honest communication and open expression of caring that usually characterize the relationship. These qualities provide the basis for a fulfilling relationship which fosters personal growth and change. Major stresses and problem areas are due both to social pressures and to difficulties in establishing a sense of self within the relationship. This article explores the unique aspects of the lesbian relationship, suggests appropriate therapeutic interventions, and explores counter-transference issues for lesbian and heterosexual therapists.
WORKING LESBIANS: ROLE CONFLICTS AND COPING STRATEGIES, SANDRA A. SHACHAR, LUCIA A. GILBERT, PSYCHOLOGIY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, 1983, VOL 7(3), P244-256.
This study investigated areas of interrole and intrarole conflict reported by 79 lesbian working women and factors influencing the types of coping strategies these women used. The three coping strategies identified by Hall (1972) were used to code responses to a questionnaire sent to women on the mailing list of a local lesbian newsletter. The most frequently reported interrole conflicts were between the work and lover roles, and the most frequently reported intrarole conflicts involved the work and daughter roles. Subjects viewed being lesbian as contributing little to their interrole conflicts and, as hypothesized, used predominantly role restructuring strageties (Types I and II) to deal with the conflicts. Also, as hypothe-sized, higher self-esteem was reported by individuals using restructuring strategies than by those using reactant strategies (Type III). In contrast, subjects viewed being lesbian as highly related to their intrarole conflicts, and, contrary to predictions, used reactive strategies almost as frequently as role restructuring strategies. Moreover, self-esteem did not differ among subjects using the three strategy types. The unexpected findings for contrarole conflict are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of reactant-avoidant strategies in work situations.
COUNSELING GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, BEVERLY DECKER, HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 2(2/3), P39-52.
Although lesbians and gay men in relationships are part of the client population that social workers serve, the critical dynamic and cultural issues involved in providing optimal help for same-sex couples have received little attention in the profession. The author discusses some of the unique Characteristics and special problems of same-sex dyads which must be taken into consideration when theoretical and clinical issues are combined to form an effective treatment approach. Topics addressed include: How problems in defining boundaries of same-sex couples are intensified by the absence of social 'rules' relating to them, the effects of homophobia on issues of oneness and differentiation, and the impact of gender socialization on differences between gay male and lesbian relationships.
COUNSELING FOR GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, KARIN WANDREI, PRACTICE DIGEST, 1984, VOL 7(1), P13-16.
Discusses needs for social workers to include counselling lesbian and gay couples in their work. Refers to similar problems experienced by heterosexual and homosexual couples as well as issues specific to lesbians and gays. Suggests social workers can utilise their current skills and build on their training to include work with lesbians and gays which will deepen their insight into couple counselling in general.
LETTING GO AND MOVING ON - A SUPPORT GROUP FOR BREAKING UP, KARIN WANDREI, PRACTICE DIGEST, 1984, VOL 7(1), P15-16.
Concerns the running of a ten-week Group therapy course for lesbians who have separated from their partners. Identifies issues raised and traces the progress of one of the participants.
A BEREAVEMENT GROUP OF LESBIANS, E. SUE BLUME, PRACTICE DIGEST, 1984, VOL 7(1), P27.
Discusses a group for bereaved lesbians which started in 1982. The group continues to meet to help lesbians with "unresolved grief reactions from long-past losses, as well as those who were struggling with recent experience of loss." The consciousness raising type of format is used with a facilitator who screens new participants but does not attend every fortnightly meeting, to stop the group becoming dependent on a 'leader.' Some participants had lost lesbian partners whilst others had lost family members. Outlines the need for a separate lesbian bereavement group.
PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH LESBIAN COUPLES: INDIVIDUAL ISSUES, FEMALE SOCIALIZATION, AND THE SOCIAL CONTEXT, SALLYANN ROTH, JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, 1985, VOL 11(3), P273-286.
Relationship patterns in lesbian couples vary systematically from relationship patterns in heterosexual couples in ways that are related to the exclusively female composition of these couples, their stigmatisable identity, and the lack of social recognition and acceptance for such family units. These patterned differences are addressed from a systematic perspective in five arenas: distance regulation and boundary maintenance, sexual expression, financial arrangements, breaking up and stage differences in coming out and acceptance of lesbian identity.
ROLE RELATIONSHIPS: LESBIAN PERSPECTIVES, JEAN M. LYNCH AND MARY ELLEN REILLY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985-86, VOL 12(2), P53-69.
This questionnaire study of 140 lesbians, 70 couples who have lived together for one or more years, explores equality and role relationships. We predicted that lesbians would achieve partnerships characterized by equality and freedom from traditional butch-femme role playing. Financial sharing and decision-making were found to be characterized by high degrees of equality. Household responsibilities tended to be performed individually, but no role-playing was evident. Sexual intimacy items indicated less perceived equality than other areas. And overall, some partners were viewed as unequal. The variables of age, income, education, occupation, assets, and years living together did not explain the inequality observed.
