LESBIANS, MENTAL HEALTH AND THERAPY
There has been little research conducted in Britain in regard to Lesbians. During our research we have come across several papers, mostly coming from the U.S.A., copies of which can be obtained through local libraries. You will need to complete a request form (it will cost about 50p per item and take about a month) and your library will have to send off to the British Library for a photocopy. These are academic papers and some are more accessible than others - the abstracts below will give you an idea of what they are like.
Coming out and identity formation is a crucial aspect of lesbian mental health but there are too many papers to include in this Resource List; we have, therefore, produced a List specifically on this topic - "Lesbians, Coming Out and Identity Development." Other Lists which you may find useful include:- "Parents of Lesbians and Gays," "Working With Lesbian and Gay Youth," "Black and Minority Ethnic Lesbians," "Lesbians Who Are Mothers," "Lesbians and Alcohol," "Lesbian Relationships."
HOMOSEXUALITY. IV. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND DISABILITY IN THE FEMALE HOMOSEXUAL, MARCEL T. SAGHIR, ELI ROBINS, BONNIE WALBRAN, KATHYE A. GENTRY, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, 1970, VOL 127(2), P147-154.
A study of 57 homosexual women and 43 single heterosexual controls revealed slightly more clinically significant changes and disability in the lives of the homosexual women as compared with the heterosexual women. The chief differences were in the increased prevalence of alcoholism and of attempted suicide. Despite these difficulties, the homosexual women were able to achieve, adapt, and be productive citizens.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE MEDICAL MODEL, VERN L. BULLOUGH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL1(1), P99-110.
In the eighteenth century the whole subject of sexuality came to be of increasing medical concern, and medical concepts about sexual deviation came to enforce traditional religious concepts which were under attack. These ideas were amplified in the nineteenth century until all nonprocreative forms of sexuality were looked upon as pathological.
THE GAY COLLEGE STUDENT: PERSPECTIVES FOR MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS, ELANE M. NUEHRING, SARA BECK FEIN, MARY TYLER, COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1975, VOL 4, P64-72.
Homosexual university students report that they have experienced difficulty in obtaining adequate counseling services. The principle obstacle suggested is counselors' lack of information about the gay subculture, particularly those aspects which can facilitate gay students' personal development. This paper is an attempt to provide information which could be useful to couselors in their work with gay students. Other work relative to nonclinical groups of gay persons are reviewed. Findings on homosexual identity, the gay couple, the gay friendship group and gay contraculture are discussed. It is recommended that counselors adopt a minority group conceptualization of such treatment adjuncts as gay paraprofessional counselors or referrals to gay student organizations.
PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GAY COMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW, STEPHEN F. MORIN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P1-6.
EPILOGUE, EVELYN HOOKER, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P131-138.
PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH LESBIANS, DOROTHY I. RIDDLE, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P84-100.
Psychotherapeutic work with lesbians is confounded by both sexist and heterosexist factors. This paper traces three aspects of women's socialization - self-concept, feminine sex-role behavior, and sexuality - which have particular implications for lesbians and discusses the implications of these three in therapy. The impact of women's conditioning to base self-esteem on acceptance by others is noted, particularly as such conditioning combines with the cumulative stresses of lesbian life. Finally, examples of ways in which heterosexual bias may become apparent in therapy are given, and alternative therapeutic approaches are discussed.
PSYCHOLOGISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUAL PSYCHOTHERAPY CLIENTS, ELLEN M. GARFINKLE, STEPHEN F. MORIN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P101-112.
Forty male and forty female psychotherapists were asked to rate both a hypothetical client, based on an intake case history, and their concept of the "psychologically healthy person" on a semantic differential scale. Participants were assigned case histories where the hypothetical client was a heterosexual male, heterosexual female, homosexual male, or homosexual female. Attributions of psychological health were found to differ as a function of sexual orientation of client and sex of therapist. No significant difference was found between evaluation of male homosexual and female homosexual clients. Results are discussed in terms of the significance of perceived violations of sex-role stereotypes in the evaluation of psychological health.
THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPES AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION ON PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC OUTCOMES, PETRA LIJESTRAND, ERNEST GERLING, PATRICIA A. SALIBA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(4), P361-372.
This paper examines the relationship of biological sex, social sex-role stereotypes, and sexual orientation of client and therapist to psychotherapeutic outcomes. It was hypothesized that analogous biological sex, departures in social sex-role, and sexual orientation of client and therapist would have positive effects on psychotherapeutic outcomes. Twenty-four clients and 16 therapists, including five client-therapist pairs, were interviewed on how issues of social sex-role stereotyping and sexual orientation arose and were dealt with in therapy. The results indicated (a) a trend toward more positive outcomes when client and therapist were of the same sex, and (b) that similarity of sexual orientation of client and therapist is related to positive psychotherapeutic outcomes. The results for departure from social sex-role stereotypes were inconclusive.
TOWARD A NEW MODEL OF TREATMENT OF HOMOSEXUALITY: A REVIEW, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(4), P345-359.
A review of the literature of outcome studies in the psychoanalytic or behavioral treatment of homosexuality reveals limited results when "heterosexual shift" is the goal. Recently, however, a growing body of empirical knowledge has accumulated that challenges the illness or maladaptive model of homosexuality. Consequently, a new model has been emerging that is designed to assist homosexuals to recognise, accept, and value their sexual identity and to help them adjust to this identity in a predominantly heterosexual society. Unfortunately, only a few studies exist that examine the results of this new approach.
COLLEGE AGE LESBIANISM AS A DEVELOPMENT PHENOMENON, ANN FLECK HENDERSON, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH ASSOCIATION, 1979 VOL 28(3), P176-78.
The clinical phenomenon of young lesbianism is seen as psychologically meaningful in terms of ongoing ego development rather than in terms of arrested psychosexual development.
COUNSELLING THE YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN, RHODA MILLER, JOURNAL OF THE NAWDAC, 1980, VOL 43(3), P44-47.
This paper focuses on the common problems faced by the young adult lesbian when she first realizes that she might be gay. The author suggests counselors should: (1) encourage the counselee to "dump"; (2) guide her in a decision of how, when and with whom to come out, (3) explain the legal rights and restrictions concerning homosexuality, (4) provide ongoing support on an individual basis for those who choose to socialize openly, and (5) publicly promote gay rights.
THE LESBIAN AS A "SINGLE" WOMAN, NANETTE GARTRELL, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1981, VOL 35(4), P502-509.
Until recently, lesbianism was considered a developmental disorder. Studies have now shown that lesbians are indistinguishable from heterosexual women in psychological adjustment. However, lesbians must cope with considerable stress living in a society which is intolerant of homosexuality. This paper will discuss the unique conflicts which cultural definitions of the "single" woman create for lesbian women.
INTRAPSYCHIC EFFECTS OF STIGMA: A PROCESS OF BREAKDOWN AND RECONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL REALITY, SARA BECK FEIN, ELANE M. MUEHRING, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 7(1), P3-13.
Being stigmatized has intrapsychic consequences for the individual. Two aspects of the process by which these consequences occur are described: a breakdown of the person's system of interpretation and valuation, which may lead to reality shock; and a reconstruction of those systems that takes into account the stigmatized characteristic. The latter aspect is associated with frequently noted sequels to stigma, including identity reconstruction, changes in affiliative patterns, and revisions of long-range plans and goals. Key elements in both major aspects are the master-status character of stigma or, in other words, its being a status that takes precedence over all others; the wide-spread knowledge of stereotypes associated with a given stigma; and the actual and imagined response of others. The data are from an ethnographic study of a homosexual community, but the intrapychic processes described may occur in conjunction with any stigma acquired after normative socialization, including stigmas resulting from a characteristic viewed by others as inappropriate for a status occupied by the individual such as a black or female professional.
THE USE OF DIAGNOSTIC CONCEPTS IN WORKING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN POPULATIONS, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P9-20.
INTRODUCTION: PRESENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN GAY/LESBIAN MENTAL HEALTH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P5-7.
ORGANISATIONAL AND STAFF PROBLEMS IN GAY/LESBIAN MENTAL HEALTH AGENCIES, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P193-208.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION OF THE THERAPIST AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTIVENESS WITH GAY CLIENTS, MARTIN ROCHLIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P21-29.
