PARENTS OF LESBIANS AND GAYS
There has been little research conducted in Britain in regard to Lesbians and Gays. During our research we have come across several papers - mostly coming from the U.S.A. Copies of the papers can be obtained through local libraries by completing a request form (it cost us 50p per item and took about a month); they will have to send off to the British Library. These papers are academic - some more so than others - and the sociological and psychological jargon is sometimes off-putting; nevertheless, they all have important things to say. Below you will find abstracts/extracts, followed by a book list. Finally, we give a list of addresses/phone numbers of relevant parents support groups.
We hope that, after having read some of the articles and books you will have a better understanding about Homosexuality and are more able to offer effective support to your daughter/son.
COUNSELING THE PARENTS OF YOUNG HOMOSEXUAL MALE PATIENTS, MICHAEL F. MYERS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P131-143.
This paper describes the author's practice of interviewing the parents of young homosexual men in therapy; specifically, parents who are in crisis after having recently learned their son is homosexual. A review of the literature on the "old" and "new" schools of thought in this area is presented, as well as an analysis of motivations for disclosure to parents. The importance of thorough patient assesment and preparation is emphasized. Therapist roles and functions in assisting parents are described and discussed in detail.
ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, FOR PARENTS, THESE 10 DON'TS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT, BEVERLY T. MEAD, CONSULTANT, 1983, VOL 23(4),P107-111.
FAMILY THERAPY FOR LESBIAN AND GAY CLIENTS, MICHAEL J. SHERNOFF, SOCIAL WORK, 1984, VOL 4 JULY 29, P393-396.
SUPPORT GROUPS FOR PARENTS OF GAYS AND LESBIANS, AMY ASHWORTH, PRACTICE DIGEST, 1984, VOL 7(1), P9-12,
A SYSTEMATIC INSPECTION OF AFFECTIONAL PREFERENCE ORIENTATION AND THE FAMILY OF ORIGIN, JACK LOUIS DEVINE, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HAUMAN SEXUALITY, (SPECIAL ISSUE: HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK), 1984, VOL 2(2/3), P9-17.
Clinical intervention with families of origin where a child has a same-gender affectional preference orientation has led to the synthesis of a five-staged developmental model reflective of the systemic changes that the family undergoes as it attempts to cope with the affectional preference issue. The first three stages of the process attempt to maintain homeostatic function, whereas, the latter two bring about resolution and integrate the child back into the system. The three system variables that have a profound effect on the outcome of the family's movements are cohesion, regulative structure and family themes. Strategies for positive interventions are presented.
RESOURCES FOR FAMILIES WITH A GAY/LESBIAN MEMBER, JOSEPH H. NEISEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P239-251.
An exploratory mail survey was conducted with families having a gay/lesbian member, inquiring as to where they had received information about gays and lesbians and their lifestyles, and where they found support since their family member came out. The sample population was a 90-member support group, "Families and Friends of Gays and Lesbians." Responses to open-ended questions gave a personal account of these famlies' concerns, needs, and wants, which suggested answers as to how those in counseling professions might better prepare themselves to provide services to these families by making themselves more available and accessible to families.
A SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO COUNSELING HOMOSEXUAL CLIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES, SUE KIEFER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14 (1/2), P173-190.
Stigma lies at the root of many problems typically experienced by homosexual clients and their families. Sociological theory and research shed light on the dynamics of stigma and its consequences, both for the stigmatized population and for their heterosexual families and associates. This article summarizes key sociological research on the nature and development of sexual orientation. It considers the dynamics of homophobia and its implications for homosexual youngsters and their families. It offers practical tips for helping clients to understand their own or a family member's homosexual orientation, for coping with stigma, for reconciling issues of religion and morality, and for determining lifestyle. Suggestions for therapist office materials are also included.
THERAPEUTIC ISSUES AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES WITH YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN CLIENTS: A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH, C. BROWNING, JOURNAL OF HOMO-SEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P45-52.
This paper examines the coming out process within an adult developmental context. Therapeutic issues which surface for the young adult lesbian client include separation from parents, development of social support, exploration of career/vocational goals, and the establishment of intimate relationships. Intervention strategies are suggested which facilitate the coming out process and help the client integrate her sexual orientation within her emerging adult identity.