SATISFACTION AND COMMITMENT IN HOMOSEXUAL AND HETEROSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS, SALLY M. DUFFY, CARYL E. RUSBULT, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985/86, VOL 12(2), P1-25.
Rusbult's (1980, 1983) investment model was utilized to explore the determinants of satisfaction with and commitment to maintain romantic relationships among male and female homosexuals and male and females hetero-sexuals. The study employed a questionnaire designed to obtain both specific and global measures of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments, and to obtain global measures of satisfaction and commitment. Women, both lesbians and heterosexuals, reported that they had invested more in their relationships and were more committed to maintaining their relationships than did men. Heterosexuals, male and female, reported greater costs and marginally greater investments in their relationships. In general, the investment model effectively predicted satsifaction and commitment for the sample as a whole and for all four groups of respondents. Greater satisfaction with relationships was associated with higher levels of rewards and lower levels of costs. Greater commitment was associated with greater satisfaction, greater investments, and poorer quality alternatives. Relationship costs were more stongly related to satisfaction and commitment for females than for males. Differences in the average level and the importance of a wide variety of specific predictors were also examined. In general, gender appeared to be a more important predictor of the behaviors explored in this study than was sexual preference.
THE RELATIONSHIPS OF COHABITING LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL COUPLES: A COMPARISON, MARGARET S. SCHNEIDER, PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, 1986, VOL 10(3), P234-239.
The relationships of cohabiting lesbian couples and cohabiting heterosexual couples were compared on three dimensions - Durability, Interdependence, and Equality. The lesbian relationships tended to be somewhat less durable and interdependent but more equal. Reasons for these differences are discussed.
HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE FAMILY: LESBIAN AND GAY SPOUSES, NORMAN L. WYERS, SOCIAL WORK, 1987, VOL 32(2), P143-148.
A 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers is reviewed. Differences between the men and the women were discovered in five areas: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. Many similarities also surfaced. The author posits that if social service providers are aware of the characteristics described they will be of more assistance to these lesbian and gay clients.
DEPENDENCY ISSUES IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, SONDRA SMALLEY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P125-135.
The focus of this paper is dependent relationship patterns or co-dependency in lesbian relationships. Co-dependent relationship patterns are identified, in general, as well as in lesbian relationships. Treatment strategies found to be successful in overcoming these co-dependent issues are illustrated with case studies.
SEX THERAPY WITH LESBIAN COUPLES: A FOUR STAGE APPROACH, MARNY HALL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P137-156.
The many factors - social, cultural, psychological - that shape homosexual sexual expression render purely behavioral sex therapy models one-dimensional and ineffective for lesbian clients with sexual presenting problems. Though a behavioral approach may be useful later in the treatment of such problems, the effective clinician must first address the inimical social and cultural contexts that frame lesbian sexual impasses. This paper offers specific techniques, both direct and indirect, designed to illuminate and neutralize these contexts. Additionally, the author presents a sequence of sensate focus exercises tailored to the particular needs of lesbian couples.
THERAPEUTIC ISSUES AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES WITH YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN CLIENTS: A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH, C. BROWNING, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P45-52.
This paper examines the coming out process within an adult developmental context. Therapeutic issues which surface for the young adult lesbian client include separation from parents, development of social support, exploration of career/vocational goals, and the establishment of intimate relationships. Intervention strategies are suggested which facilitate the coming out process and help the client integrate her sexual orientation within her emerging adult identity.
TREATING INTIMACY DYSFUNCTIONS IN DYADIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CHEMICALLY DEPENDENT AND CODEPENDENT CLIENTS, SONDRA SMALLEY, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT, SPECIAL ISSUE: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY AND INTIMACY DYSFUNCTION, 1987, VOL 1(1), P229-243.
When treating intimacy dysfunctions in chemically dependent and codependent relationships, the therapist must focus on resolution of the codependency patterns in order to be successful. Codependency patterns contain several traits (characteristics) or a single state (a fundamental relationship). This paper decribes a treatment method which addresses the intimacy dysfunctions among dyadic relationships that display codependency traits. Through three stages of treatment, the therapist can help clients see patterns of their relationships, learn that these patterns are learned and can be unlearned, and that the individual can gain personal power and inner resources. The results of this therapeutic approach leads to healthy intimacy expression based upon individuation of the clients rather than on compulsive codependent patterns.
