LESBIANS, COMING OUT AND IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY IN THE GAY WORLD, CAROLD A.B. WARREN, SEXUAL IDENTITY: SEX ROLES AND SOCIAL CHANGE, BETTY YORBURG, REVIEW BY JOHN P DECECCO, W. CLAYTON LANE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(4), P437-441.
GOING PUBLIC: A STUDY OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF HOMOSEXUAL LIBERATION, JOHN ALAN LEE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(1), P49-78.
The complete process of resolving and announcing one's sexual orientation as "homosexual" is analyzed into three stages: signification, coming out, and going public. Each stage is further subdivided into steps. Not everyone passes through every step, and most persons stop well short of going public. However, the general process is found to be the same for 24 persons (the author and 23 respondents), all of whom have reached the final stage. Management of self-presentation in this process is discussed, using Goffman's concepts for "spoiled identity" (stigma). The motivation for going public is analyzed, using C. W. Mills' "vocabularies of motives."
COMING OUT: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, CARMEN DE MONTEFLORES, STEPHEN J. SCHULTZ, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P59-72.
"Coming out" is the developmental process through which gay people recognize their sexual preferences and choose to integrate this knowledge into their personal and social lives. A number of experiences are critical in this process: the awareness of same-sex attractions, first homosexual experience, coming out in the gay world, labelling oneself as gay or homosexual, coming out to friends, family, and co-workers, and coming out publicly. Several areas of psychological theory relevant to the coming out process are discussed, including identity formation, self-disclosure and self-validation, and sex-role socialization. In addition, differences are noted in the coming out experiences of men and women related to conformity to and violation of sex-role expectations, as well as to political and legal issues.
PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH LESBIANS, DOROTHY I. RIDDLE, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P84-100.
Psychotherapeutic work with lesbians is confounded by both sexist and heterosexist factors. This paper traces three aspects of women's socialization - self-concept, feminine sex-role behavior, and sexuality - which have particular implications for lesbians and discusses the implications of these three in therapy. The impact of women's conditioning to base self-esteem on acceptance by others is noted, particularly as such conditioning combines with the cumulative stresses of lesbian life. Finally, examples of ways in which heterosexual bias may become apparent in therapy are given, and alternative therapeutic approaches are discussed.
HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITY FORMATION: A THEORETICAL MODEL, VIVIENNE C. CASS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(3), P219-235.
A six-stage model of homosexual identity formation is outlined within the framework of interpersonal congruency theory. Stages are differentiated on the basis of the person's perceptions of his/her own behavior and the actions that arise as a consequence of this perception. The person is seen to have an active role in the acquisition of a homosexual identity. Alternative paths of development are proposed within each stage. The notion that people can accept homosexuality as a positively valued status is assumed. Several factors believed to be influential in determining whether a person takes one line of development or another are discussed. The model is intended to be applied to both female and male homosexuals.
INTRAPSYCHIC EFFECTS OF STIGMA: A PROCESS OF BREAKDOWN AND RECONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL REALITY, SARA BECK FEIN, ELANE M. MUEHRING, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 7(1), P3-13.
Being stigmatized has intrapsychic consequences for the individual. Two aspects of the process by which these consequences occur are described: a breakdown of the person's system of interpretation and valuation, which may lead to reality shock; and a reconstruction of those systems that takes into account the stigmatized characteristic. The latter aspect is associated with frequently noted sequels to stigma, including identity reconstruction, changes in affiliative patterns, and revisions of long-range plans and goals. Key elements in both major aspects are the master-status character of stigma or, in other words, its being a status that takes precedence over all others; the wide-spread knowledge of stereotypes associated with a given stigma; and the actual and imagined response of others. The data are from an ethnographic study of a homosexual community, but the intrapsychic processes described may occur in conjunction with any stigma acquired after normative socialization, including stigmas resulting from a characteristic viewed by others as inappropriate for a status occupied by the individual such as a black or female professional.
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE COMING OUT PROCESS, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P31-43.
Five development stages which describe the patterns seen in individuals with predominantly same-sex orientation are described in the paper. The stages are: pre-coming out, coming out, exploration, first relationships, and identity integration.
THE LESBIAN COMING OUT PROCESS: THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS, PATRICIA A. GROVES, LOIS A. VENTURA, THE PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE JOURNAL, 1983, VOL 62(3), P146-149.
The problems and therapeutic needs of women in the process of identifying themselves as lesbians are described. Means of working through denial rationales are explored.
THE COMING-OUT PROCESS FOR LESBIANS: INTEGRATING A STABLE IDENTITY, LOU ANN LEWIS, SOCIAL WORK, 1984, VOL 29(5), P464-469.
Social workers have lacked models for understanding the process of a client's self-identification as a lesbian. This article describes several developmental phases a woman may go through to form a healthy self-concept as a lesbian and discusses practice implications for this process.
CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR WHICH PRECLUDE HOMOSEXUAL SELF-LABELING, JOEL D. HENCKEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 9(4), P53-63.
Our culture presents people with a problematic pair of messages: (1) engaging in homosexual behavior makes a person a homosexual, and (2) homosexuality is bad. In this context, maintenance of self-esteem, sexual/affectional satisfaction, and coherent identity requires some intricate psychological footwork. This article describes a variety of common conceptualizations of "homosexual behavior" which permit the individual to avoid the stigma of homosexual self-labeling. It is suggested that the "accuracy" of these constructions is less important than the appropriate doubt they cast on our widely held, but psychologically inadequate, concepts of sexual orientation.