LESBIAN DAUGHTERS AND LESBIAN MOTHERS: THE CRISIS OF DISCLOSURE FROM A FAMILY SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE, JO-ANN KRESTAN, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY & THE FAMILY, 1987, VOL 3(4), P113-130.
Working from a Bowen family systems perspective, a critical aspect of the therapeutic task with lesbian clients is that of coaching them to 'come out' in the family of origin. The disclosure of lesbianism, particularly that of a daughter to mother or a mother to a daughter, is discussed. This article examines the societal context in which a woman makes a lesbian choice and discusses the necessity for disclosure. The particular issues and difficulties involved, the clinical methodology used, and some common results are presented. Case examples illustrate the ideas discussed.
UNLEARNING PREJUDICE, C. HALL, YOUTH CLUBS, JUNE 1988, 48, P40-41.
Parents of young people who come out as gay or lesbian can be faced with a mixture of emotions - most commonly the negative ones of anger, frustration and confusion. The process of unlearning attitudes held for a long time and re-learning of an under-standing of sexuality can be painful. Describes the development of a parents support group in Manchester.
HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: A MOTHER'S PERSPECTIVE, M.V. BORHEK, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 9(2) P123-128.
Contends that gay and lesbian youths confront a number of difficult problems, including telling their parents about their sexual orientation and helping their families adjust to the news. Ineffective communication, poor self-esteem, and unresolved grief and anger often complicate the adolescent's telling his/her parents. Frequently, misinformation about homosexuality, religious beliefs, and homophobia adversely influence parental reactions. Impediments to the relationship between parents and sexual minority youth are discussed and strategies to promote positive family adjustment are presented.
COMING OUT TO MOM AND DAD: A STUDY OF GAY MALES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR PARENTS, DAVID W. CRAMER, ARTHUR J. ROACH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P79-91.
This study explores the relationship between gay men coming out to parents and specific perceived parental variables in an attempt to discriminate between parents who are more or less accepting. In addition, other factors such as how the disclosure occurs and reasons for coming out were investigated.
Results indicate that most parents initially react negatively to the disclosure, but become more accepting over time. Parental values and characteristics associated with homohobia were found to be good predictors of the change in parent-son relationship following disclosure. However, the predictions were often in unexpected directions. The majority of respondents reported having a more positive relationship with their mothers than with their fathers, both before and after coming out.
LESBIANS, FAMILY PROCESS AND INDIVIDUATION, LINDA BERG-CROSS, JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1988, VOL 3(1), P97-112.
This paper presents an overview of the unique problems that face college-age lesbians as they try to individuate from their family of origin. The first set of obstacles involves the dual developmental tasks of "coming out" and escaping the suffocating fusion typical of many early lesbian relationships. The second set of difficulties concerns parental reactions to the lesbian relationship. The third set of problems (which are intimately intertwined with the first two) concerns how lovers are perceived and received as "in-laws." The paper concludes with five recommended psycho-therapy strategies.
LESBIANS, GAY MEN AND THEIR FAMILIES: COMMON CLINICAL ISSUES, LAURA S. BROWN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSCYHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1) P65-77.
The purpose of the article is to present a brief overview of common clinical concerns of lesbians and gay men who are trying to relate to their families. Identifies stage-of-life dilemmas that are made more problematic for the lesbian or gay male individual by negative cultural biases regarding homosexuality. A second purpose of the article is to address the impact of homophobia on a family system .
COMING OUT TO PARENTS AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(1/2), P1-35.
The significance of the parents for the coming out process and for the self-evaluation of 317 gay and lesbian youths between the ages of 14 and 23 years was assessed in the current study. Responses from a 10-page questionnaire are analyzed, and these findings are discussed in the context of sex differences for both adolescents and parents, the importance of the parents for the self-esteem of gay and lesbian youth, and limitations of the current investigation.
PARENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS: A REFLECTED APPRAISALS MODEL, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P93-109.
Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects the self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.
LESBIAN COUPLES AND THEIR PARENTS: THE EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON THE COUPLE, BIANCA CODY MURPHY, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P46-51.