MARITAL AND RELATIONSHIP PROBLEMS AMONG CHEMICALLY DEPENDENT AND CODEPENDENT RELATIONSHIPS, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT, SPECIAL ISSUE: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY AND INTIMACY DYSFUNCTION, 1987, VOL 1(1), P39-59.
There is a growing awareness that the marital and relationship problems must be addressed and worked upon if the chemically dependent person is going to maintain his or her sobriety. The involvement of the spouse or partner is important because of the family system dynamics that caused, perpetuated, and/or enabled the chemical dependency needs to be addressed and all involved need some treatment. Recognizing the source of marital or relationshp discord is helpful in determining the chemically dependent and
RELATIONSHIP QUALITY OF GAY AND LESBIAN COHABITING COUPLES, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P93-118.
VIOLENCE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF CAUSAL FACTORS, CLAIRE M. RENZETTI, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1988, VOL 3(4), P381-399.
Despite the increase in research on domestic violence during the last two decades, little attention has been given to the problem of partner abuse among homosexual couples. The present research takes a step toward developing an understanding of homosexual partner abuse by examining the incidence, forms, and correlates of violence in lesbian relationships. Based on questionnaire data from 100 lesbian victims, the study addresses, in particular, the relationships between lesbian battering and (1) abusers' dependence on their partners, and (2) perceived power imbalances between partners in abusive lesbian relation-ships. In addition, the study explores the extent to which responses from the lesbian community and others to victims of abuse may serve to prevent or exacerbate lesbian batttering. The article concludes by raising questions to guide future research.
LESBIANS, FAMILY PROCESS AND INDIVIDUATION, L. BERG-CROSS, JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1988, VOL 3(1), P97-112,
This paper presents an overview of the unique problems that face college-age lesbians as they try to individuate from their family of origin. The first set of obstacles involves the dual developmental tasks of "coming out" and escaping the suffocating fusion typical of many early lesbian relationships. The second set of difficulties concerns parental reactions to the lesbian relationship. The third set of problems (which are intimately intertwined with the first two) concerns how lovers are perceived and received as "in-laws." The paper concludes with five recommended psychotherapy strategies.
BUILDING A SECOND CLOSET: THIRD PARTY RESPONSES TO VICTIMS OF LESBIAN PARTNER ABUSE, CLAIRE M. RENZETTI, FAMILY RELATIONS 1989, NO 38, P157-163.
This article examines the problem of violence in intimate lesbian relationships and the role of third party responses to victims in perpetuating or preventing future attacks. Based on questionnaire and interview data from a nationwide self-selected sample of 100 battered lesbians, the article first examines the incidence and forms of abuse in violent lesbian relationships. It then analyzes victims' help-seeking efforts, the responses of help providers to these requests and the impact of these responses on both victims and violent episodes. The article concludes with recommendations for improving the ways third party help providers respond to lesbian victims.
LESBIAN PARTNER ABUSE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPISTS, SUSAN L. MORROW, DONNA M. HAWXHURST, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P58-68.
Silence surrounds the issue of lesbian battering. Lesbian victims of partner abuse are even less likely than are their heterosexual counterparts to seek help in shelters or from counselors because of the overlay of homophobia that exists both in the battered women's movemment and among mental health professionals. In addition, many lesbian and many lesbian-supporting therapists hold an idealized and unrealistic picture of the nature of lesbian relationships, leading them to deny the existence of battering among lesbian couples. The nature, severity, and prevalence of abuse in lesbian relationships is addressed; current counseling and treatment models dealing with battering relationships are analyzed; and a counselor advocacy model for working with lesbian partner abuse, drawing from the experience of activists in the battered women's movement and our clinical experience, is suggested.
LESBIAN VICTIMS OF RELATIONSHIP VIOLENCE, NANCY HAMMOND, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P 89-105.
DISTANCING AND CONNECTEDNESS: IMPACT ON COUPLE FORMATION IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, SARAH F. PEARLMAN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P77-88.
THE LESBIAN VICTIM OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL, ANN M. ORZEK, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P107-117.
USING KOGHUT'S SELF PSYCHOLOGY IN WORK WITH LESBIAN COUPLES, VALORY MITCHELL, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P157-166.
NONMONOGAMY IN THE LESBIAN COMMUNITY, ELIZABETH KASSOFF, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P167-182.
LESBIAN COUPLES AND THEIR PARENTS: THE EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON THE COUPLE, BIANCA CODY MURPHY, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P46-51.