The psychotherapeutic effects of client-therapist similarity and difference have been investigated and reported in the areas of social class, gender, race, religion, culture, politics, wealth, education, age, personality, and sexual mores, but very rarely with regard to sexual-affectional orientation. This paper examines the literature on relationship variables in psychotherapy, and on client-therapist similarity as one of those relationship variables. These broader issues are related to the more specific subject of similarity or difference of sexual orientation between client and therapist, and to the implications of that variable for psychotherapeutic process and outcome with lesbian and gay male clients.
IMPROVING SERVICES TO GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, D.D. DULANEY AND J. KELLY, SOCIAL WORK, 1982, (27 MARCH), P178-183.
Estimates indicate that 10 percent of the clients of mental health agencies are gay or lesbian, yet social workers receive little theoretical or clinical training in helping the homosexual client. The authors examine the reasons for this apparent gap in social work education and propose specific approaches for
improving services to clients who are gay or lesbian.
LESBIAN CLIENT-LESBIAN THERAPIST OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN WORKING TOGETHER, BRONWYN D. ANTHONY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P45-57.
The author describes her experiences as an openly identified lesbian clinical psychologist working with 50 lesbians over the past 4 years in metropolitan Los Angeles. The women she has worked with have generally been Caucasian and middle class; half were in their 30s, one quarter in their 20s, and another quarter over 40 years of age. The most common presenting problem is difficulty with a lover relationship - either in working out problems in the relationship or in dealing with the pain of separation. Single lesbians who wish to meet other lesbians encounter problems due to limited opportunities and undeveloped social skills for initiating contact. The relative lack of courtship rituals among lesbians sometimes results in mis-matched partners who then have great difficulty separating from each other. Fears of rejection and inflexible initiator roles during love-making lead to sexual difficulties. Therapeutic approaches to help lesbians with self-esteem issues and relationship concerns are suggested. Issues of transference and countertransference are discussed in light of the fairly common occurrence of client and therapist seeing each other outside of sessions at lesbian and gay community functions and events.
PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR HOMOSEXUAL CLIENTS: NEW CONCEPTS, WILLIAM G. HERRON, THOMAS KINTER, IRWIN SOLINGER, JULIUS TRUBOWITZ, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P177-192.
This article argues that psychoanalytic psychotherapy can be valuable for homosexual patients. The authors examine the psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality, present the evidence for and against homosexual "pathology," and describe their own conceptual schema for therapy: a psychoanalytic approach designed to improve the client's social and sexual functioning. The article is illustrated with clinical examples of clients who learned to understand and express their sexual orientations, which were primarily homosexual.
WHAT NON-GAY THERAPISTS NEED TO KNOW TO WORK WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, JOSEPHINE STEWART, PRACTICE DIGEST, 1984, VOL 7(1), P28-30.
CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR WHICH PRECLUDE HOMOSEXUAL SELF-LABELING, JOEL D. HENCKEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 9(4), P53-63.
Our culture presents people with a problematic pair of messages: (1) engaging in homosexual behavior makes a person a homosexual, and (2) homosexuality is bad. In this context, maintenance of self-esteem, sexual/affectional satisfaction, and coherent identity requires some intricate psychological footwork. This article describes a variety of common conceptualizations of "homosexual behavior" which permit the individual to avoid the stigma of homosexual self-labeling. It is suggested that the "accuracy" of these constructions is less important than the appropriate doubt they cast on our widely held, but psychologically inadequate, concepts of sexual orientation.
HOMOPHOBIA: A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF MENTAL HEALTH
PROFESSIONALS TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY, TERESA D. DECRESCENZO, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, (SPECIAL ISSUE: HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK), 1984, VOL 2(2/3), P115-135.
A 20-page questionnaire was administered to 140 mental health professionals employed in a variety of service delivery agencies, both public and private. Respondents were asked a variety of demographic questions covering 23 variables, and were asked their opinions on a number of issues related to attitudes toward homosexuality. Statistically significant differences were found among various disciplines and within disciplines on certain items. The findings illuminate some sources of attitude development, including family of origin, religious background, parental education level and other sources as well.
COUNSELING GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, BEVERLY DECKER, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, (SPECIAL ISSUE: HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK), 1984, VOL 2(2/3), P39-52.
Although lesbians and gay men in relationships are part of the client population that social workers serve, the critical dynamic and cultural issues involved in providing optimal help for same-
sex couples have received little attention in the profession. The author discusses some of the unique characteristics and special problems of same-sex dyads which must be taken into
consideration when theoretical and clinical issues are combined to form an effective treatment approach. Topics addressed include: How problems in defining boundaries of same-sex couples
are intensified by the absence of social 'rules' relating to them, the effects of homophobia on issues of oneness and differentiation, and the impact of gender socialization on differences between gay male and lesbian relationships.
CHANGES IN LABELING HOMOSEXUALITY IN HEALTH SCIENCES LITERATURE: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION, SANDRA L. SCHWANBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 12(1), P51-73.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the image of gay men and lesbian women in health sciences literature since the demedicalization of homosexuality by American psychiatry in 1973. The process of medicalization and demedicalization of any behavior labeled as deviant in American society has received scant attention until recently. In addition, labeling theory has for the most part ignored the labelers and the process by which powerful groups, in this instance American medicine and other health professions, influence the labeling process.
Since the American Psychiatric Association's decision to demedicalize homosexuality from an illness to a "suboptimal condition," over 700 articles have been published in the health care literature about various aspects of homosexuality, including a continued debate about the health or illness classification of homosexuality. Literature reviewed for this investigation was limited to letters, policy statements, and editorials or articles written between 1974 and 1983 which were germane to the classification issue.
ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY, ISSUES FOR PEDIATRICIANS, GARY J. REMAFEDI, CLINICAL PEDIATRICS, SEP 1985, P481-485.
Homosexuality is among the most complex and controversial issues of adolescent health care. Although homosexual activity is common during adolescence, the prevalence and origins of homosexuality per se are poorly understood. Homosexual identity formation is a potentially tumultuous process that begins in childhood and extends through adulthood. The adolescent's experiences may ultimately contribute to a variety of physical and mental health problems. The sociological, psychological, and medical issues are considered, and guidelines for the care of homosexual youths are proposed.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY AND AFFIRMATION OF THE GAY LIFESTYLE: ARE THEY NECESSARILY ANTITHETICAL? CARLTON W. CORNETT, ROSS A. HUDSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 12(1), P97-108.
This article explores a conflict between the American psychoanalytic community and the American gay community which has played itself out in this country's mental health system for most of this century. The roots of the conflict are traced back to the American conception of diagnosis, as well as a lack of adequate developmental studies focused on the nature of homosexuality. The current psychoanalytic stance is presented as inimical to the stance Freud took, and an exploration of ways to ameliorate the conflict between American psychoanalytic thought and affirmation of homosexuality as an alternative healthy lifestyle is undertaken.
ENHANCING SERVICES FOR SEXUAL-MINORITY CLIENTS: A COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH APPROACH, JACK RABIN, KATHLEEN KEEFE, MICHAEL BURTON, SOCIAL WORK, 1986, VOL 31(4), P294-298.
The authors describe the efforts of a community mental health district to improve services for gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. A Gay Services Coordinating Committee recommended that the district (1) hire more sexual-minority staff, (2) give clients the option of seeing therapists sensitive to sexual minorities, (3) provide continuing education on homosexuality, and (4) appoint a contact person to coordinate services in each unit.
HETEROSEXUAL BIAS AMONG COUNSELOR TRAINEES, AUDREY A. GLENN, RICHARD K. RUSSELL, COUNSELOR EDUCATION AND SUPERVISION, MARCH 1986, P222-229.
Master's level counselor trainees rated an audiotaped and role-played intake interview of a female client whose sexual orientation was varied. In Condition 1, the client referred to her partner as "Doug," a man; in Condition 2, the client referred to her partner as "Diane," a woman; in Condition 3, the client referred to her partner as "Chris," whose sex was unidentifiable. Subtle forms of heterosexual bias were found through participants' ratings of the unidentifiable client. When reponding to the ambiguous condition involving the unidentifiable client, 83% of the participants assumed the client was heterosexual. When they were debriefed, participants expressed concern over the lack of training on issues related to counseling lesbian and gay clients. Use of the ambiguous case example, as in this study, is recommended for training to assess and confront increasingly subtle forms of heterosexual bias.
ETHICAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING GENDER, RACE, AND CULTURALLY DISTINCT GROUPS, SUSAN E. CAYLEFF, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT, 1986, VOL 64, P345-347.
This article addresses the complex ethical and cultural issues that arise when counseling women, Blacks, ethnic minorities, poor people, lesbians, and gays. Common dilemmas arising from the social context of the counselor-client relationship, the need to respect client autonomy, and the imperative for ethical and quality health care are outlined and discussed and management strategies are suggested.
A VERY SILENT AND GAY MINORITY, GLORIA J. KRYSIAK, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, 1987, VOL 34(4), P304-307.
HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND THE SCHOOL COUNSELOR, ROBERT EARL POWELL, SCHOOL COUNSELOR, 1987, VOL 34(3), P202-208.
EXTRACT: My purpose in this article is twofold: to examine some of the problems and issues that confront adolescent gay and lesbian students in the school environment and to focus on an understanding of the sexual preference of these youths as a means of delineating roles for the counselor. Some specific recommendations for the school counsellor are also included.
INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND LESBIAN IDENTITY, JOAN SOPHIE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2)
This paper presents suggestions for therapists working with women who are having difficulty accepting their attractions to other women, lesbian behavior and identity, or both, with the goal of promoting self-acceptance and reducing internalized homophobia. After a discussion of the therapeutic relationship, several coping strategies which have been used successfully by many women are described and therapeutic applications are offered. These strategies include cognitive restructuring, avoiding a negative identity, adopting an identity label, self-disclosure, meeting other lesbians, and habituation to lesbianism. Finally, behavioral indications of success or failure to achieve the goal of self-acceptance are presented.
SEX THERAPY WITH LESBIAN COUPLES: A FOUR STAGE APPROACH, MARNY HALL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14 (1/2), P137-156.
The many factors - social, cultural, psychological - that shape homosexual sexual expression render purely behavioural sex therapy models one-dimensional and ineffective for lesbian clients with sexual presenting problems. Though a behavioral approach may be useful later in the treatment of such problems, the effective clinician must first address the inimical social and cultural contexts that frame lesbian sexual impasses. This paper offers specific techniques, both direct and indirect, designed to illuminate and neutralize these contexts. Additionally, the author presents a sequence of sensate focus exercises, tailored to the particular needs of lesbian couples.
SUICIDE RISK AMONG GAY MEN AND LESBIANS: A REVIEW, JUDITH M. SAUNDERS, S.M. VALENTE, DEATH STUDIES, 1987, VOL 4(1), P1-23.
Without adequate death statistics from completed suicide data, the suicide risk for gay men and lesbians must be determined from empirical studies and from a theoretical understanding of suicide risk. Three large, well designed studies found that gay men and lesbians attempt suicide two to seven times more often than heterosexual comparison groups. Gay men and lesbians have significantly high rates of risk factors that increase suicide risk such as suicide attempts, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and interrupted social ties.
Durkheim suggests that groups with low social status and integration who are denied society's usual privilege and rights are at risk for alienation and anomic suicide unless protected by internal cohesion, religion or antisuicide norms. Durkheim's theory applied to gay men and lesbians illustrates how the extensive and diverse alienation reported may lead to suicide. Diverse groups of gay people have not yet successfully decreased alienation or suicide.
Empirical evidence, risk factors and Durkheim's theory of anomic suicide thus supports the proposition that gay men and lesbians are at high risk for suicide. The need for sensitive research methodology, decreased heterosexual bias, creative network sampling strategies, and confidentiality are discussed. Future research should clarify the completed suicide rates among diverse groups of homosexuals of different age, sex, race, and demographic variables.
SUICIDE AMONG HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENTS, RONALD F.C. KOURANY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P111-117.
Little attention has been given in the professional literature to suicide among homosexual adolescents. Sixty-six adolescent psychiatrists responded to a questionnaire on the subject. Results from this survey suggest that many experts are not working with homosexual adolescents. On the other hand, the majority of those treating them considered them to be at higher risk for suicide and agreed that their suicidal gestures were more severe than those of other adolescents.
THERAPEUTIC ISSUES AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES WITH YOUNG ADULT LESBIAN CLIENTS: A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH, C. BROWNING, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P45-52.
This paper examines the coming out process within an adult developmental context. Therapeutic issues which surface for the young adult lesbian client include separation from parents, development of social support, exploration of career/vocational goals, and the establishment of intimate relationships. Intervention strategies are suggested which facilitate the coming out process and help the client integrate her sexual orientation within her emerging adult identity.
INTRODUCTION, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P 1-8.
This is a special issue on psychotherapy. Includes background to psychotherapy and homosexuality and identifies specific areas: identity development, relationship concerns, family conflicts, and special problems (alcoholism - male; AIDS).
LESBIAN STRESS AND COPING METHODS, K.E. GILLOW, L.L. DAVIS, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL NURSING MENTAL HEALTH SERVICE, 1987, VOL 25(9), P28-32.
Nurses come into contact with lesbian clients in many settings and can contribute greatly to insure high quality health care for these women. To do this, it is important for nurses to have an understanding of the lesbian lifestyle and special health needs of this group. The focus of this article is the presentation of selected findings from a national survey of 142 lesbians on perceived stressors and coping behaviors associated with their sexual orientation and life-style choice.
DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES AND THEIR RESOLUTION FOR GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, E.S. HETRICK AND A.D. MARTIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALiTY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P25-43.
The primary development task for homosexually oriented adolescents is adjustment to a socially stigmatized role. Although the individual homosexual adolescent reacts with diversity and great resilience to societal pressures, most pass through a turbulent period that carries the risk of maladaptive behaviors that may affect adult performance. Despite individual variation, certain issues have been found to concern most homosexual adolescents. Empirical data from the Institute for the Protection of Lesbian and Gay Youth, Inc. in New York city suggests that isolation, family violence, educational issues, emotional stresses, shelter and sexual abuse are the main concerns of youth entering the program. If not resolved, the social, cognitive, and social isolation may extend into adulthood, and anxiety, depressive symptoms, alienation, self-hatred, and demoralization may result. In a non-threatening supportive environment that provides accurate information and appropriate peer and adult role models, many of the concerns are alleviated and internalized negative attitudes are either modified or prevented from developing. The authors discuss the effects of prejudice and the impact of negative societal attitudes on the developing social and personal identities of homosexual youths.
ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY: GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES, JIM A. CATES, CHILD WELFARE, 1987, VOL 16(4), P353-364.
Dynamics and interventions with adolescents who express concern regarding gay/lesbian issues are described, with a focus both intrapsychic and social. Both psychological and emotional aspects of sexual preference, and cultural and social expectations for those who identify themselves as gay or lesbian are considered.
HEALTH CARE DELIVERY AND THE CONCERNS OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, P.A. PAROSKI, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1987, VOL 8 (MAR), P188-192.
121 self-identified homosexual adolescents presenting to a New York City gay-lesbian community clinic were questioned over a period of 18 months concerning their perceived needs and health care requirements. They reported using various traditional and nontraditional methods to learn about the homosexual lifestyle. Through this socialisation many developed a stereotypical view of homosexuality and its associated lifestyle. Details family discovery and other specific concerns. Suggests implications of this psychosocial process are important to professionals caring for adolescents.
MARRIED LESBIANS, G. DORSEY GREEN AND D. MERILEE CLUNIS, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1988, VOL 8(1-2), P41-49.