Twenty respondents, each of whom was in a committed couple relationship, were asked how their parents' attitudes toward (a) their partner and (b) their lesbianism impacted on their relationships with their partners. The study revealed that the adverse con-sequences of parental disapproval are overshadowed by the benefits to the couple that are derived from the decision to affirm one's lesbian identity and to acknowldge the nature of the couple relationship by 'coming out' to parents. The negative impact of secrecy on the couple, the downplaying of parental disapproval, the positive effects on the couple of an affirmed lesbian identity, and the importance of acknowledgment of the lesbian couple are discussed. The author maintains that the counselor working with lesbian couples must be lesbian affirmative, and she suggests eight specific, clinical implications for working with lesbian couples.
HIDDEN BRANCHES AND GROWING PAINS: HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE FAMILY TREE, ERIK F. STROMMEN, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P9-34.
In reviewing the effects of having a gay or lesbian member in the family of origin, one is repeatedly drawn to the central role played by the social stigma surrounding homo-sexuality. The present paper suggests that social stereotypes and prejudices toward homosexuals create an image of homosexuality as incompatible with the family, and that the family's reactions to having a homosexual member depend upon their acceptance or rejection of these prejudices. When homosexual family members are discovered, heterosexual family members experience a conflict between their conceptions of homosexual persons and the familiar family role of the homosexual member. The origin and nature of this conflict, and differences among family members in their reactions are reviewed. Long-term resolution and possible models of positive and negative outcome are also described. It is suggested that the conflict experienced by family members is in many ways similar to the 'coming out' process of homosexual identity acquisition, and that this similarity may reflect common mechanisms for coming to grips with a pejorative, negatively labeled social identity.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND FAMILY RELATIONS: VIEWS AND RESEARCH ISSUES, FREDERICK W. BOZETT, MARVIN B. SUSSMAN, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P1-8.
AFTERWORD, FREDERICK W. BOZETT, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P193-196.
ETHNIC MINORITY FAMILIES AND MINORITY GAYS AND LESBIANS, EDWARD S. MORALES, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P217-239.
Attitudes toward sexuality differs within the diverse ethnic and racial communities that exist in the U.S., and the cultural values and beliefs surrounding sexuality play a major role in determining how individuals behave within their sociological context. The family unit is the domain where such values and beliefs are nurtured and developed. An individual's value system is shaped and reinforced within the family context which usually reflects the broader community norms. Disclosure of a gay or lesbian sexual preference and lifestyle by a family member presents challenges to ethnic minority families who tend not to discuss sexuality issues and presume a heterosexual orientation.
For ethnic minority gays and lesbians the 'coming out' process present challenges in their identity formation processes and in their loyalties to one community over another. Ethnic gay men and lesbians need to live within three rigidly defined and strongly independent communities: the gay and lesbian community, the ethnic minority community, and the society at large. While each community provides fundmental needs, serious consequences emerge if such communities were to be visibly integrated and merged. It requires a constant effort to maintain oneself in three different worlds, each of which fails to support significant aspects of a person's life. The complications that arise may inhibit one's ability to adapt and to maximize personal potentials.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction and processes between ethnic minority communities and their gay and lesbian family members. A framework for understanding the process of change, that occurs for the gay or lesbian person as they attempt to resolve conflicts of dual minority membership, is presented. Implications for the practitioner is also discussed.
"YOU'RE A WHAT?" FAMILY MEMBER REACTIONS TO THE DISCLOSURE OF HOMOSEXUALITY, ERIK F. STROMMEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(1/2), P37-58.
The present review summarizes what is known about reactions of family members to disclosure of homosexual identity, both within the family of origin and in families where the disclosing member is a spouse or parent. It is suggested that the traumatic nature of family member reaction consists of two related processes: (a) the application of negative values about homosexuality to the disclosing member, and (b) a perception that homosexual identity negates or violates previous family roles. Future research in this complex and understudied area could reveal much about the nature of both homosexual identity and family relationships.
OLDER LESBIAN AND GAY PEOPLE: RESPONDING TO HOMOPHOBIA, RICHARD A. FRIEND, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P241-263.
Using a theoretical model of lesbian and gay identity formation, this paper examines the complex relationships between families and older gay and lesbian adults as a way to better understand the extensive variations individuals have in their relationships with themselves, presentation of self, relation-ships with others and their behaviors. Three potential styles of lesbian and gay identity formation are described in order to highlight the structures and dynamics involved in issues for gay and lesbian elders and their families. It is argued that by challenging heterosexism and by minimizing homophobia, older lesbian and gay people experience a successful aging process. While individuals who are lesbian and gay have greater potential to age with a sense of power, pride and fulfillment, so do the families from which they came and those they have created.