Twenty respondents, each of whom was in a committed couple relationship, were asked how their parents' attitudes toward (a) their partner and (b) their lesbianism impacted on their relationships with their partners. The study revealed that the adverse consequences of parental disapproval are overshadowed by the benefits to the couple that are derived from the decision to affirm one's lesbian identity and to acknowldge the nature of the couple relationship by 'coming out' to parents. The negative impact of secrecy on the couple, the downplaying of parental disapproval, the positive effects on the couple of an affirmed lesbian identity, and the importance of acknowledgment of the lesbian couple are discussed. The author maintains that the counselor working with lesbian couples must be lesbian affirmative, and she suggests eight specific, clinical implications for working with lesbian couples.
SEXUAL COERCION IN GAY MALE AND LESBIAN RELATIONSHPS: PREDICTORS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SUPPORT SERVICES, CAROLINE K. WATERMAN, LORI J. DAWSON, MICHAEL J. BOLOGNA, THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1989, VOL 26(1), P118-124.
Numerous studies have documented the prevalence of forced sex in heterosexual couples. Positive effects of this research include increases in awareness about the problem among helping professionals and the public, as well as increases in support services and prevention programs. However, no research has been done on sexual coercion in gay male and lesbian relationships, and few support services exist. Therefore, this study is an investigation of the prevalence and correlates of coercive sex in gay male and lesbian relationships. Participants were 36 women and 34 men who were in gay or lesbian relationships. The results indicated that 12% of the gay men and 31% of the lesbians reported being victims of forced sex by their current or most recent partner. The higher reporting rate among women may be due to greater awareness of issues pertaining to sexual abuse, and greater likelihood of identifying various forms of coercion as force. For men, being a victim of forced sex was generally associated with being a victim of other forms of violence. For both sexes, victims of forced sex believed that it would be relatively difficult to get counseling. Implications for support services are discussed.
CORRELATES OF RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION IN LESBIAN COUPLES, NATALIE S. ELDRIDGE, LUCIA A. GILBERT, PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, 1990, VOL 14, P43-62.
This study broadens the construct of intimate relationships to include the experience of lesbian couples. Various psychological variables were assessed in both partners of 275 lesbian couples who considered themselves to be dual career. Because of the paucity of information on lesbian relationships in the literature, considerable attention is first given to describing this sizable sample. Individual and couple scores on each variable were correlated with relationship satisfaction scores. Among individuals, role conflict and personal autonomy were found to correlate negatively with relationship satisfaction, whereas dyadic attachment, power, intimacy, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were all positiively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Although career commitment was not correlated with relationship satisfaction among individuals, differences between partners' levels of career commitment correlated negatively with each partner's relationship satisfaction. The findings counter extant stereotypes regarding lesbian relationshps and provide a more accurate basis for developing an heuristic model of intimate relationships among women.
LESBIAN AND GAY COUPLES: WHERE THEY TURN WHEN HELP IS NEEDED, MATTHEW J. MODRCIN M. NORMAN L. WYERS, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P89-104.
This article presents findings of a 1988 study of the help-seeking behaviors of a sample of 128 gay and lesbian individuals currently in coupled relationships. Gender of professional service providers, not sexual orientation, was found to differentiated between gay and lesbian respondents in their selection of service providers. Differences between help-using behaviors of gay and lesbian respondents (past and anticipated) were also discovered. These differences are analyzed, and implications for mental health practitioners who provide services to gay and lesbian couples are discussed.
FAMILY RIGHTS AND THE 'REGISTERED PARTNERSHIP' IN DENMARK, LINDA NEILSEN, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND THE FAMILY, 1990, VOL 4, P297-307.
In 1989 Denmark took the innovative step of introducing a special legal regime, the 'registered partnership', of which only couples of the same sex, whether or not they are living together, may, if they choose, take advantage. The regime is closely modelled on marriage. This article explains the background to and motives which lie behind this legislation and considers the extent of its application and some of its implications.
IS SEPARATION REALLY SO GREAT? G. DORSEY GREEN, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P.87-104.
This paper challenges the validity of current male, Western psychological theories which state that separation and autonomy are prerequisites for mental health. The author argues for consideration of theories that envision individual development as occurring within the context of relationships. Lesbian couples are used as a focus for this discussion. Examples from communities of color in the United States and Eastern cultures are also discussed.
POWER-SHARING IN LESBIAN PARTNERSHIPS, MARY ELLEN REILLY, JEAN M. LYNCH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(3), P1-30.
This study of 70 lesbian couples explored whether partners who characterized certain aspects of their relationships as equal in power-sharing were similar in age, income, education, and financial assets, while those who viewed their power-sharing as unequal would be dissimilar on these social status variables, and, second, whether or not most lesbian couples considered their relationships as egalitarian. Power-sharing was assessed through a number of questionnaire items, and snowball sampling was utilized. Three types of couples emerged: (a) equal, (b) unequal but in agreement about who had more power, and (c) couples with differing perceptions about power-sharing. The findings indicated that power-sharing arrangements could not be explained by age, income, education, and asset differences between partners. Egalitarianism was the ideal in most relationships, but had not been achieved to the same degree in each of the areas investigated.