This article forms part of a volume devoted to therapy and lesbianism; in the case of married women lesbians, that is those co-habiting with men, at least for some time, various patterns are found. Some women remain in stable relationships with both a male and a female lover, others have no sexual relations with men, but have one or more female partners who may or may not be married to men. In general the married lesbians report little or no sexual satisfaction or activity in their heterosexual marriages, but mutually satisfying sex in their lesbian relationships. Some achieve a stable situation, similar to that termed triangulation in family systems theory, whereby the heterosexual marriage and the lesbian relationship are mutually interdependent. The majority of married lesbians are in their 40s or older and many remain very secretive since coming out might involve loss of income, status and family. Many are rather isolated drawing support from a few other lesbians or just one partner as to relinquish her roles is for the heterosexual older woman too threatening. However, should one partner change her life significantly, say through living independently of her husband or demanding more lesbian contacts, then the other partner may feel very threatened. A therapist who works with lesbians may find that many present for therapy when there is a shift in the balance of their lives, either self-sought or imposed from outside. Issues such as coming out or not and couples counselling are also important for a lesbian therapist to address since she is a resource and possibly a validation for other lesbians so should accept the challenge of constantly examining her own values and models in her work.
THE GAY AND LESBIAN TEEN: A CASE OF DENIED ADOLESCENCE, ROBERT J. BIDWELL, JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 2(1), P3-8.
In 1983 the American Academy of Pediatrics recognised the reality and special needs of those adolescents for whom homosexuality is a natural and valid developmental outcome. Unfortunately, gay and lesbian teens grow up in an environment that is still largely hostile to their sexual and affectional orientation. Society neither affirms their feelings as healthy and legitimate nor allows the exploration necessary for self-understanding and acceptance. The increased morbidity and mortality risk associated with being a gay or lesbian teen is often due to this denial of adolescence. Health care professionals should provide support, accurate information, and anticipatory guidance to adolescents with sexual identity concerns and to their parents. In addition, health care providers should publicly address the realities of growing up gay and the need for a societal change in attitude toward homosexuality that is based on fact rather than myth or ignorance.
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, HOMOSEXUALITY, AND HOMOPHOBIA JAIME SMITH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(1/2), P59-73.
BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND GAY PEOPLE, CHARLES SILVERSTEIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(1/2), P185-212.
This paper examines the diagnostic category called Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its relationship to gay people. It discusses the psychoanalytic definition of borderline personalities, and to it adds a cultural definition. In the light of these cultural variables, the diagnosis is defined as a metaphor for the complexities and confusions of modern life. These confusions are important in the lives of gay people, who, it is suggested, are currently more prone to be diagnosed as BPD. Through the life study of a gay man, both the psychoanalytic and cultural variables are identified, then generalized to the problems of gay people in our transitional society.
MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, J.C. GONSIOREK, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1988, VOL 9(2), P114-122.
The mental health concerns of gay and lesbian adolescents are best understood within the context of cultural limitations, including a problematic conceptualization of adolescence, homophobia, and erotophobia. Within this framework, background information about homosexuality is presented; and the special social pressures and psychological problems of gay and lesbian youth are discussed, with particular attention paid to internalized homophobia, developmental issues, and the "coming out" process. Differences between gay and lesbian mental health issues are highlighted. Finally, practical suggestions regarding treatment planning are provided.
ESSENTIAL ISSUES IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, B.R. SLATER, PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH & PRACTICE, 1988, VOL 19(2), P226-235.
Psychologists working with young gay men and lesbians may experience public and agency resistance based primarily on the confusion of moral and rational thinking and on homophobia. To work effectively with young lesbians and gay men, psychologists need to be relatively free of homophobia and knowledgeable about gay male and lesbian life-styles. Provision of developmental process information to the client is very useful. Internal and external homophobia, a lack of healthful role models, coming out to oneself and others, and AIDS are among the most critical problems faced by young gay men and lesbians. Although a discussion of intervention techniques is beyond the scope of this article, bibliotherapy is briefly decribed as one effective intervention in that it provides necessary information to the client and it serves as a springboard for therapy.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND NEUROSIS: CONSIDERATIONS FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY, ROBERT P. CABAJ, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(1/2), P13-23.
Though there is no correlation between mental illness and homosexuality, there are unique concerns that play a role in symptomatology and psychotherapy around neurotic and characterological issues in gay patients. Homophobia, both in the therapist and in the patient, external and internalized, is the significant "hidden" factor. Lack of training around transference and countertransference issues with gay patients and lack of teaching about homosexuality in training programs contribute to the difficulties encountered in psychotherapy with gay people. There are some problems and concerns specific to being homosexual that may bring patients to therapy: "coming-out," deciding on sexual orientation, desire to change orientation, and a unique "AIDS neurosis." The therapist needs to have an objective knowledge of the gay community and be willing to examine personal beliefs and reactions to work effectively with gay patients.
VIOLENCE IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF CAUSAL FACTORS, CLAIRE M. RENZETTI, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1988, VOL 3(4), P381-399.
Despite the increase in research on domestic violence during the last two decades, little attention has been given to the problem of partner abuse among homosexual couples. The present research takes a step toward developing an understanding of homosexual partner abuse by examining the incidence, forms, and correlates of violence in lesbian relationships. Based on questionnaire data from 100 lesbian victims, the study addresses, in particular, the relationships between lesbian battering and: (1) abusers' dependence on their partners; and (2) perceived power imbalances between partners in abusive lesbian relationships. In addition, the study explores the extent to which responses from the lesbian community and others to victims of abuse may serve to prevent or exacerbate lesbian battering. The article concludes by raising questions to guide future research.
THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH GAY MEN AND LESBIANS, TERRY S. STEIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(1/2), P75- 95.
This paper examines certain issues relevant to psychotherapy with gay men and lesbians. The roles of general factors in psychotherapy in relation to homosexuality, including the theoretical orientation of the therapist, the nature of the presenting problem, the mode of therapy, and the personal characteristics of the therapist, are discussed. Special issues of concern to gay men and lesbians, specifically the question of pathology, the amount of information the therapist has about homosexuality, the sexual orientation of the therapist, and the unique problems of gay men and lesbians, are reviewed. Finally, an overview of the role of homophobia in psychotherapy is presented, and the importance of further exploration in this area is discussed.
GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS,
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3-4), P197-216.
Adolescents who declare their homosexuality have recently become a highly controversial, and yet, "invisible" minority in Western societies. This cultural phenomenon has emerged because increasing numbers of youth want to explore and express sexual behaviors and identities beyond traditional heterosexual ones. Here, an attempt is made to distinguish between homosexual orientation and behaviour. Parents and health care providers are alerted to some of the issues e.g. irrational fears, peer ridicule, lack of support, and misunderstandings - that are directly responsible for the poor physical and psychological health of some lesbian and gay youth.
COUNSELLING PRACTICE: COUNSELLING HOMOSEXUAL/BISEXUAL PEOPLE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO YOUNG LESBIAN WOMEN, C. SMART, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE AND YOUTH, 1989, VOL 1(4), P379-93.
This account is written to explore issues connected with homosexuality and bisexuality in so far as these dispositions relate to the counselling of young people and adolescents. It is directed to those professionals and caring adults who may be called upon to help young people deal with their own sexuality and who, in consequence will be called upon to demonstrate a high level of acceptance and empathetic understanding.
FACTORS RELATED TO COUNSELOR PREFERENCE AMONG GAYS AND LESBIANS, DIANE MCDERMOTT, LARRY TYNDALL, JAMES W. LICHTENBERG, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P31-35.
This study explored the preference for counselor's sexual orientation among gay and lesbian clients. Recognizing that the perceived reaction of participants to hypothetical situations may be a viable predictor of future choices, respondents were administered a comfort/discomfort index intended to prove a number of potential counseling concerns. Internalized homophobia (Hudson & Ricketts, 1977) and a scale measuring degree of same- or opposite-sex sexual preferences (Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebbhard, 1953) were also investigated in an attempt to account for variance in the comfort/discomfort ratings. Findings indicated that gay men and lesbians tend to prefer gay or lesbian couselors, although a sizable number believe that counselors' sexual orientations do not make a difference. Internalized homophobia was found to predict discomfort in discussing various topics with a counselor of unknown sexual orientation.
WHEN THE THERAPIST IS GAY: PERSONAL AND CLINICAL REFLECTIONS, ROBERT D. SCHWARTZ, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P41-52.