THE "NEW GAY" LESBIANS, LILLIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 10(3/4), P85-95.
The three-stage progression toward homosexual identity that Minton and McDonald (1983/1984) delineate in Bisexual and Homosexual Identities (De Cecco & Shively, eds., 1983/1984) is generally not applicable to women who have come to lesbianism through the radical feminist movement of the past 15 years. Their progression toward a lesbian identity was in an order roughly the reverse of what Minton and McDonald describe: Through the movement they came to understand that society's norms can be critically evaluated and that heterosexuality was detrimental to women's freedom, often before they had homosexual genital experience. The "egocentric" stage for these women may have been no different from that of heterosexuals. They may have escaped the guilt and isolation associated with the "sociocentric" stage because they first viewed themselves as lesbian in the context of a supportive social group. There is also some evidence to suggest that many premovement lesbians made their decision to identify as homosexual on the basis of their political views about heterosexuality. Thus, they too may not have experienced Minton and McDonald's three-stage progression toward identity.
WHEN YOU STOP HIDING YOUR SEXUALITY ... ANTHONY HILLIN, SOCIAL WORK TODAY, NOV 4 1985, P18-19.
Describes why lesbian and gay social workers and clients hide their sexuality and the implications which their coming out has for the profession.
THEORY AND RESEARCH ON LESBIAN IDENTITY FORMATION, PHYLLIS E. ELLIOTT, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES, 1985, VOL 8(1), P64-71.
The lesbian identity formation process is examined. Lesbian identity is differentiated from lesbian erotic interests, lesbian behaviour and emotional attachments to women. Lesbian identity is defined phenomenologically. Acceptance of such an identity involves a number of changes in the ways that a woman comes to perceive, define, and evaluate both her 'self' and society. Contributions to these changes are outlined. It is suggested that although the processes of lesbian identity formation and gay male identity formation might involve similar events, that their relative importance might show some female/male differences. The author derives her idea from empirical investigations of the coming out process in both women and men and on theoretical papers written on this issue. The process is seen as developmental in nature. The importance of the lesbian's interactions with her society is stressed. Recommendations for further research are made.
BREAKING THE MIRROR: THE CONSTRUCTION OF LESBIANISM AND THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL DISCOURSE ON HOMOSEXUALITY, E. BLACKWOOD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 11(3-4), P1-17.
This essay reviews the anthropological discourse on homosexuality by examining the assumptions that have been used by anthropologists to explain homosexual behavior, and by identifying current theoretical
approaches. The essay questions the emphasis on male homosexual behavior as the basis for theoretical analysis, and points to the importance of including female homosexual behavior in the study of
homosexuality. Cross-cultural data on lesbian behavior are represented and the influence of gender divisions and social stratification on the development of patterns of lesbian behavior are broadly explored. The article outlines suggestions for examining the cultural context of lesbian behavior as well as the constraints exerted on women's sexual behavior in various cultures.
A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF STAGE THEORIES OF LESBIAN IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, J. SOPHIE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985-86, VOL 12(2), P39-51.
A general stage theory of lesbian identity development was compiled on the basis of six theories of lesbian or gay identity development. The general theory and the six specific theories were then examined
empirically, using repeated interviews with 14 women who were currently experiencing changes with respect to their sexual orientation. The data conformed to the general stage theory to a large degree, especially at early stages of development, but marked discrepancies were also found. Order and timing of events varied among these women, and for some lesbian identity did not represent a final stage of development. It was found that the process of lesbian identity development, or sexual orientation change in general, was very sensitive to the social/historical context.
HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE FAMILY: LESBIAN AND GAY SPOUSES, NORMAN L. WYERS, SOCIAL WORK, 1987, VOL 32(2), P143-148.
A 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers is reviewed. Differences between the men and the women were discovered in five areas: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. Many similarities also surfaced. The author posits that if social service providers are aware of the characteristics described they will be of more assistance to these lesbian and gay clients.
INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND LESBIAN IDENTITY, JOAN SOPHIE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P53-65.
This paper presents suggestions for therapists working with women who are having difficulty accepting their attractions to other women,
lesbian behavior and identity, or both, with the goal of promoting self-acceptance and reducing internalized homophobia. After a discussion of the therapeutic relationship, several coping strategies which have been used successfully by many women are described and therapeutic applications are offered. These strategies include cognitive restructuring, avoiding a negative identity, adopting an identity label, self-disclosure, meeting other lesbians, and habituation to lesbianism. Finally, behavioral indications of success or failure to achieve the goal of self-acceptance are presented.
DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES AND THEIR RESOLUTION FOR GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, E.S. HETRICK AND A.D. MARTIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P25-43.
The primary development task for homosexually oriented adolescents is adjustment to a socially stigmatized role. Although the individual homosexual adolescent reacts with diversity and great resilience to societal pressures, most pass through a turbulent period that carries the risk of maladaptive behaviors that may affect adult performance. Despite individual variation, certain issues have been found to concern most homosexual adolescents. Empirical data from the Institute for the Protection of Lesbian and Gay Youth, Inc. in New York city suggests that isolation, family violence, educational issues, emotional stresses, shelter and sexual abuse are the main concerns of youth entering the program. If not resolved, the social, cognitive, and social isolation may extend into adulthood, and anxiety, depressive symptoms, alienation, self-hatred, and demoralization may result. In a non-threatening supportive environment that provides accurate information and appropriate peer and adult role models, many of the concerns are alleviated and internalized negative attitudes are either modified or prevented from developing. The authors discuss the effects of prejudice and the impact of negative societal attitudes on the developing social and personal identities of homosexual youths.