PASSING: IMPACT ON THE QUALITY OF SAME-SEX COUPLE RELATIONSHIPS, RAYMOND M. BERGER, SOCIAL WORK, 1990, VOL 35(4), P328-332.
Passing is the social process by which gay men and lesbians present themselves to the world as heterosexuals. A questionnaire survey of same-sex couples, recruited through a national support organization, examined the impact of passing on relationship quality. Passing was not related to self-reported love for partner. However respondents who were known to significant others as homosexual were more likely to report satisfaction with their relationships. Social workers providing services to gay and lesbian couples are alerted to the primary role played by significant others in the same-sex couple relationship.
SUBSTANCE USE AS A CORRELATE OF VIOLENCE IN INTIMATE LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, REBECCA SCHILIT, GWAT-YONG LIE, MARILYN MONTAGNE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 19(3), 1990, P51-65.
This article examines the problem of domestic violence as related to substance abuse in lesbian relationships. One hundred and four self-identified lesbians responded to a 70-item mail survey. Thirty-nine reported a past or present abusive relationship. Sixty-four percent reported alcohol or drugs were involved prior to or during incidents of battering. Respondents' frequency of drinking significantly correlated with committing abusive acts as well as with being the victim of abusive acts. Efforts must be initiated to improve the delivery of human services to lesbian batterers and victims and to encourage cooperation and cross-fertilization between practitioners from the domestic violence and substance abuse fields.
COMPOUNDING THE TRIPLE JEOPARDY: BATTERING IN LESBIAN OF COLOR RELATIONSHIPS, VALLI KANUHA, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1990 VOL 9(1/2), P169-184.
Over the last 15 years, societal awareness of spouse abuse has resulted in an extensive network of services, legislative reform, and research initiatives focused on increasing the public response to this serious social problem. More recently, battering in intimate lesbian relationships has gained the attention of women's and gay/lesbian organizations that deal with domestic violence issues. Lesbians in violent relationships differ significantly from heterosexual couples where battering occurs due to the powerful effect of societal homophobia that silences them from seeking help. This article will address the unique challenges faced by lesbians of color in violent relationships due to the interface not only between violence and homophobia, but racism as well. Analysis of community response to lesbians of color, and clinical issues presented in therapy by lesbians of color who are battered will also be discussed.
LESBIANS IN CURRENTLY AGGRESSIVE RELATIONSHIPS: HOW FREQUENTLY DO THEY REPORT AGGRESSIVE PAST RELATIONSHIPS? GWAT-YONG LIE, REBECCA SCHILIT, JUDY BUSH, MARILYN MONTAGNE, LYNN REYES, VIOLENCE AND VICTIMS, 1991, VOL 6(2), P121-135.
Findings are reported from a survey examining the frequency with which women in currently aggressive same-sex relationships also report aggressive past relationships involving female partners, male partners, or members of their family of origin. Particular attention is paid to victims who also used aggression and their perceptions of whether their aggressive behavior was self-defensive or mutually aggressive.
Results indicate that about one-fourth of participants had been victims of aggression in current relationships, roughly two-thirds had been victimized by a previous male partner, and almost three-fourths had experienced aggression by a previous female partner. Among those reporting having been both victims and users of aggression, about one-fifth had used aggression in their current relationship, almost one-third used aggression with a previous male partner, and nearly two-thirds had used aggression with a previous female partner. A majority of victims who had also used aggression with a previous male partner characterized this use as self-defense, as compared to only 30% of those who had used aggression with a female partner. Instead, aggression in relationships involving a female partner was most frequently described as mutually aggressive in nature.
INTIMATE VIOLENCE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS: DISCUSSION OF SURVEY FINDINGS AND PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS, GWAT-YONG LIE, SABRINA GENTLEWARRIER, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SERVICE RESEARCH, 1991, VOL 15(1/2), P41-59.
This paper describes the findings of a survey of 1109 lesbians who attended the Women's Music Festival held in Michigan in early August 1985. The primary objectives of the study were to document the incidence of domestic violence in a non-random sample of lesbian relationships; to identify and describe the types of domestic violence experienced and/or perpetrated; and to ascertain the availability and accessiblity of community helping resources to survivors and perpetrators after an abusive episode. Comparisons with domestic violence in heterosexual relationships are also made, followed by a discussion on the research and practice implications of the findings.
INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF VIOLENCE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, REBECCA SCHLIT, GWAT-YONG LIE, JUDY BUSH, MARILYN MONTAGNE, LYNN REYES, AFFILIA, 1991, VOL 6(1), P72-87.