PSYCHOTHERAPY AND THE "COMING OUT" PROCESS, PEGGY HANLEY-HACKENBRUCK, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P21-39.
EXTRACT: In summary, formulating the coming out process as a developmental sequence can be helpful to therapist and patient. For the therapist it provides a framework for understanding some of the common tasks in developing a gay and lesbian identity and their relationship to internalized homophobia. It also suggests a therapeutic formulation for dealing with the effects of the internalized homophobia and the intrapsychic alterations which need to occur. For the patient, it helps to make sense out of many experiences, to link him or her with other people and thus facilitate further the growth of the new social and sexual identity and bring some order to what is often a difficult transition. And finally, the understanding that it is the homophobia within and in society that causes problems rather than homosexuality itself, frees the patient to reach her or his potential for growth and change.
PASSING: IMPACT ON THE QUALITY OF SAME-SEX COUPLE RELATIONSHIPS, RAYMOND M. BERGER, SOCIAL WORK, 1990, VOL 35(4), P328-332.
Passing is the social process by which gay men and lesbians present themselves to the world as heterosexuals. A questionnaire survey of same-sex couples, recruited through a national support organization, examined the impact of passing on relationship quality. Passing was not related to self-reported love for partner. However respondents who were known to significant others as homosexual were more likely to report satisfaction with their relationships. Social workers providing services to gay and lesbian couples are alerted to the primary role played by significant others in the same-sex couple relationship.
ATTITUDES AND ISSUES OF PARENTS OF GAY MEN AND LESBIANS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY, BARBARA E. BERNSTEIN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P37-53.
Sixty-two parents of a gay son or lesbian daughter were seen in individual or family therapy, support groups, or interviewed in-depth about their feelings, attitudes, behavior and experiences centering around their child's homosexuality. Five major themes emerged. These were: social stigma, self- and/or spouse-blame, parental losses, fears and concerns for the gay child, and fear of losing their son or daugher if parents did not accept the child's homosexuality. Other prominent issues were those of causality, possibility of change of sexual orientation, and telling family and friends. Therapeutic issues and strategies to foster parental adjustment are discussed.
PARENTS RESPONSES TO GAY AND LESBIAN CHILDREN: DIFFERENCES IN HOMOPHOBIA, SELF-ESTEEM, AND SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPING, DAVID W. HOLTZEN, ALBERT A. AGRESTI, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1990, VOL 9(3), P390-399.
This study investigated parental reactions to knowledge of a child's gay or lesbian sexuality. Parents (N = 55) of gay and lesbian children completed the Index of Homophobia (IHP), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for Adults (SEI), and short versions of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (TSBI) to measure homphobia and to examine possible differences and changes in self-esteem and sex-role stereotyping. Parents with high IGHP scores differed significantly from those parents with low IHP scores with respect to scores on the AWS (p < .001) and TSBI (p < .001), as well as differeing as to the amount of time elapsed since their child's disclosure (p < .01). As expected, IHP scores correlated negatively with all measures. Also, the amount of time a parent has known of his or her child's sexuality in combination with the parent's sex-role stereotypes proved a good predictor of his or her homophobia score. Implications of these findings with regard to our understanding of homophobia are discussed, as well as the possible impact of homophobia on the self-esteem and sex role attitudes of parents of gay and lesbian children.
THE LESBIAN FAMILY LIFE CYCLE: A CONTEXTUAL APPROACH, SUZANNE SLATER, JULIE MENCHER, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, 1991, VOL 61(3), P372-382.
A recent broadening of family life cycle theory to include the various family norms deriving from ethnic differences, single parenting, divorce, and remarriage has not extended to the lesbian family experience. The need to articulate a lesbian family life cycle is underscored here with particular attention to the specific challenges and coping mechanisms of this particular family experience.
COMING OF AGE IN A HETEROSEXIST WORLD: THE DEVELOPMENT OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, D. ZERA, ADOLESCENCE, 1992, VOL 27(108), P845-854.
The developmental struggles of gay and lesbian adolescents are described as delineated in recent research. Three developmental areas were selected as a focus: the consolidation of sexual ident-
ity and the effects of both parental and peer relationships on gay adolescents' development. Weaknesses are noted in current research and theory, and suggestions are offered which could facilitiate the development of both homosexual and heterosexual youth.