DEVELOPMENT AND IDENTITY ISSUES IN ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, T. SULLIVAN & M. SCHNEIDER, CHILD & ADOLESCENT SOCIAL WORK JOURNAL, 1987, VOL 4(1), P13-24.
This paper argues that homosexual emergence in adolescence must be viewed from a developmentally nonpejorative perspective. In attempting to respond to the special stresses in adolescents who are developing gay or lesbian identities, helping professionals need to develop a familiarity with the unique developmental tasks of gay and lesbian youth, as well as the sexual identity formation literature generally. A review of developmental issues for gay and lesbian youth leads to some thoughts regarding the development of services.
A SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO COUNSELING HOMOSEXUAL CLIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES, SUE KIEFER HAMMERSMITH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P173-190.
Stigma lies at the root of many problems typically experienced by homosexual clients and their families. Sociological theory and research shed light on the dynamics of stigma and its consequences, both for the stigmatized population and for their heterosexual families and associates. This article summarizes key sociological research on the nature and development of sexual orientation. It considers the dynamics of homophobia and its implications for homosexual youngsters and their families. It offers practical tips for helping clients to understand their own or a family member's homosexual orientation, for coping with stigma, for reconciling issues of religion and morality, and for determining lifestyle. Suggestions for therapist office materials are also included.
THERAPEUTIC ISSUES AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES WITH YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN CLIENTS: A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH, C. BROWNING, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P45-52.
This paper examines the coming out process within an adult developmental context. Therapeutic issues which surface for the young adult lesbian client include separation from parents, development of social support, exploration of career/vocational goals, and the establishment of intimate relationships. Intervention strategies are suggested which facilitate the coming out process and help the client integrate her sexual orientation within her emerging adult identity.
LESBIAN DAUGHTERS AND LESBIAN MOTHERS: THE CRISIS OF DISCLOSURE FROM A FAMILY SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE, JO-ANN KRESTAN, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY & THE FAMILY, 1987, VOL 3(4), P113-130.
Working from a Bowen family systems perspective, a critical aspect of the therapeutic task with lesbian clients is that of coaching them to 'come out' in the family of origin. The disclosure of lesbianism,
particularly that of a daughter to mother or a mother to a daughter, is discussed. This article examines the societal context in which a woman makes a lesbian choice and discusses the necessity for disclosure. The particular issues and difficulties involved, the clinical methodology used, and some common results are presented. Case examples illustrate the ideas discussed.
MARRIED LESBIANS, G. DORSEY GREEN AND D. MERILEE CLUNIS, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1988, VOL 8(1-2), P41-49.
This article forms part of a volume devoted to therapy and lesbianism; in the case of married women lesbians, that is those co-habiting with men, at least for some time, various patterns are found. Some women remain in stable relationships with both a male and a female lover, others have no sexual relations with men, but have one or more female partners who may or may not be married to men. In general the married lesbians report little or no sexual satisfaction or activity in their heterosexual marriages, but mutually satisfying sex in their lesbian relationships. Some achieve a stable situation, similar to that termed triangulation in family systems theory, whereby the heterosexual marriage and the lesbian relationship are mutually interdependent. The majority of married lesbians are in their 40s or older and many remain very secretive since coming out might involve loss of income, status and family. Many are rather isolated drawing support from a few other lesbians or just one partner as to relinquish her roles is for the heterosexual older woman too threatening. However, should one partner change her life significantly, say through living independently of her husband or demanding more lesbian contacts, then the other partner may feel very threatened. A therapist who works with lesbians may find that many present for therapy when there is a shift in the balance of their lives, either self-sought or imposed from outside. Issues such as coming out or not and couples counselling are also important for a lesbian therapist to address since she is a resource and possibly a validation for other lesbians so should accept the challenge of constantly examining her own values and models in her work.
HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: A MOTHER'S PERSPECTIVE, M.V. BORHEK, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 9(2), P123-128.
Gay and lesbian youths confront a number of difficult problems, including telling their parents about their sexual orientation and helping their families adjust to the news. Ineffective communication, poor self-esteem, and unresolved grief and anger often complicate the adolescent's telling his/her parents. Frequently, misinformation about homosexuality, religious beliefs, and homophobia adversely influence parental reactions. Impediments to the relationship between parents and sexual minority youth are discussed and strategies to promote positive family adjustment are presented.
LESBIANS, FAMILY PROCESS AND INDIVIDUATION, L. BERG-CROSS, JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1988, VOL 3(1), P97-112.
This paper presents an overview of the unique problems that face college-age lesbians as they try to individuate from their family of origin. The first set of obstacles involves the dual developmental tasks of "coming out" and escaping the suffocating fusion typical of many early lesbian relationships. The second set of difficulties concerns parental reactions to the lesbian relationship. The third set of problems (which are intimately intertwined with the first two) concerns how lovers are perceived and received as "in-laws." The paper concludes with five recommended psychotherapy strategies.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION, SEXUAL IDENTITY, AND THE QUESTION OF CHOICE, LAURA REITER, CLINICAL SOCIAL WORK JOURNAL, 1989, VOL 17(2), P138-150.