This study of 104 lesbians found that for the 46 respondents who reported abusive relationsips, there were significant associations between experiences of abuse in their families of origin and the women's subsequent abusive lesbian relationships. Because shelters for abused women are unresponsive to the needs of lesbians, the women rarely used them. Therefore, one compelling implication of the study is that abused lesbians have a great need for safe environments with culturally sensitive workers, who could help them and their batterers confront and resolve their problems.
HIDDEN GRIEF, EMMA SMALL, SOCIAL WORK TODAY, 1991, VOL 21, 29 AUG, P21.
The death of a partner is complicted for gay men and lesbians by society's denial of their right to grieve. Emma Small visits a project which offers support.
THE DISSOLUTION OF GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, 1991, VOL 8, P265-278.
This study examined reactions to separation in both partners of gay and lesbian couples whose relationships ended a mean of 5.92 months ago. There were no differences between gay and lesbian respondents on reasons for the separation, emotional adjustment to the separation and problems since the separation. The most common reasons for the dissolution of the relationship, the most common emotional experiences since the separation and the most frequently reported problems since the separation were identified. Information available from respondents during the last year of cohabitation indicated that the person adjusting well to the separation completed many years of education, knew his or her partner for a few months and lived with that partner for a few months, did not pool finances with the ex-partner, reported low love for the partner, placed a low value on attachment to the partner and reported low severity of psychological distress.
AFFIRMATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR LESBIAN WOMEN, CHRISTINE BROWNING, AMY L. REYNOLDS, SARI H. DWORKIN, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2), P177-196.
This article explores the unique issues and concerns facing lesbian women in our culture. Theoretical issues and effective therapeutic interventions in counseling lesbians are examined. Specific content areas highlighted include lesbian identity development and management, interpersonal and couple issues, and specific problems such as substance abuse, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. This article concludes with recommendations for treatment and suggestions for research.
FAMILY AND COUPLES THERAPY WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS: ACKNOWLEDGING THE FORGOTTEN MINORITY, JANE M. USSHER, JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY, 1991, VOL 13, P131-148.
Family and couples therapy in the main concentrates on heterosexual clients, and has thus been described as limited in its outlook, or discriminatory. It is argued that family and couples therapy is at present not offered to gay and lesbian clients because of an absence of appropriate referrals, the inability of therapists to recognize the sexual orientation of their clients, a belief that skills held by therapists are not appropriate for this client group, or because of the homphobia of the therapist. It is suggested that family and couples therapy should be more readily available for gay and lesbian clients, and a number of different problems associated with the gay adolescent and the gay or lesbian parent, as well as the gay or lesbian couple. It is concluded that established forms of intervention are effective with gay clients, provided that the specific needs and problems of the gay and lesbian community are addressed by the therapist.
LESBIAN COUPLES IN THERAPY, MARTHA KIRKPATRICK, PSYCHIATRIC ANNALS, 1991, VOL 21(8) P491-496.
This aricle is concerned with specific areas of difference between heterosexual and lesbian couples. These areas of difference are important for therapists working with lesbian couples in conjoint or group therapy.
AN ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL CONFLICT IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, PATRICIA ANN GROVES, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL, AUG 1991, VOL 52(2), P684-A.
RELATIONSHIP QUALITY IN A SAMPLE OF LESBIAN COUPLES WITH CHILDREN AND CHILD-FREE LESBIAN COUPLES, LESLIE KOEPKE, JAN HARE, PATRICIA B. MORAN, FAMILY RELATIONS, 1992, VOL 41(2), P224-229.
The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of lesbian relationships by three factors: presence of children, extent of disclosure concerning the nature of the relationship, and longevity of the relationship. Overall, findings indicate that solid and happy relationships existed for the total sample of couples. However, couples with children scored significantly higher on relationship satisfaction and sexual relationship. No differences were found by longevity of the relationship or disclosure. Implications for family life educators and family practitioners are discussed.
RELATIONSHIP STABILITY AND RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION IN COHABITING GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES: A PROSPECTIVE LONGITUDINAL TEST OF THE CONTEXTUAL AND INTERDEPENDENCE MODELS, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, 1992, VOL 9, P125-142.
This study examined the extent to which variables form the contextual model (personality traits indicative of general interpersonal competence) and variables from the interdependence model (perceived rewards from cost to, satisfaction with, alternatives to and investments in the relationship) predicted relationship stability and linear changes in relationship satisfaction in a sample of cohabiting gay and lesbian couples assessed annually over a 4-year period. Findings were similar for gay and for lesbian couples. Demographic variables, contextual variables and interdependence variables discriminated between partners whose relationship dissolved (n = 22) and those whose relationships remained intact over the 4-year period (n = 92). Linear changes in the contextual and and interdependence variables over the 4-year period predicted linear changes in the relationship satisfaction of intact couples over this same period. In analyses of both relationship stability and relationship satisfaction, variables from the interdependence model were found to mediate the effects of the contextual variables. The findings are interpreted in a framework that integrates contextual and interdependence modes of relationship quality.