SUMMARY: Most gay and lesbian clients want to know that their therapist is neither homophobic nor views their homosexuality as a sign of psychopathology. It is not uncommon for gay and lesbian clients to seek therapy from clinicians whom they know are also gay or lesbian. Nevertheless there can be pitfalls:
1. "Latent" homophobia may be used to devalue the worth of the therapy and/or therapist.
2. Mutual "blind spots" can lead to a collusion to avoid conflicted areas shared by the client and therapist.
3. The anticipated blanket acceptance by the therapist expected by the client may act as a resistance to exploring the intrapsychic conflicts that brought him to therapy.
4. The impact of AIDS on both the therapist and client introduces significant issues that can be emotionally distressing for both.
Over all, however, I think that this matching fosters a positive therapeutic alliance and promotes the work of psychotherapy in the vast majority of cases.
LESBIAN-RELATED ISSUES IN COUNSELING SUPERVISION, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P193-206.
NOT IN MAN'S IMAGE: LESBIANS AND THE CULTURAL OPPRESSION OF BODY IMAGE, SARI H. DWORKIN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P27-39.
SOME CHALLENGES OF INTEGRATING SEXUAL ORIENTATIONS INTO COUNSELOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH, SUZANNE IASENZA, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P73-76.
The field of counseling currently lacks an integrative approach on issues of sexual orientations in training and research. Despite changes in social and political realities and calls within the field for attention to these areas, little response has been forthcoming. Some of the challenges and difficulties involved in integrating sexual orientations into counselor training curricula and research are discussed. Suggestions are presented to help professionals gain a better understanding of sexual orientation isssues for research and practice.
INCORPORATING LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES INTO COUNSELOR TRAINING: A RESOURCE GUIDE, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P77-80.
In order for counselors to facilitate the growth of their lesbian and gay clients, they must be familiar with and become sensitive to the special needs of this population. However, most counselors and counselor trainees have had little exposure to these needs. One way of increasing their awareness and sensitivity is to incorporate lesbian and gay issues into counselor training programs. The focus of this article is to present a limited list of strategies and resources that can be used to supplement materials in traditional courses in counselor training so as to better prepare counselors for dealing with lesbian and gay clients.
BEYOND THOU SHALT NOT: THINKING ABOUT ETHICS IN THE LESBIAN THERAPY COMMUNITY, LAURA S. BROWN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P13-25.
FEMALE STUDENT PERSPECTIVES ON TRAINING IN LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1989, VOL 17(4), P629-636.
This study examined female counseling psychology doctoral students' perceptions of the type and extent of training they had received concerning lesbian and gay people. Participants, 213 female students from at least 31 counseling psychology programs, completed a 33-item survey designed to examine their perceptions of the frequency and manner in which lesbian and gay issues were addressed in their training. Results of the analyses indicated that female students receive little exposure to lesbian- or gay-related issues or to lesbian or gay clients and thus are not trained to work with these clients. Further results and implications are presented and discussed.
MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES OF RELEVANCE TO LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN, NATALIE JANE WOODMAN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P53-63.
This article addresses sources of stress and problem situations encountered by lesbians and gays. Beginning with the results of discussion with a group of young adults, the author identifies five loci for attention by practitioners: (1) loss; (2) anticipated loss; (3) concerns about personal identity; (4) concerns about group identity; and (5) relationship problems. Each of these is explored and exemplified. The author concludes with brief suggestions for intervention related to two of the foregoing problem areas: anticipated loss and loss.
GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL ADOLESCENTS: A CRITICAL CHALLENGE TO COUNSELORS, ELI COLEMAN, GARY REMAFEDI, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P36-40.
Meeting the health care needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual teenagers has become a public health imperative, and mental health professionals should be prepared for the challenge. The stigma of homosexuality often gives rise to psychosocial problems for adolescents, who are in the process of sexual identity development. The stigma also may complicate delivery of appropriate, ethical, and sound mental health treatment. Suggestions are offered to support healthy development, to assist recovery from stigma, and to avert the disastrous consequences of suicide and AIDS.
INTRODUCTION: LESBIANISM AS A MODEL OF A POSITIVE LIFESTYLE FOR WOMEN, ESTHER D. ROTHBLUM, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P1-12.
MOVING THROUGH LOSS: THE SPIRITUAL JOURNEY OF GAY MEN AND LESBIAN WOMEN, KATHLEEN Y. RITTER, CRAIG W. O'NEILL, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P9-15.
This article describes losses of gay men and lesbian women relative to their relationship with traditional religion and the mental health profession. By helping their clients reframe these losses into opportunities for transformation, counselors can facilitate spiritual integration both within and beyond the context of Judeo-Christian spriritualities.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, JEANNE MIRANDA, MICHEAL STORMS, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P41-45.
Previous research has documented that lesbian and gay men proceed through a series of stages in developing a positive lesbian and gay identity. The relationship between lesbian and gay identity and subsequent psychological adjustment has not been evaluated. These empirical studies found that positive lesbian and gay identity is related to psychological adjustment as measured by lower neurotic anxiety and greater ego strength in both an older and a younger sample of lesbians and gay men. Two coping strategies - self-labeling as a homosexual and self-disclosure of sexual orientation to others - were related to development of a positive lesbian or gay identity. These findings suggest that development of a positive lesbian or gay identity is an important task in promoting the psychological ajustment of lesbians and gay men.
THE MARRIED LESBIAN, ELI COLEMAN, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P119-135.
SUMMARY: The existing data on bisexual and lesbian women in heterosexual marriages is reviewed. The reasons for getting married in the first place, the quality of the marital relationships, the reactions of the husbands, and the relationships with children are described. Due to the inherent conflicts these women face in these situations, some useful therapeutic suggestions are offered.
PROVIDING SENSITIVE HEALTH CARE TO GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, N.D. SANFORD, NURSE PRACTICE, 1989, MAY, VOL 14 (5), P30-47.
While the years of adolescence are usually very difficult, for gay and lesbian youth they are tremendously traumatic. Gay and lesbian youth face many problems because of the homophobia in our culture; such a young person often hides his or her gay or lesbian identity, and health care professionals often deny its existence. Increased anxiety and fear cause gay and lesbian youth to be particularly vulnerable to the major problems of adolescence, such as drug and alcohol abuse, sexual acting-out, pregnancy, AIDS, homelessness and suicide. The etiology of homosexuality is still not understood, and a number of theories are discussed in this article. Troiden's model of gay and lesbian identity development is presented, covering sensitization, identity confusion, assumption and commitment. A lack of appropriate role models has been a significant problem, although some change is occuring. Specific ways of helping these troubled adolescents are given, with a particular emphasis on education and providing methods of support.
EFFECTS OF A WORKSHOP ON MENTAL HEALTH PRACTITIONERS' ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY AND COUNSELING EFFECTIVENESS, JAMES RUDOLPH, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P81-85.
The effects of a training workshop on mental health practitioners' attitudes toward homosexuality and counseling behavior were compared with the effects of no intervention. Treated subjects (n = 21) were enrolled in a 3-day multimodal workshop about gay/lesbian counseling, and no-treatment comparison subjects (n = 31) were enrolled in other counselor education coursework. Before and after the workshop, subjects completed homosexuality attitude questionnaires and a quasibehavioral gay/lesbian counseling effectiveness measure. Treated subjects improved significantly more than comparison subjects on all measures, and the gains remained in evidence at an 8-week follow-up. The multimodal training workshop thus appears encouraging as a possible means of instilling needed attitudes and skills in counselors of gay and lesbian clients.
CASE STUDY: TROUBLED LESBIAN RELATIONSHIP: YOUNGER WOMAN HAS DEVELOPED MULTIPLE CHEMICAL DEPENDENCIES AND OLDER WOMAN HAS BECOME HOSTILE AND DISTANT. COMMENTARIES BY ROBERT PAUL CABAJ, KRISTIN HANCOCK, ELLEN RATNER, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P16-20.
LESBIAN VICTIMS OF RELATIONSHIP VIOLENCE, NANCY HAMMOND, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P 89-105.
LESBIAN PARTNER ABUSE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPISTS, SUSAN L. MORROW, DONNA M. HAWXHURST, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P58-68.