Sexual orientation, determined early in life, may or may not match sexual identity, which can change over time. Starting with a review of some definitions of homosexuality in the literature, the author offers a definition that differentiates between orientation and identity. She goes on to describe several possible routes from gay orientation to gay identity, explains discrepancies, acknowledges the potential threat to subjective identity when sexual identity shifts, and argues that identity, not orientation, is open to choice. Two case examples illustrate some of these points.
CAREER COUNSELING AND LIFE PLANNING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN, CHERYL HETHERINGTON, ANN ORZEK, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P52-57.
The psychological development and 'coming out' process of lesbian women are examined with regard to career planning. The interaction of these issues with a model of lesbian identity provides a framework for career counselors who work with individuals or lesbian couples.
SAPPHO WAS A RIGHT-ON ADOLESCENT: GROWING UP LESBIAN, M. SCHNEIDER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P111-129.
Beginning with the interaction between the coming-out process and adolescent development this paper explores the young lesbian experience. The words and perceptions of over 20 young lesbians are used to depict the experience from their own points of view.
PSYCHOTHERAPY AND THE "COMING OUT" PROCESS, PEGGY HANLEY-HACKENBRUCK, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P21-39.
EXTRACT: In summary, formulating the coming out process as a developmental sequence can be helpful to therapist and patient. For the therapist it provides a framework for understanding some of the common tasks in developing a gay and lesbian identity and their relationship to internalized homophobia. It also suggests a therapeutic formulation for dealing with the effects of the internalized homophobia and the intrapsychic alterations which need to occur. For the patient, it helps to make sense out of many experiences, to link him or her with other people and thus facilitate further the growth of the new social and sexual identity and bring some order to what is often a difficult transition. And finally, the understanding that it is the homophobia within and in society that causes problems rather than homosexuality itself, frees the patient to reach her or his potential for growth and change.
THE MARRIED LESBIAN, ELI COLEMAN, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P119-135.
DISCLOSURE OF HOMOSEXUALITY, ERIK F. STROMMEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(1/2), P37-58.
The present review summarizes what is known about reactions of family members to disclosure of homosexual identity, both within the family of origin and in families where the disclosing member is a spouse or parent. It is suggested that the traumatic nature of family member reaction consists of two related processes: (a) the application of negative values about homosexuality to the disclosing member, and (b) a perception that homosexual identity negates or violates previous family roles. Future research in this complex and understudied area could reveal much about the nature of both homosexual identity and family relationships.
COMING OUT TO PARENTS AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(1/2), P1-35.
The significance of the parents for the coming out process and for the self-evaluation of 317 gay and lesbian youths between the ages of 14 and 23 years was assessed in the current study. Responses from a 10-page questionnaire are analyzed, and these findings are discussed in the context of sex differences for both adolescents and parents, the importance of the parents for the self-esteem of gay and lesbian youth, and limitations of the current investigation.
PARENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS: A REFLECTED APPRAISALS MODEL, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P93-109.
Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects the self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.
ISSUES OF IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, CONNIE S. CHAN, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P16-20.
This study examined the factors that affect an Asian-American individual's choice of identification with Asian-American and lesbian or gay identity. Nineteen Asian-American lesbians and 16 Asian-American gay men belonging to Asian-American lesbian or gay organizations answered survey questionnaires. Results indicated that most of the respondents identified more strongly with their lesbian or gay identities than with their Asian-American identities; however, most indicated that acknowledgment of both aspects of identity was preferred. Other situational factors, including disclosure of lesbian or gay identity to family and to the Asian-American community, as well as discrimination because of sexual orientation, race, and gender, were examined in regard to identity development.
GAY IDENTITY ISSUES AMONG BLACK AMERICANS: RACISM, HOMOPHOBIA, AND THE NEED FOR VALIDATION, DARRYL K. LOIACANO, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P21-25.
There is little available literature on gay and lesbian identity among Black Americans. This exploratory study involved interviewing a total of six Black-American gay men and lesbian women regarding gay identity development issues. Data pertaining to the interviewees' experiences of gay identity development were obtained through a questionnaire of six open-ended questions and an interview with each participant lasting 1 to 2 hours. This article presents some of the significant challenges faced by those who were interviewed regarding their sense of self-acceptance, both as Blacks in the predominantly White gay and lesbian community and as gay men and lesbian women in the predominantly heterosexual Black community. The implications of these issues for future research and counseling intervention are discussed. In this article the term gay identity is generally used in reference to both men and women. When women are being discussed exclusively, however, the term lesbian identity is used.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, JEANNE MIRANDA, MICHEAL STORMS, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P41-45.
Previous research has documented that lesbian and gay men proceed through a series of stages in developing a positive lesbian and gay identity. The relationship between lesbian and gay identity and subsequent psychological adjustment has not been evaluated. These empirical studies found that positive lesbian and gay identity is related to psychological adjustment as measured by lower neurotic anxiety and greater ego strength in both an older and a younger sample of lesbians and gay men. Two coping strategies - self-labeling as a homosexual and self-disclosure of sexual orientation to others - were related to development of a positive lesbian or gay identity. These findings suggest that development of a positive lesbian or gay identity is an important task in promoting the psychological adjustment of lesbians and gay men.
LESBIAN COUPLES AND THEIR PARENTS: THE EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED PARENTAL ATTITUDES ON THE COUPLE, BIANCA CODY MURPHY, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P46-51.
