MULTI-CULTURAL

TO BE 20 AND HOMOSEXUAL IN FRANCE TODAY, JEAN LE BITOUX, JOURNAL OF

HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 17 (3/4) 1989.

Being young and gay in Paris today poses a duality: The new generation of gay men and women have forgotten the historical consciousness of the gay liberation movement, yet their cultural identity and new way of life in a more modern France is a positive point. Thus, a new generation of gay young people growing up ina new cultural landscape and progressive attitudes of heterosexuals permit being optimistic.

CROSS REFERENCES

BUTCH/FEM

HOW TO RECOGNIZE A LESBIAN: THE CULTURAL POLIICS OF LOOKING LIKE WHAT YOU ARE, LISA M. WALKER, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P866-890.

COMMUNITY

DIFFERENCES AND IDENTITIES: FEMINISM AND THE ALBUQUERQUE LESBIAN COMMUNITY, TRISHA FRANZEN, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P891-906.

 

GAY

GAY LIBERATION AND COMING OUT IN MEXICO, JOSEPH M. CARRIER, JOURNAL OF

HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 17 (3/4) 1989.

This article presents information on three sociocultural variables and relates it to gay liberation and the behavior of gay youth in Guadalajara, Mexico's second largest city. A detailed history of the gay liberation movement in Guadalajara is given because it provides an excellent example of the interaction of sociocultural variables and shows how different the outcome of liberation may be for gay people in

Mexico. Brief life histories of the "coming out" of two Guadalajaran gay men further illustrate some of the unique ways in which gay identities change the lives of gay youth in Mexico.

GAY YOUTH IN FOUR CULTURES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY, MICHAEL W. ROSS,

JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (3/4).

Young and older homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) were compared on a number of psychological, social, and psychometric indices to determine what differences existed between them, and the effect of culture on any such differences. Data show that there are greater differences between younger and older homosexual men as the culture appears more anti-homosexual, and that younger homosexual men are less likely to accept their sexual orientation and more likely to accept myths surrounding homosexuality. Younger homosexual men were also more likely to have had gonorrhea (regardless of their number of sexual partners), to prefer receptive anal intercourse, and to have contacted partners by cruising. These data confirm that mental health consequences of anti-homosexual environments are most negative where homosexuality is most severely stigmatized.

HISTORY

MAKING HISTORY: THE CHALLENGE OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDIES, WILL ROSCOE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P1-40.

This paper addresses a central problem of gay and lesbian studies: how is the subject to be defined? Current essentialist and constructionist positions are ultimately ahistorical and reductionist, reflecting the residual influence of the medical model and its sexual definition. In place of a single-dimensional and a priori sexual category, the author proposes sociosexual specialization as the appropriate focus of gay and lesbian studies and outlines a heuristic, multidimensional model for describing not only contemporary, but historical and cross-cultural evidence. Six dimensions of social and sexual variation are reviewed: sexuality, subjecivity and identity, gender, social roles, economic roles, and spirituality.

IDENTITY

BREAKING THE MIRROR: THE CONSTRUCTION OF LESBIANISM AND THE ANTHROPOLO-

GICAL DISCOURSE ON HOMOSEXUALITY, E. BLACKWOOD. JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, SUMMER, VOL 11 (3-4), PAGES 1-17.

This essay reviews the anthropological discourse on homosexuality by examining the assumptions that have been used by anthropologists to explain homosexual behavior, and by identifying current theoretical

approaches. The essay questions the emphasis on male homosexual behavior as the basis for theoretical analysis, and points to the importance of including female homosexual behavior in the study of

homosexuality. Cross-cultural data on lesbian behavior are represented and the influence of gender divisions and social stratification on the development of patterns of lesbian behavior are broadly explored. The article outlines suggestions for examining the cultural context of lesbian behavior as well as the constraints exerted on women's sexual behavior in various cultures.

MENTAL

IS SEPARATION REALLY SO GREAT? G. DORSEY GREEN, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P.87-104.

This paper challenges the validity of current male, Western psychological theories which state that separation and autonomy are prerequisites for mental health. The author argues for consideration of theories than envision individual development as occurring within the context of relationships. Lesbian couples are used as a focus for this discussion. Examples from communities of color in the United States and Eastern cultures are also discussed.

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