LESBIAN VIGNETTES: A RUSSIAN TRIPTYCH FROM THE 1890'S, LAURA ENGLESTEIN, JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY, 1990, VOL 15(4), P813-831.
THE INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN AND GAY ASSOCIATION, LISA POWER,
INTERNATIONAL LESBIANISM, FEMINIST REVIEW 34, SPRING 1990, P8-22.
TO CHANGE OUR OWN REALITY AND THE WORLD: A CONVERSATION WITH LESBIANS IN NICARAGUA, MARGARET RANDALL, 1993, SIGNS, VOL 18(4), P907-924.
FEMINIST REVIEW, 1991, NO 39, P187-188.
LESBIANISM IN CHINA, FANG FU RUAN, VERN L. BULLOUGH, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1992, VOL 21(3), P217-226.
Lesbianism in China has a long but usually hidden history. This paper examines the historical and literary sources of the past to illustrate the history of lesbianism and then turns to a survey of lesbianism in the China of today. As in the past, lesbianism remains more or less hidden, and comes to light only occasionally. Data for contemporary China comes form a visit to an institution for delinquent young women, recent police records and contemorary fiction. It has only been in the past 4 or 5 years that it was possible to talk about lesbianism and most lesbians are fearful of becoming identified.
A GAME OF APPEARANCES: THE "AMBIGUSEXUALITY" IN BRAZILIAN CULTURE OF SEXUALITY, ROMMEL MENES-LEITE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P271-282.
In this aricle I would like to present some aspects of the Brazilian culture of sexuality and I will do so in a comprehensive (Maffesoli, 1985) and constructivist way (Weeks, 1986).
Therefore I will treat this subject of sexual orientation as something that has to be analysed in a historical and cultural context that particularly insists upon the specific contexts in which sexual orientation and gender role are found. The models of sexual behavior reflect the system of values and the social structure of society they are dealing with. Moreover, the perspectives of sexuality within a larger social universe, have to be seen as one of the numerous possible forms of behaviour. Consequently, in my opinion, it is very important for methodology, to use an approach that ceases to emphasize only the sexual aspect of homosocial relationships; they should be considered far more as one of the various ways of interpersonal relationships, in which sexualization is just one of all the possible facets (Aerts et al., 1983; Duyvendak and Mejer, 1988).
ANJAREE - TOWARD LESBIAN VISIBLITY, THAILAND, CONNEXIONS, 1994, VOL 46, P8-9.
LESBIAN ORGANIZING: CULTURE, SEXUALITY, POLITICS, TAIWAN, CONNEXTIONS, 1994, VOL 46, P20-22.
FEMALE CLOSENESS AND LESBIAN IDENTITY, INDONESIA, CONNEXIONS, 1994, VOL 46, P23.
THE NEW INTERNATIONALIST: NOVEMBER 1989, PRIDE AND PREJUDICE HOMOSEXUALTY.
CONNEXTIONS, AN INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S QUARTERLY, GLOBAL LESBIANISM, NO 3
OFF OUR BACKS
A LESBIAN POSITION
LESBIANS ON THE LOOSE
HOMOSEXUALITY AND POLICE TERROR IN TURKEY, ARSLAN YUZGUN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P159-169.
Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the plitical history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right ot speak out in political affairs.
IN NICARAGUA: HOMOSEXUALITY WITHOUT A GAY WORLD, BARRY D. ADAM, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P171-181.
This paper addresses the social construction of homosexual relations among men in Nicaragua in the late 1980s. The political economy of a nation, subjected to a devastating war by the United States, created conditions where sexual relations among men have not become organized into a gay world which would be familiar to North Americans and Europeans. Rather, homosexuallly-inclined men remain fully integrated in family and neighborhood life where they are often "known about" but not "recognized," a condition which dissolves separateness but also suppresses the development of a gay culture beyond the bounds of heterosexist expectations.
SILENCED RESISTANCES AND CONFLICTUAL IDENTITIES: LESBIANS IN FRANCE, 1930-1968, C. LESSELIER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(1/2), P105-125.
Between the publication of Colette's Le pur et l'impur in 1932 and the emergence of lesbian groups in 1970-1971, silence and invisibility seem to have set in a society which remained traditional as far as gender roles and heterosexual norms were concerned. Through studying a few literary works and tapping the lesbian memory by the methods of oral history, however, it is possible to trace some aspects of the lesbian existence during this period and especially to document the likey issues of self-definition and resistance in front of the dominant categorizations, stigmatisation and repression.
A strong sense of individual legitimacy and claim to happiness stand in sharp contrast to the weakness of collective subcultural constructions; this appears in the ambivalence - as for every minority identity - towards the identification as a group and the word "lesbian" iteself. This, being the background of the lesbian movement after 1970, may help one to understand some of its characteristics.
HOMOSEXUALS IN EASTERN EUROPE: MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHOTHERPAY ISSUES, ANTONIN BRZEK, SLAVOMI HUBALEK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL15(1/2) P153-162.
DIFFERENCES AND IDENTITIES: FEMINISM AND THE ALBUQUERQUE LESBIAN COMMUNITY, TRISHA FRANZEN, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P891-906.
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