MEDIATION FOR LESBIAN AND GAY FAMILIES, SUZANNE BRYANT, MEDIATION QUARTERLY, 1992, VOL 9(4), P391-395.
The lesbian and gay community is an inadequately served market. Mediation is a valuable tool for members of this community because it allows privacy, creativity, and bargaining outside the traditional legal structure. Before disputes occur, a mediator can assist gay families in reaching agreements that give them many of the rights and responsibilities of heterosexual marriage. If problems do arise, these agreements may facilitate a mediated solution. However, a mediator must carefully examine his or her own attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.
MERGER IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, S. MCKENZIE, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1992, VOL 12(1/2), P151-160.
Much of the clinical literature on lesbian relationships focuses on the pathological aspects of the psychodymnamic of merging (Burch, 1982, 1985; Decker, 1984; Elise, 1986; Krestan & Bepko, 1980). This paper explores the historical background of the notion of psychological merger in relationships from both a pscycho-dynamic object relational theoretical base (Fairbairn, 1952; Jacobson, 1964; Kernberg, 1976; Kohut, 1977; Mahler, 1974) and the more recent theoretical work relating to female development (Burch, 1982, 1985; Chodorow, 1978; Dinnerstien, 1977; Gilligan, 1982; Stern, 1983).
Recent work exploring the importance of relationships in develmental process challenges the idea that "intense interpersonal connection involves a movement into more primitive functioning" (Jordan, 1984, p.2). Mencher and Slater (1991) in a recent presentation suggest that merger represents an adaptive relational strategy for lesbians attempting to maintain the couple's integrity in a society inimical to same-sex love. A continued effort is needed to explore and re-define the meaning of merger in lesbian relationships.
OBJECT RELATIONS COUPLES THERAPY WITH LESBIANS, C.M. SUSSAL, SMITH COLLEGE STUDIES IN SOCIAL WORK, 1993, VOL 63(3), P301-315.
Object relations couples therapy is distinguished by its use of the ideas of British object relations theorists Klein, Fairbairn, Winnicott, Bion and Guntrip. A number of the central concepts are particularly relevant to work with lesbian couples. For example, the emphasis on the provision of a therapeutic holding environment is helpful for all couples, no matter what the sexual orientation. However, in the case of the lesbian couple whose relationship must be carried on in the context of a hostile society, the provision of a safe holding environment is crucial. Understanding the dynamics of repressed ego systems illuminates how the individual psychology of each member of the couple can be affected by societal pressures which can result in internalized homophobia. The notion of projective identifications provides clarity in reconnecting with lost parts of the self. Finally, knowledge of lesbian sexual practices should be integrated into the therapy. Clinical case illustrations are provided.
VIOLENT BETRAYAL: PARTNER ABUSE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, CLAIRE M. RENZETTI, REVIEW BY DIANE MITSCH BUSH, JOURNAL OF REVIEWS, CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY, MAY 1993, VOL 22(3), P355-356.
ADDICTION AND RECOVER IN GAY AND lESBIAN PERSONS, ROBERT J. KUS, 1995, ALSO PUBLISHED AS JOURNAL OF GAY AND LESBIAN SOCIAL SERVICES, 1995, VOL 2(1), JAMES J. KELLY & RAYMOND M. BERGER, EDITORS. INCLUDES:
DYSFUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS: POSITIVE CHANGES FOR GAY AND LESBIAN PEOPLE, CHERYL HETHERINGTON, P41-55.
Just as people who grow up in dysfunctional families often have some special relationship problems, so too do chemically dependent people and their significant others. Gay and lesbian couples are no exception. This article discusses some of the issues of boundary confusion, perfectionism, intimacy, impression management, rescuing and others to show how these patterns contribute to chaos and pain in relationships. Suggestions are offered to help gay and lesbian clients deal with self-esteem, boundary problems, and anger so that they can lead more balanced lives that include positive relationships.
LESBIAN AND GAY COUPLES: SPEAKING OF DIFFERENCE, CELIA KITZINGER & ADRIAN COYLE, THE PSYCHOLOGIST, FEBRUARY 1995, P64-69.
LESBIAN ALCOHOL AND MARIJUANA USE: CORRELATES OF HIV RISK BEHAVIORS AND ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS, SUSANNA M. PERRY, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS, 1995, VOL 27(4) P413-419.