Silence surrounds the issue of lesbian battering. Lesbian victims of partner abuse are even less likely than are their heterosexual counterparts to seek help in shelters or from counselors because of the overlay of homophobia that exists both in the battered women's movemment and among mental health professionals. In addition, many lesbian and many lesbian-supporting therapists hold an idealized and unrealistic picture of the nature of lesbian relationships, leading them to deny the existence of battering among lesbian couples. The nature, severity, and prevalence of abuse in lesbian relationships is addressed; current counseling and treatment models dealing with battering relationships are analyzed; and a counselor advocacy model for working with lesbian partner abuse, drawing from the experience of activists in the battered women's movement and our clinical experience, is suggested.
ATTAINING AND MAINTAINING POSITIVE LESBIAN SELF-IDENTITY: A COGNITIVE THERAPY APPROACH, CHRISTINE A. PADESKY, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8 (1/2), P145-156.
THE LESBIAN VICTIM OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL, ANN M. ORZEK, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P107-117.
LESBIAN WOMEN IN A RURAL HELPING NETWORK: EXPLORING INFORMAL HELPING RESOURCES, ANTHONY R.D. D'AUGELLI, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P119-130.
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN RAISED BY LESBIAN MOTHERS; A REVIEW OF RESEARCH, ELIZABETH D. GIBBS, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P65-75.
CHOOSING CHILDREN: PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES IN LESBIAN PARENTING, JOANNA BUNKER ROHRBAUGH, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P51-64.
LESBIAN MOTHERS: ETHICAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, KAREN LEE ERLICHMAN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P207-224.
CAREGIVING: WHAT DO MIDLIFE LESBIANS VIEW AS IMPORTANT? C. THORPE TULLY, JOURNAL OF GAY AND LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P87-103.
This study describes the caregiving needs 73 midlife lesbians perceived as important to their ability to maintain themselves in their communities as they age. It examines to whom they turn for care currently and from whom they expect care in the future if they become frail. Pertinent concerns for therapeutic interventions specific to midlife lesbians are discussed. While the data suggest that the basic biopychosocial caregiving needs and personal desires of aging lesbians are similar to other aging persons, this minority has special caregiving needs because of its sexual orientation.
COUNSELORS BE AWARE: CLIENTS COME IN EVERY SIZE, SHAPE, COLOR, AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, SARI H. DWORKIN, FERNANDO GUTIERREZ, INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL ISSUE, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P6-8.
In order to guarantee that each individual is free to pursue his/her potential, each member of AACD is charged to (a) engage in ongoing examination of his/her own attitudes, feelings, stereotypic views, perceptions and behaviors that might have prejudicial or limiting impact on women, ethnic minorities, elderly persons, gay/lesbian persons and persons with handicapping conditions; (b) contribute to an increased sensitivity on the part of other individuals, groups or institutions to the barriers to opportunity imposed by discrimination; (c) advocate equal rights for all individuals through concerted personal, professional and political activity. (Position paper of the Human Rights Committee of the American Association for Counseling and Development, 1987, p1)
PATHS TOWARD DIVERSITY: AN INTRAPSYCHIC PERSPECTIVE, SUSAN E. BARRET, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P41-52.
The life experience of an individual woman has an impact on the ideas she contributes to feminist therapy theory. One critical dimension of her life is her personal journey of identifying as a member of a minority group and learning self-value as a result. The Minority Identity Development Model developed by Sue (1981) and Atkinson, Morton, and Sue (1983) is used here to describe a process of self-valuation. The connection between self-valuing and the development of feminist therapy theory is explored, with emphasis placed on the need for diversity in the development of a feminist theory.
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF LESBIAN HEALTH CONCERNS, SUSAN E. TRIPPET, JOYCE BAIN, HEALTH VALUES, 1990, VOL 14(6), P31- 36.
The purpose of the study was to identify and explore the physical and mental health concerns of lesbians from their lived experiences, including family and social issues and legal issues that have not been addressed in previous studies. While the findings on the 43 subjects were parallel to the findings of other studies, the information gathered from the new areas offers additional knowledge about this little-studied population. A larger study using the revised survey should be conducted.
BODY IMAGE DISSATISFACTION AND DISORDERED EATING IN LESBIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS, RUTH H. STRIEGEL-MOORE, NAOMI TUCKER, JEANETTE HSU, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, 1990, VOL 9(5), P493-500.
Lesbian subcultures have been described to downplay the importance of physical attractiveness and to challenge culturally prescribed beauty ideals. Within this context, one might argue that lesbians should be more accepting of their bodies and less likely to engage in disordered eating, than would heterosexual women. The relationship between sexual orientation and body esteem has not been examined empirically yet. This study compared 30 lesbian undergraduates and 52 heterosexual undergraduates on measures of body esteem, self-esteem, and disordered eating. Few group differences were found. Lesbian students reported lower self-esteem, more ineffectiveness, more interpersonal distrust, and more difficulties in identifying their own emotions, than did heterosexual students. Body esteem was found to be related more closely with self-esteem in lesbians, than in heterosexual students. These group differences may reflect the lesbian experience more than distubances associated with disordered eating.
FROM ILLNESS TO ACTION: CONCEPTIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE LADDER, 1956-1965, KRISTIN GAY ESTERBERG, THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1990, VOL 27(1), P65-80.
The views of medical and psychiatric professionals had an important effect on lesbians' conceptions of themselves and their sexuality in the 1950s and 1960s. This article traces the depiction of professional discourse on homosexuality in The Ladder, the first widely circulated lesbian publication in the United States. Published by the Daughters of Bilitis, a group of largely white, middle-class lesbians, The Ladder shows evidence of changes in lesbians' acceptance of negative conceptions of homosexuality during the period 1956 to 1965. These changes are in part attributed to the increasing militancy of the homophile movement during the 1960s.
VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, JOYCE HUNTER, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), 295-300.
This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behaviour. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to 21 years, were predominantly minority (35% black, 46% latino) and typically were referred by peers, media, schools and emergency shelters. Of the youths, 41% in the sample reported having suffered violence from families, peers or strangers; 46% of that violence was gay-related. These reports of violence occurred in conjunction with a high rate of suicide attempts; 41% of the girls and 34% of the boys who experienced violent assaults reported having attempted suicide. These alarming rates indicate the need for more systematic monitoring of violence toward and suicidal behaviour among lesbian and gay male youths.
DEPRESSION AMONG LESBIANS: AN INVISIBLE AND UNRESEARCHED PHENOMENON, ESTHER D. ROTHBLUM, JOURNAL OF GAY AND LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P67-87.
Despite the research emphasis on depression among women, there has been virtually no focus on depression among lesbians. This article reviews evidence for factors that might place lesbians at increased risk for depression as well as factors that would protect lesbians from depression. Additionally, it discusses the research on suicide attempts, alcoholism and physical and sexual abuse of lesbians, all disorders related to depression. Homophobia, the coming out process and the lesbian community are presented as issues not faced by heterosexual women. Depression among lesbians who are non-white, not middle-class and not young adults is discussed. Finally, the article presents evidence for the role of therapists and self-help groups in affecting depression rates among lesbians.
IS SEPARATION REALLY SO GREAT? G. DORSEY GREEN, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P.87-104.
This paper challenges the validity of current male, Western psychological theories which state that separation and autonomy are prerequisites for mental health. The author argues for consideration of theories that envision individual development as occuring within the context of relationships. Lesbian couples are used as a focus for this discussion. Examples from communities of color in the United States and Eastern cultures are also discussed.
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN THE COUNSELING OF GAY AND LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS: ISSUES OF AUTONOMY, COMPETENCE, AND CONFIDENTIALITY, MICHAEL R. SOBOCINSKI, PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, 1990, VOL 21(4), P240-247.
Ethical dilemmas in counseling gay and lesbian adolescents are analyzed according to underlying ethical principles. Developmental issues and their relevance to therapy are emphasized. Conflicts among client autonomy, claims of paternalism, and limits of confidentiality are examined. Competence to enter therapy for issues of sexual identity is assesed. The author concludes that adolescents are generally competent to explore issues of sexual identity.
SIGNIFICANT OTHERS: LESBIANISM AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY, DIANE HAMER, FEMINIST REVIEW, 1990, NO 34, P134-151.