Twenty respondents, each of whom was in a committed couple relationship, were asked how their parents' attitudes toward (a) their partner and (b) their lesbianism impacted on their relationships with their partners. The study revealed that the adverse consequences of parental disapproval are overshadowed by the benefits to the couple that are derived from the decision to affirm one's lesbian identity and to acknowldge the nature of the couple relationship by 'coming out' to parents. The negative impact of secrecy on the couple, the downplaying of parental disapproval, the positive effects on the couple of an affirmed lesbian identity, and the importance of acknowledgment of the lesbian couple are discussed. The author maintains that the counselor working with lesbian couples must be lesbian affirmative, and she suggests eight specific, clinical implications for working with lesbian couples.
HIDDEN BRANCHES AND GROWING PAINS: HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE FAMILY TREE, ERIK F. STROMMEN, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P9-34.
In reviewing the effects of having a gay or lesbian member in the family of origin, one is repeatedly drawn to the central role played by the social stigma surrounding homosexuality. The present paper suggests that social stereotypes and prejudices toward homosexuals create an image of homosexuality as incompatible with the family, and that the family's reactions to having a homosexual member depend upon their acceptance or rejection of these prejudices. When homosexual family members are discovered, heterosexual family members experience a conflict between their conceptions of homosexual persons and the familiar family role of the homosexual member. The origin and nature of this conflict, and differences among family members in their reactions are reviewed. Long-term resolution and possible models of positive and negative outcome are also described. It is suggested that the conflict experienced by family members is in many ways similar to the 'coming out' process of homosexual identity acquisition, and that this similarity may reflect common mechanisms for coming to grips with a pejorative, negatively labeled social identity.
ETHNIC MINORITY FAMILIES AND MINORITY GAYS AND LESBIANS, EDWARD S. MORALES, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P217-239.
Attitudes toward sexuality differs within the diverse ethnic and racial communities that exist in the U.S., and the cultural values and beliefs surrounding sexuality play a major role in determining how individuals behave within their sociological context. The family unit is the domain where such values and beliefs are nurtured and developed. An individual's value system is shaped and reinforced within the family context which usually reflects the broader community norms. Disclosure of a gay or lesbian sexual preference and lifestyle by a family member presents challenges to ethnic minority families who tend not to discuss sexuality issues and presume a heterosexual orientation.
For ethnic minority gays and lesbians the 'coming out' process presents challenges in their identity formation processes and in their loyalties to one community over another. Ethnic gay men and lesbians need to live within three rigidly defined and strongly independent communities: the gay and lesbian community, the ethnic minority community, and the society at large. While each community provides fundamental needs, serious consequences emerge if such communities were to be visibly integrated and merged. It requires a constant effort to maintain oneself in three different worlds, each of which fails to support significant aspects of a person's life. The complications that arise may inhibit one's ability to adapt and to maximize personal potentials.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction and processes between ethnic minority communities and their gay and lesbian family members. A framework for understanding the process of change, that occurs for the gay or lesbian person as they attempt to resolve conflicts of dual minority membership, is presented. Implications for the practitioner is also discussed.
OLDER LESBIAN AND GAY PEOPLE: RESPONDING TO HOMOPHOBIA, RICHARD A. FRIEND, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P241-263.
Using a theoretical model of lesbian and gay identity formation, this paper examines the complex relationships between families and older gay and lesbian adults as a way to better understand the extensive variations individuals have in their relationships with themselves, presentation of self, relationships with others and their behaviors. Three potential styles of lesbian and gay identity formation are described in order to highlight the structures and dynamics involved in issues for gay and lesbian elders and their families. It is argued that by challenging heterosexism and by minimizing homophobia, older lesbian and gay people experience a successful aging process. While individuals who are lesbian and gay have greater potential to age with a sense of power, pride and fulfillment, so do the families from which they came and those they have created.
THE FORMATION OF HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITIES, R.R. TROIDEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P43-73.
This paper uses sociological theory to develop an ideal-typical model of homosexual identity formation. The four-stage model outlined here represents a synthesis and an elaboration on previous research and
theorizing on homosexual identity development. The model describes how committed homosexuals, lesbians and gay males who see themselves as homosexual and adopt corresponding lifestyles, recall having acquired their homosexual identities. Often repeated themes in the life histories of gay males and lesbians, clustered according to life stages, provide the content and characteristics of each stage.
PATHS TOWARD DIVERSITY: AN INTRAPSYCHIC PERSPECTIVE, SUSAN E. BARRET, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P41-52.
The life experience of an individual woman has an impact on the ideas she contributes to feminist therapy theory. One critical dimension of her life is her personal journey of identifying as a member of a minority group and learning self-value as a result. The Minority Identity Development Model developed by Sue (1981) and Atkinson, Morton, and Sue (1983) is used here to describe a process of self-valuation. The connection between self-valuing and the development of feminist therapy theory is explored, with emphasis placed on the need for diversity in the development of a feminist theory.
RESOLVING "OTHER" STATUS: IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT OF BIRACIAL INDIVIDUALS, MARIA P. ROOT, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P185-205.
The current paper describes the phenomenological experience of marginal socio-ethnic status for biracial individuals. A metamodel for identity resolution for individuals who struggle with other status is proposed. Subsequently, multiple strategies in the resolution of ethnic identity development are proposed among which the individual may move and maintain a positive, stable self-image.
THE CONTEXT OF ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE, NOTES ON CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HETEROSEXISM, GREGORY M. HEREK, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P316-333.