One hundred fifty-two self-identified lesbian and bisexual women participated in an exploratory study of lesbian health and high-risk sexual behaviors. These women were primarily White, middle class, and college educated. The relationship of alcohol and marijuana use to high-risk sexual behaviors and involvement in past or current abusive experiences was investigated. Having been involved in coercive sexual activities was related to some high-risk sexual activities and alcohol and marijuana use. The women in this sample were engaging in high-risk sexual activities, perhaps because of a lack of HIV-risk perception among lesbians in general, and in this sample in particular. These results demonstate the need for HIV and safer-sex education even among highly educated women and awareness of the interrelationship between drug use and unsafe sexual activities.
CONFRONTING LESBIAN BATTERING, RESEARCH COMMITTEE AND STAFF OF LONDON BATTERED WOMEN'S ADVOCACY CENTRE, 69 WELLINGTON STREET, LONDON, ONTARIO, N6B 2K4, CANADA. 1993.
Excellent little booklet which gives three case studies and analysis as well as action to take to confront battering.
ARTICLES WITHIN BOOKS
*LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
THE LESBIAN OR GAY COUPLE AS A FAMILY: PRINCIPLES FOR BUILDING SATISFYING RELATIONSHIPS, TRAVIS L. PETERSON, JOSEPHINE H. STEWART, P27.
*HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, EDITED BY WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1982, INCLUDES:
CHAPTER 19, INTRODUCTION, MARY E. HOTVEDT, P215-291
UNDERSTANDING LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, LETITIA ANNE PEPLAU, HORTENSIA AMARO, P233-247.
*WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:
LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS: A STRUGGLE TOWARD PARTNER EQUALITY, BARBARA SANG, P51-65.
LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES, EXPLORATIONS & CHALLENGES, ED BOSTON LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES COLLECTIVE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1987, INCLUDES:
BARRIERS TO INTIMACY: CONFLICTS OVER POWER, DEPENDENCY, AND NURTURING IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, BEVERLY BURCH, P126-143.
THE IMPACT OF RACE AND CULTURE DIFFERENCES: CHALLENGES TO INTIMACY IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, NORMA GARCIA, CHERYL KENNEDY, SARAH F. PEARLMAN, JULIA PEREZ, P142-160.
THE EFFECTS OF WOMEN'S SOCIALIZATION ON LESBIAN COUPLES, SUE VARGO, P161-174.
THE LESBIAN RELATIONSHIP HANDBOOK, PHYLLIS JEAN KINHEART ATHEY, MARY JO KINHEART OSTERMAN, A KINHEART POSH RESOURCE, 1984.
LESBIAN SEX, JOANNE LOULAN, SPINSTERS INK, 1984.
NAMING THE VIOLENCE, SPEAKING OUT ABOUT LESBIAN BATTERING, ED KERRY LOBEL, SEAL PRESS, 1986.
LESBIAN PASSION: LOVING OURSELVES AND EACH OTHER, JOANNE LOULAN, SPINSTERS/AUNT LUTE, 1987.
ALIVE AND WELL, A LESBIAN HEALTH GUIDE, CUCA HEPBURN WITH BONNIE GUTIERREZ, THE CROSSING PRESS, 1988.
LESBIAN CROSSROADS, RUTH BAETZ, NAIAD PRESS, 1988.
LESBIAN LOVE ADVISOR, CELESTE WEST, CLEIS PRESS, 1989.
WHERE LOVE IS: AFFIRMING LESBIAN AND GAY SERVICES OF UNION, ROBERT WHEATLY, UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ASSOCIATION, 1989.
PERMANENT PARTNERS: BUILDING GAY AND LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS THAT LAST, BETTY BERZON, PLUME, 1990.
STAYING POWER: LONG-TERM LESBIAN COUPLES, SUSAN JOHNSON, NAIAD PRESS, 1991.
VIOLENT BETRAYAL, PARTNER ABUSE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, CLAIRE M. RENZETTI, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1992.
SISTER - STRANGER: LESBIANS LOVING ACROSS THE LINES, JAN HARDY, EDITOR, SIDEWALK REVOLUTION PRESS, 1993.
LESBIAN COUPLES: CREATING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS FOR THE 90S,D. MERILEE CLUNIS, G. DORSEY GREEN, SEAL PRESS, 1993 (Reprint).
ON INTIMATE TERMS: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DIFFERENCE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, BEVERLY BURCH, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1994.
LESBIANS TALK VIOLENT RELATIONSHIPS, JOELLE TAYLOR, TRACEY CHANDLER, SCARLET PRESS, 1995.
Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships, Claire M. Renzetti, Charles Harvey Miley, Eds, Harrington Park Press, 1996.
© Lesbian Information Service 1996