THE FAMILIES OF OLDER GAY MEN AND LESBIANS, DOUGLAS C. KIMMEL, GENERATIONS, 1992, VOL 16/17(3/3) P37-38.
IN-LAW RELATIONSHIPS WHEN A CHILD IS HOMOSEXUAL, JULIANNE M. SEROVICH, PATSY SKEEN, LYNDA HENLEY WALTERS, BRYAN E. ROBINSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P57-76.
The purpose of this study is to review related literature concerning in-law relationships and begin an empirical exploration of the relationship between parents of gay men and lesbians and their child's significant other. Three hundred forty-seven parents of lesbians and gay men were surveyed regarding their sexuality, religiosity, socioeconomic status, attitude toward homosexuality, years they have known their child was homosexual, number of other children in the family, and acceptance of their homosexual child's significant other. A model was designed and tested via analysis of covariance structures in the LISREL VII package (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1989). Results suggest that the proposed model and the model estimated for the data are not significantly different, indicating support for the model. Future research issues are offered.
HOW TO HELP YOUR LESBIAN TEENAGER, ANNE MCGOWN, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL NURSING, 1993, VOL 31(8) P48.
ARTICLES/CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
PARENTS OF LESBIANS AND GAYS: CONCERNS AND INTERVENTION, NATALIE JANE WOODMAN, IN LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASS. OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980, P21.
FAMILIES, FRIENDS AND CHILDREN, IN STEPPING OUT OF LINE, A WORKBOOK ON LESBIANISM AND FEMINISM BY NYM HUGHES, YVONNE JOHNSON AND YVETTE PERREAULT, 1984, PRESS GANG PUBLISHERS, P76-87.
COMING OUT TO MOM: THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE MOTHER-DAUGHTER PROCESS, SHERRY ZITTER, IN LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES, EXPLORATIONS & CHALLENGES, ED BOSTON LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES COLLECTIVE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1987. P 177-194.
Books can be obtained by post from: Gays The Word, 66 Marchmont St., London WC1N 1AB. 0171.278.7654, or from a good, alternative, bookshop.
Parents Matter, Parents' Relationships with Lesbian Daughters and Gay Sons, Ann Muller, Naiad, ISBN 0-930044-91-6, 1987, £7.95.
Different Daughters, A Book by Mothers of Lesbians, ed Louise Rafkin, Cleis Press, ISBN 0-939416-13-1, 1987, £6.75.
Now that you Know, What every parent should know about Homosexuality, Betty Fairchild & Nancy Hayward, Harvest, 1989.
A Stranger in the Family...how to cope if your child is gay, Terry Sanderson, The Other Way Press, 1991, Great Britain, ISBN 0-948982-03-9, £5.95. Highly recommended.
Coming-Out to Parents: A Two-Way Survival Guide for Lesbians and Gay Men and Their Parents, Mary V. Borhek, 1991, Pilgrim Press.
When your child comes out, Anne Lovell, Sheldon Press, 1995.
Family Outing, A Guide for Parents of Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals, ed. Joy Dickens, Peter Owen, 1995.
CAMBRIDGE PROUD PARENTS: MARY 01223.315745; MARGARET 01223.832382
COVENTRY & WARWICKSHIRE FAMILY SUPPORT GROUP: JAN 01926.52906; MO 01926.57279.
EXETER PARENTLINE: JENNY, 01392.79546
IRISH PARENTS ENQUIRY: DUBLIN 721055
KENT ACCEPTANCE: JILL: 01795.661463
LEEDS PARENTS FRIEND: 0113.2674627
LEICESTER PARENTS SUPPORT GROUP: FRANCES 0116.2708331,BETTY 0116.2359774
LONDON PARENTS ENQUIRY: EILEEN 0171.791.2854
LONDON SOUTH PARENTS TOGETHER: THELMA, 0181.650.5268
MANCHESTER PARENTS GROUP: JOYCE 0161.628.7621, BRENDA 0161.748.3452
NEWCASTLE PARENTS ENQUIRY NORTH EAST: PAT 0191.537.4691
SCOTTISH PARENTS ENQUIRY 0131.556.4040
SHREWSBURY PARENTS CONTACT: ARTHUR/ROSE, 01743.4479
© Lesbian Information Service March 1996