Hate crimes against lesbians and gay men occur within a broader cultural context that is permeated by heterosexism. Heterosexism is defined here as an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship, or community. It operates principally by rendering homosexuality invisible and, when this fails, by trivializing, repressing, or stigmatizing it. This article focuses upon the nexus between cultural heterosexism and individual prejudice against lesbians and gay men. Key components of the ideologies of sex and gender from which heterosexism derives are identified: (a) the personal-public dichotomy, (b) the stigmatization of particular forms of sexuality, and (c) the linkage of heterosexuality to gender-role conformity. Supported by these ideological underpinnings, cultural heterosexism fosters individual anti-gay attitudes by providing a ready-made system of values and stereotypical beliefs that justify such prejudice as "natural." By imbuing homosexuality with a variety of symbolic meanings, cultural heterosexism enables expressions of individual prejudice to serve various psychological functions. Further, by discouraging lesbians and gay men from coming out to others, heterosexism perpetuates itself. Recent social trends that may affect the ideology of heterosexism are identified, and their potential for reducing anti-gay prejudice is discussed.
ATTITUDES AND ISSUES OF PARENTS OF GAY MEN AND LESBIANS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY, BARBARA E. BERNSTEIN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P37-53.
Sixty-two parents of a gay son or lesbian daughter were seen in individual or family therapy, support groups, or interviewed in-depth about their feelings, attitudes, behavior and experiences centering around their child's homosexuality. Five major themes emerged. These were: social stigma, self- and/or spouse-blame, parental losses, fears and concerns for the gay child, and fear of losing their son or daughter if parents did not accept the child's homosexuality. Other prominent issues were those of causality, possibility of change of sexual orientation, and telling family and friends. Therapeutic issues and strategies to foster parental adjustment are discussed.
REJECTING "FEMININITY": SOME RESEARCH NOTES ON GENDER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT IN LESBIANS, MARGARET COOPER, DEVIANT BEHAVIOR, 1990, VOL 11, P371-380.
Fifteen women who identify themselves as lesbians were interviewed about their own development of gender identity. All the women involved in the study indicated a rejection of the traditional feminine role. This was often manifested before they were even aware of same-sex attractions. However, they saw the traditional role for women as representing heterosexuality. To gain access to women, many even saw a need to achieve masculinity. Due to few or no visible lesbian role models and the rejection of the traditional female role, many, as children, chose the male role. This was reflected in 1) taking the male role in play or fantasy, 2) being a "tomboy", and 3) rejecting items of dress and play associated with female children. While none, as adults, still wanted to portray a male role, each still rejected traditional femininity. Thus these lesbians had to come to their own conclusions about what it meant not only to be women, but lesbians as well.
PASSING: IMPACT ON THE QUALITY OF SAME-SEX COUPLE RELATIONSHIPS, RAYMOND M. BERGER, SOCIAL WORK, 1990, VOL 35(4), P328-332.
Passing is the social process by which gay men and lesbians present themselves to the world as heterosexuals. A questionnaire survey of same-sex couples, recruited through a national support organization, examined the impact of passing on relationship quality. Passing was not related to self-reported love for partner. However respondents who were known to significant others as homosexual were more likely to report satisfaction with their relationships. Social workers providing services to gay and lesbian couples are alerted to the primary role played by significant others in the same-sex couple relationship.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMING OUT PROCESS FOR LESBIANS, MARLA J. KAHN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(3), P47-70.
Cass' model (1979) of identity development and her Stage Allocation Measure (1984a) were assessed to determine their utility in describing the subjective experience of coming out as a lesbian and whether proposed stages could be tied to behavioral correlates of the Openness Questionnaire (Graham, Rawlings, & Girten, 1985). The process was considered in terms of a woman's differentiation from her family, sex-role attitudes, and levels of internalized homophobia. Eighty-one lesbians anonymously completed questionnaires. The results suggest that subjective labeling and behavior are congruent, but that rate of progression through stages does not imply integration of behavior. Four patterns of identity development were identified which suggest that relevant stages, speed of development, and stage attainment are characteristic of certain women. Intergenerational intimidation was significantly related to stage development, sex-role attitudes, openness behavior, and levels of internalized homophobia.
DISCLOSURE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION BY LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: A COMPARISON OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC PROCESSES, RACHEL FRANKE AND MARK R. LEARY, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1991, VOL 10(1), P262-269.
Analyses of the "coming out" process posit two distinct mediators of the willingness to disclose one's homosexuality to others. Whereas some analyses focus on the individual's self-acceptance of his or her sexual orientation, others implicate gays' concerns with others' reactions to such disclosures. This study tested the efficacy of these models. One hunded and eighty-four lesbians and gay men completed a questionnaire that included, among other things, two measures of openness regarding their sexual orientation. On both indices, subjects' concerns with others' evaluations predicted substantially more of the variance in openness than the degree to which they accepted their own sexuality.
ECOLOGICAL TRANSITION: USING BRONFENBRENNER'S MODEL TO STUDY SEXUAL IDENTITY CHANGE, JUDITH HOLLANDER, LINDA HABER, HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL, 1992, VOL 13(2), P121-129.
Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological transition model provides a framework to study coming out in lesbians. The model takes into account activities such as sexual behavior, perceptions of the behavior, and social context in which behavior takes place. The importance of context makes this model useful in identifying possible connections between sexual identity alterations and larger social forces. Interventions based on this framework can reduce stress and promote health during coming out.
LIVING IN TWO WORLDS: THE IDENTITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES USED BY LESBIAN PHYSICAL EDUCATORS, SHERRY E. WOODS, KAREN M. HARBECK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P141-166.