HETEROSEXISM: REDEFINING HOMOPHOBIA FOR THE 1990S, JOSEPH H. NEISEN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P21-35.
The author reviews previous use of the concept of homophobia and argues that its meaning has broadened to the point of loss of utility. Homophobia is redefined, delineated into two constructs: heterosexism and shame due to heterosexism. The delineation of heterosexism and shame due to heterosexism is presented as a valuable therapeutic technique bearing sociopolitical implications.
VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION OF LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, MENTAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES, LINDA GARNETS, GREGORY M. HEREK, BARRIE LEVY, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P366-383.
This article describes some of the major psychosocial challenges faced by lesbian and gay male survivors of hate crimes, their significant others, and the gay community as a whole. When an individual is attacked because she or he is perceived to be gay, the negative mental health consequences of victimization converge with those resulting from societal heterosexism to create a unique set of problems. Such victimization represents a crisis for the individual, creating opportunities for growth as well as risks for impairment. The principal risk associated with anti-gay victimization is that the survivor's homosexuality becomes directly linked to her or his newly heightened sense of vulnerability. The problems faced by lesbian and gay male victims of sexual assault, and the psychological impact of verbal abuse also are discussed. Suggestions are offered to assist practitioners in helping the survivors of anti-gay hate crimes.
ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND MENTAL HEALTH, SETTING AN AGENDA FOR RESEARCH, GREGORY M. HEREK, KEVIN T. BERRILL, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P414-423.
Empirical studies are urgently needed of the scope and prevalence of anti-gay violence, its mental health consequences, its prevention, and institutional response to it. Researchers should seek data from a variety of sources, use representative samples whenever possible, use reliable and valid measures and methods, and design studies that are longitudinal and prospective. Each of these components of a research agenda for studying anti-gay violence and hate crimes is described.
LESBIANS UNDER THE MEDICAL GAZE: SCIENTISTS SEARCH FOR REMARKABLE DIFFERENCES, JENNIFER TERRY, JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1990, VOL 27(3), P317-339.
This paper examines research, conducted under the auspices of the Committee for the Study of Sex Variants during the 1930s in New York City, which sought to determine what characteristics distinguished lesbians from heterosexual women. Assuming that marks of difference would appear either on the body or in the mind, researchers x-rayed skeletons, inspected genitals and conducted psychiatric interviews looking for indicators of masculinity. This inquiry was intended to establish scientific ways to identify, treat and prevent homosexuality. Although physical findings alone were inconclusive, morphological and experiential patterns were noted. Because lesbians were assumed to be masculine, the research framework failed to explain the cases of 'feminine' women who sexually pursued women or who responded favourably to sexual advances by women. Recommendations for prevention identified the family as the appropriate site for establishing and reinforcing proper gender behaviours.
THE TRANSLATION OF KNOWLEDGE BETWEEN CLIENT AND THERAPIST CONCERNING LESBIAN SEXUALITY: ALL YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT LESBIAN SEX AND WERE SCARED TO ASK, JAN BURNS, COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY, 1990, VOL 3(4), P383-387.
Lesbian sexuality in the context of therapy is examined in terms of the change in the therapeutic gaze. Once seen as something to 'treat', it is now seen in different, more complex ways. Three different positions are described and evaluated. These are the liberal humanist, the liberal educator, and the political reactionary. Finally, a suggestion is made concerning a possible role for therapy within lesbians' lives.
DEVELOPING SERVICES FOR LESBIAN AND GAY ADOLESCENTS, MARGARET SCHNEIDER, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH, 1991, VOL 10(1), P133-151.
The needs of lesbian and gay adolescents for service provision are discussed in this paper. These needs are identified through research investigating milestones in the coming-out process. In addition, the way in which the research results influenced community development initiatives is described. The social context in which the research was conducted is also described.
FAMILY AND COUPLES THERAPY WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS: ACKNOWLEDGING THE FORGOTTEN MINORITY, JANE M. USSHER, JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY, 1991, VOL 13, P131-148.
Family and couples therapy in the main concentrates on heterosexual clients, and has thus been described as limited in its outlook, or discriminatory. It is argued that family and couples therapy is at present not offered to gay and lesbian clients because of an absence of appropriate referrals, the inability of therapists to recognize the sexual orientation of their clients, a belief that skills held by therapists are not appropriate for the client group, or because of the homophobia of the therapist. It is suggested that family and couples therapy should be more readily available for gay and lesbian clients, and a number of different issues which these families might face are discussed. This includes problems associated with the gay adolescent and the gay or lesbian parent, as well as the gay or lesbian couple. It is concluded that established forms of intervention are effective with gay clients, provided that the specific needs and problems of the gay and lesbian community are addressed by the therapist.
THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2), INCLUDES:
INTRODUCTION: COUNSELING LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN, RUTH E. FASSINGER, P156.
THE HIDDEN MINORITY: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN, RUTH E. FASSINGER, P157-176.
This article provides an overview of salient issues related to scientific and therapeutic work with lesbian women and gay men. It is presented in five sections which provide the reader with a review of terms and concepts, a sense of the social context (historically and currently) faced by gay people, a discussion of psychology's approach to gay/lesbian issues, an overview of gay identity development, and an outline of roles and responsibilities of counseling psychologists in working with these populations. Resources are indicated for those wishing further information and direction.
AFFIRMATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR LESBIAN WOMEN, CHRISTINE BROWNING, AMY L. REYNOLDS, SARI H. DWORKIN, P177-196.
This article explores the unique issues and concerns facing lesbian women in our culture. Theoretical issues and effective therapeutic interventions in counseling lesbians are examined. Specific content areas highlighted include lesbian identity development and management, interpersonal and couple issues, and specific problems such as substance abuse, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. This article concludes with recommendations for treatment and suggestions for research.
TRAINING ISSUES FOR COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGISTS IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, LOUISE A. DOUCE, P216-234.
Counseling psychology professional organisations clearly state that discrimination on the basis of minority status - be it racial/ethnic, sexual orientation, gender, or other - is unethical and unacceptable. Unfortunately, many counselors and counseling psychologists have received little training with regard to lesbian and gay issues. This article presents ways in which these issues can and should be incorporated into counseling psychology training programs. Academic and internship training are addressed, followed by a discussion of the importance of a safe and appropriate environment for lesbian and gay personnel. Specific recommendations are presented and discussed.
COMMENTARY ON THE SPECIAL ISSUE OF 'THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST: COUNSELING WITH LESBIANS ANG GAY MEN,' LAURA S. BROWN, P235-238.
THE CHALLENGE: TO MAKE HOMOSEXUALITY BORING, AUGUSTINE BARON, P239-244.
REMOVING THE STIGMA: LESBIAN AND GAY AFFIRMATIVE COUNSELING, STEPHEN F. MORIN, P245-247.
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAMS: REACTIONS TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE, NANCY E. BETZ, P248-252.
LESBIAN CAREER DEVELOPMENT, WORK BEHAVIOR, AND VOCATIONAL COUNSELING, KRIS S. MORGAN, LAURA S. BROWN, P273-291.
Women's career development has recently been a popular topic in counseling psychology, for both theoretical and empirical work. This article extends that line of inquiry to address the unique career development issues of lesbians. The available literature on lesbians and work is reviewed, and parallels are drawn between the work experiences of lesbians, nonlesbian women, and other minority status groups. Three models of career development in women (Astin, 1985; Farmer, 1985; Gottfredson, 1981) are presented, and the applicability of each theory to increasing understanding of lesbian experience is explored. Implications for vocational and work-related counseling for lesbians are suggested, and recommendations for the field are made.
REMOVING THE STIGMA, FIFTEEN YEARS OF PROGRESS, STEPHEN F. MORIN, ESTHER D. ROTHBLUM, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 46(9), P947-949.
A CRITICAL HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MEDICAL CONSTRUCTION OF LESBIANISM, PATRICIA E. STEVENS, JOANNE M. HALL, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SERVICES, 1991, VOL 21(2), P291-307.
Lesbians are frequently treated with insensitivity, antagonism, and discrimination in health care encounters. The authors argue that contemporary health care experiences of lesbian clients cannot be understood apart from a critical examination of the historical construction of medical ideologies that pathologized lesbianism. An excavation of historical data about medical conceptualizations of lesbian women is undertaken to demonstrate how cultural and medical ideologies throughout the century have reinforced each other to shape lesbians' health care experiences and influence public policies. By illuminating both the prejudicial content of medical theories as well as the emancipatory actions of lesbian and gay communities to change stigmatizing diagnostic and treatment situations, the authors attempt to demystify ideologies about lesbians that motivate clinicians, administrators, educators, researchers, and theorists in the delivery of health services.
ENCOUNTERS WITH OLDER LESBIANS IN PSYCHIATRIC PRACTICE, PARSLEY POWER SMITH, SEXUAL AND MARITAL THERAPY, 1992, VOL 7(1), P79-86.
This paper starts from the feminist perspective that the problems experienced by older lesbians need to be understood in their political and socio-cultural context. Given that we live in a society that pathologizes sexual activity beyond the reproductive years and lesbianism at any age, and which labels old people as asexual, lesbians frequently present to practitioners in unorthodox ways. This is perhaps because internalized oppression and fears of being labelled 'sick', 'deviant', 'sexless', and even 'psychogeriatric' silence them. Case material is presented in an attempt to illustrate an eclectic basis for practice which reflects the experience of older lesbians. Despite the traditional view that older people are unsuitable for the psychotherapies and respond better to more 'medical' therapies (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, etc.), this paper demonstrates that therapy can be helpful and relevant to older lesbians when the therapist does not construct the patient's lesbianism as a basic problem.
CAUCASIAN LESBIANS' USE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, A MATTER OF ATTITUDE? KRIS S. MORGAN, PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, 1992, VOL 16, MAR, P127-130.
Evidence suggests that a high proportion of lesbians seek psychological counseling. This study represents an empirical investigation of the dis-proportionate use of mental health services by lesbians, focusing on the hypothesis that lesbians place a greater value on psychotherapy than do nonlesbian women. Participants (100 lesbians and 309 nonlesbian women, 97% Caucasian) completed Surgenor's revision of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale. Results indicate that the lesbian group had a significantly more positive attitude toward seeking psychological counseling than did the nonlesbian sample, regardless of whether or not they had experienced psychological counseling.
CONTENT ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGICAL CRITIQUE OF ARTICLES CONCERNING LESBIAN AND GAY MALE ISSUES IN COUNSELING JOURNALS, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, LORI A. BEN-EZRA, MICHAEL E. HURLEY, LINDA JOYCE RUPRECHT, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 39(1), P91-99.
This study examined research of lesbian and gay male issues in counseling psychology journals. Of the 6,661 studies reviewed from 6 major counseling psychology journals over a 12-year period, 43 (.65%) focused on variables related to lesbian or gay male sexual orientation. The content of the articles demonstrates a perspective of gay male and lesbian acceptance or affirmation. Study samples were composed mostly of university-affiliated, White, East-coast, urban persons. Sexual orientation of study participants was more often assumed than directly ascertained by self-report. The results of content analyses, a methodological critique of the empirical studies, and 12 recommendations for conducting research on issues concerning lesbian women and gay men are presented and discussed.
EDUCATING MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ABOUT GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES, BIANCA CODY MURPHY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P229-246.
Despite the large number of clients with gay and lesbian concerns, many mental health professionals remain biased and unqualified to serve them. Mental health professionals are poorly prepared to deal with sexuality in general and with gay and lesbian issues specifically. Education and training about gay and lesbian topics is needed both in graduate schools and in the field. This training should focus on three components: (1) information about sexual orientation, gay and lesbian lifestyles, and community resources; (2) the interface between the gay or lesbian client, his or her sexuality, and the effects of living in a heterosexist and homophobic society; and (3) the interaction between the attitudes, feelings, and sexual orientation of the clinician and of the client.
PROMOTING MENTAL HEALTH: LESBIAN NURSE SUPPORT GROUPS, THERESA M. STEPHANY, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOCIAL NURSING, 1992, VOL 30(2) P35-38.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, 1989, FOUR VOLUMES, VOLUME 3: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN YOUTH SUICIDE INCLUDES: GAY MALE AND LESBIAN YOUTH SUICIDE, PAUL GIBSON, P110-142.
EXTRACT: Gay and lesbian youth belong to two groups at high risk of suicide; youths and homosexuals. A majority of suicide attempts by homosexuals occur during their youth, and gay youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide than other young people. They may comprise up to 30 percent of completed youth suicides annually. The earlier youth are aware of their orientation and identify themselves as gay, the greater the conflicts they have. Gay youth face problems in accepting themselves due to internalization of a negative self image and the lack of accurate information about homosexuality during adolescence. Gay youth face extreme physical and verbal abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers. They often feel totally alone and socially withdrawn out of fear of adverse consequences. As a result of these pressures, lesbian and gay youth are more vulnerable than other youth to psychosocial problems including substance abuse, chronic depression, school failure, early relationship conflicts, being forced to leave their families, and having to survive on their own prematurely. Each of these problems presents a risk factor for suicidal feelings and behaviour among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transsexual youth.
The root of the problem of gay youth suicide is a society that discriminates against and stigmatizes homosexuals while failing to recognize that a substantial number of its youth has a gay or lesbian
orientation. Legislation should be introduced to guarantee homosexuals equal rights in our society. We need to make a conscious effort to promote a positive image of homosexuals at all levels of society that provides gay youth with a diversity of lesbian and gay male adult role models. We each need to take personal responsiblility for revising homophobic attitudes and conduct. Families should be educated about the development and positive nature of homosexuality. They must be able to accept their child as gay or lesbian. Schools need to include information about homosexuality in their curriculum and protect gay youth from abuse by peers to ensure they receive an equal education. Helping professionals need to accept and support a homosexual orientation in youth. Social services need to be developed that are sensitive to and reflective of the needs of gay and lesbian youth.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
*LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
CRISIS INTERVENTION AND SUICIDE COUNSELING WITH GAY AND LESBIAN CLIENTS, CHRISTIAN A. FRANDSEN, P100.
SOCIAL GROWTH GROUPS FOR LESBIANS AND GAYS, HARRY R. LENNA, P103.
OUT OF THE THERAPEUTIC CLOSET, BERNICE GOODMAN, P140.
*HOMOSEXUALITY, SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, ED WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1982, INCLUDES:
INTRODUCTION JOHN C. GONSIOREK, P57-70.
RESULTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING ON HOMOSEXUAL POPULATIONS, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, P71-80.
CHANGING APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT OF HOMOSEXUALITY, A REIVEW, ELI COLEMAN, P81-88.
POLITICS, ETHICS, AND THERAPY FOR HOMOSEXUALITY, GERALD C. DAVISON, P89-98.
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT FOR THE INVISIBLE MINORITY, RICHARD C. PILLARD, P99-113.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, P159-161.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF HOMOSEXUALITY, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, P115-119.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND PSYCHOANALYSIS, TOWARD A MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING, JOEL D. HENCKEN, P121-147.
LESBIANS PSYCHOLOGIES, EXPLORATIONS & CHALLENGES, ED BOSTED LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES COLLECTIVE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1987, INCLUDES:
INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA: IDENTIFYING AND TREATING THE OPPRESSOR WITHIN, LIZ MARGOLIES, MARTHA BECKER, KARLA JACKSON-BECKER, P229-241.
DOING SEX THERAPY WITH LESBIANS: BENDING A HETEROSEXUAL PARADIGM TO FIT A GAY LIFE-STYLE, MARGARET NICHOLS, P242-260.
THE PERSEPHONE COMPLEX: INCEST DYNAMICS AND THE LESBIAN PREFERENCE, EILEEN STARZECPYZEL, P261-282.
LESBIANS, WEIGHT, AND EATING: NEW ANALYSES AND PERSPECTIVES, LAURA S. BROWN, P294-310.
*I THOUGHT PEOPLE LIKE THAT KILLED THEMSELVES, LESBIANS, GAY MEN AND SUICIDE, ERIC E. ROFES, GREY FOX PRESS, 1983.
*JOURNAL OF LESBIAN AND GAY PSYCHOTHERAPY.
*Available through the Library Service.
c Lesbian Information Service, October 1993.