Twelve lesbian physical educators participated in an in-depth phenomenological study of their work experiences in relation to their identities as lesbians and teachers. All study participants held two assumptions: that they would lose their jobs if their lesbianism were revealed, and that female physical education teachers are negatively stereotyped as being lesbian. Participants most often engage in identity management strategies designed to conceal their lesbianism, such as passing as heterosexual, self-distancing from others at school, and self-distancing from issues pertaining to homosexuality. The less common risk-taking behaviors included obliquely overlapping their personal lives with their professional, actively confronting homophobia and supporting gay and lesbian students, and overtly overlapping the details of their personal and professional lives. The authors conclude this paper with recommendations for challenging homophobia and heterosexism in physical education.
COMING OF AGE IN A HETEROSEXIST WORLD: THE DEVELOPMENT OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, D. ZERA, ADOLESCENCE, 1992, VOL 27(108), P845-854.
The general developmental struggles of gay and lesbian adolescents are described as delineated in recent research. Three developmental areas were selected as a focus: the consolidation of sexual identity and the effects of both parental and peer relationships on gay adolescents' development. Weaknesses are noted in current research and theory, and suggestions are offered which could facilitiate the development of both homosexual and heterosexual youth.
LESBIAN SELF-DISCLOSURE, STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS, SHARON DEEVEY, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL NURSING, 1993, VOL 31(4), P21-26.
LESBIAN GRIEF AND LOSS ISSUES IN THE COMING OUT PROCESS, C.A. THOMPSON, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1992, VOL 12(1/2), P175-185.
This article explores the concept of loss during the lesbian coming out process. A five-stage model is proposed which examines the process of grieving various losses such as the loss of the heterosexual lifestyle, rituals of marriage and divorce, societal acceptance of the relationship, and possible loss of the esteem of family and community. Ethnicity and life stage are discussed. Clinical interventions are proposed.
BEING OUT: A GENERAL MODEL, JOSEPH HARRY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P25-39.
It is argued that being out to heterosexuals is a result of structural and individual conditions permitting one to be out, rather than a late stage in a process of coming out. The concept of coming out is largely applicable to the transition to adulthood while having little applicability to adult homosexuals. Data on 1,556 gay men are presented showing the relationships of being out to heterosexuals with income, type of occupation, area of residence, sexual orientation of friends, and individual non-conformity. These data show that much variation in being out can be explained by these factors rather than a stage of the coming out process.
OUT IN THE OPEN? P. ROSE, 1993, NURSING TIMES, VOL 59(30), P50-52.
How do nurses treat their patients and colleagues who are lesbians? In the first of two articles on homosexuality and health care, Pat Rose describes her survey, which investigated this contentious issue.
REWORKING DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY: THE CASE OF LESBIAN IDENTITY FORMATION, KATHARINE LEE H. WEILLE, CLINICAL SOCIAL WORK JOURNAL, 1993, VOL 21(2), P151-159.
Numerous theorists and researchers have challenged the underlying assumptions of traditional, psychoanalytically based developmental theories. Many of them imply that the internal and interpersonal experiences typified by these models as pathologically regressive may actually be normative variations of human experience. Efforts to include the formation of lesbian identity as a normal outcome of early development serve as a paradigmatic case study of the broader endeavors to rework traditional theory. Several recent theoretical and empirical works are integrated, with an examination of common themes and implications for Social Work practice and research.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITIES AS A MEANS OF SURVIVAL: CASE OF GAY AND LESBIAN TEACHERS, PETER DANKMEJER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P95-105.
The article, at its most general level, questions the requirement for "coming out" in public, which the author sees as the central demand of gay liberation ideology upon its adherents. Using research on teachers, the article shows that the political demand that teachers come out professionally ignores the central professional and political concerns of several teachers and their need for professional survival. In this study, teachers were found to have varying lifestyles. Coming out fitted the lifestyle only of those teachers who took the role of crusaders for gay liberation. This role was often a secondary concern for women, who were more strongly identified as feminists than lesbians, and for men for whom homosexuality was not a major aspect of their lifestyle. The author suggests that more attention should be given to the homophobic conditions under which such teachers work than the requirement that they all come out.
LESBIAN AND GAY MALE GROUP IDENTITY ATTITUDES AND SELF-ESTEEM: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING, K.L. WALTERS, J.M. SIMONI, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 40(1), P94-99.
Ninety-six lesbians and gay men ages 18 to 46 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a modified version of Helms and Parham's (1985) Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS). Based on Cross's (1971), 1978) model of African-American identity development, the RIAS assesses 4 distinct psychological stages (preencounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization), which are thought to correspond to a parallel process in the development of gay male and lesbian group identity attitudes. Consistent with findings among other minority groups, the results indicated a moderate inverse relationship between preencounter attitudes, and self-esteem and a positive relationship between internalization attitudes and self-esteem. Encounter and immersion-emersion attitudes were (nonsignificantly) negatively correlated with self-esteem. Implications for counseling gay men and lesbians are discussed.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
*LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
COMING OUT IN SOCIAL WORK: WORKER SURVIVAL, SUPPORT, AND SUCCESS, JOHN GRACE, P130.
OUT OF THE THERAPEUTIC CLOSET, BERNICE GOODMAN, P140.
*HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1982, INCLUDES:
DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF THE COMING OUT PROCESS, ELI COLEMAN, P. 31-43.
*WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:
THE COMING-OUT PROCESS: VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIANS, RUTH BAETZ, P45-50.
LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES, EXPLORATIONS & CHALLENGES, ED BOSTON LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES COLLECTIVE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1987 INCLUDES:
COMING OUT TO MOM: THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE MOTHER-DAUGHTER PROCESS, SHERRY ZITTER, P177-194.
BEYOND TOLERANCE. GAYS, LESBIANS AND BISEXUALS ON CAMPUS, 1991, ED NANCY J. EVANS & VERNON A. WALL, AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION, INCLUDES:
CH 1: THE DEVELOPMENT OF GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES, HEIDI LEVINE & NANCY J. EVANS.
CH 2: USING PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORIES TO UNDERSTAND AND WORK WITH GAY AND LESBIAN PERSONS, VERNON A. WALL, NANCY J. EVANS.
This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, eds. Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua, Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press, 1981
Nice Jewish Girls: A Lesbian Anthology, ed Evelyn Torton Beck, The Crossing Press, 1982.
Talking About Young Lesbians, L. Trenchard, London Gay Teenage Group, 1985.
Parents Matter, Parents' Relationships with Lesbian Daughters and Gay Sons, Ann Muller, The Naiad Press, 1987.
There's Something I've Been Meaning To Tell You, ed. Loralee MacPike, Naiad, 1989. (Coming out to children).
Being Lesbian, L. Trenchard, Gay Mens Press, 1989.
Inventing Ourselves: Lesbian Life Stories, Hall Carpenter Archives, Routledge, 1989.
Out on the Shelves, Lesbian Books into Libraries, compiled by Jane Allen, Linda Kerr, Avril Rolph and Marion Chadwick, AAL Publishing, 1989.
The Final Closet, The Gay Parents Guide for Coming Out to Their Children, Rip Corley, editech press, 1990.
Being Happy, Being Gay: Pathways to a Rewarding Life for Lesbians and Gay Men, Bert Harman, Alamo Square Press, 1990.
The Other Side of the Closet, The Coming-Out Crisis for Straight Spouses, Amity Pierce Buxton, IBS Press, 1991.
A Stranger in the Family, Terry Sanderson, The Other Way Press, 1991.
Coming-Out to Parents: A Two-Way Survival Guide for Lesbians and Gay Men and Their Parents, Mary V. Borhek, 1991, Pilgrim Press.
Positively Gay: New Approaches to Gay and Lesbian Life, Bette Berzon, Editor, Celestial Arts, 1992.
Coming Out: An Anthology of International Gay and Lesbian Writings, Stephen Likosky, Editor, Pantheon Books, Inc, 1992.
Coming Out Within: Stages of Spiritual Awakening for Lesbians and Gay men, Craig O'Neill, Kathleen Ritter, Harper Collins, 1993.
AND THEN I MET THIS WOMAN, PREVIOUSLY MARRIED WOMEN'S JOURNEYS INTO LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, BARBEE J. CASSINGHAM, SALLY M.O'NEIL, MOTHER COURAGE PRESS, 1993.
50 Ways To Tell Your Mother, Lynn Sutcliffe, Mansell, 1994.
Reclaiming Pride: Daily Reflections on Gay and Lesbian Life, Joseph H. Neisen, Health Communications, 1994.
Coming Out: A Book for Lesbians and Gay Men of All Ages, Suzy Byrne, Martello Books, 1994.
Testimonies: Lesbian Coming-Out Stories, Karen Barber, Sarah Holmes, Editors, Alyson, 1994.
LESBIAN,GAY AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES OVER THE LIFESPAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ED ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995, INCLUDES:
I CONCEPTS OF SEXUAL IDENTITY
LESBIAN IDENTITIES: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES, LAURA S. BROWN, P3-23.
GAY MALE IDENTITIES: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, P24-47.
BISEXUAL IDENTITIES, RONALD C. FOX, P48-86.
ISSUES OF SEXUAL IDENTITY IN AN ETHNIC MINORITY: THE CASE OF CHINESE AMERICAN LESBIANS, GAY MEN, AND BISEXUAL PEOPLE, CONNIE S. CHAN, P87-101.
BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION, J. MICHAEL BAILEY, P102-135.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR LESBIAN AND GAY PSYCHOLOGY, CELIA KITZINGER, P136-164.
II PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFESPAN
LESBIAN, GAY MALE, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, P165-189.
LESBIANS AND GAY MEN IN MIDLIFE, DOUGLAS C. KIMMEL & BARBARA E. SANG, P190-214.
DEVELOPMENT IN LATE LIFE: OLDER LESBIAN AND GAY LIVES, JAMES D. REID, P215-242.
LESBIAN AND GAY COUPLES, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, P243-261.
LESBIAN MOTHERS, GAY FATHERS, AND THEIR CHILDREN, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, P262-292.
III COMMUNITY AND CONTEXTUAL ISSUES
LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL COMMUNITIES, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI & LINDA D. GARNETS, P293-320.
PSYCHOLOGICAL HETEROSEXISM IN THE UNITED STATES, GREGORY M. HEREK, P321-346.
THE IMPACT OF THE HIV EPIDEMIC ON U.S. GAY MALE COMMUNITIES, JAY P. PAUL, ROBERT B. HAYS & THOMAS J. COATES, P347-397.
PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, KRISTIN A. HANCOCK, P398-432
REDEFINING THE SELF, COMING OUT AS LESBIAN, LAURA A. MARKOWE, POLITY PRESS, 1996.
THE NEW OUR RIGHT TO LOVE, A LESBIAN RESOURCE BOOK, ED. GINNY VIDA, TOUCHSTONE, 1996.