HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN A CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS, SEYMOUR L. HALLECK, MARVIN HERSKO, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, 1962, VOL 32(5), P911-917.
Workers in institutions for adolescent girls have long been aware of the prevalence of homosexual behavior. An anonymous questionnaire study done in one institution indicated that 69 per cent of the girls had been involved. While this behavior assumed many forms it rarely resulted in direct genital contact. The prevalence of the behavior is most adequately explained as a product of the interaction between the unique personality problems of the girls, the stresses of institutionalization, and unhealthy attitudes on the part of the staff.
HOMOSEXUALITY IN ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN CIVILIZATION: A CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY, BEERT C. VERSTRAETE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(1), P79-88.
NONREPRODUCTION, HOMOSEXUALITY, TRANSSEXUALISM, AND INTELLIGENCE: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(3), P275-291.
The relationship between various forms of nonreproduction (especially homosexuality) and intellegence (as measured by IQ and other tests) is investigatd by a systematic review of the literature, selecting studies without regard to the direction of their findngs. Most studies found the more homosexual subject groups' scores to be higher than those of the more heterosexual controls, and all exceptions to this trend are concentrated in one subgroup: prisoners. Moreover, the more representative the sample studied, and the less subject to challenge the methodology used, the clearer and more statistically significant was the superiority in intelligence of the more homosexual over the more heterosexual group.
THE MORBIDIFICATION OF LOVE BETWEEN WOMEN BY 19TH CENTURY SEXOLOGISTS, LILLIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 4(1), P73-90.
Twentieth-century attitudes toward love between women are very different from those of previous centuries. Fiction and personal correspondence that antedate the work of Kraft-Ebing and Havelock Ellis in the late 19th century indicate that a much broader spectrum of expression of love and affection between women had been acceptable than that to which we have become accustomed. Medical science and psychology for the past 100 years have morbidified intense love relationships between women by inventing a syndrome of ills that supposedly accompany such affection, and by denying the validity or seriousness of the affection where such ills are clearly not present. The result has been that (until the lesbian-feminist movement) 20th century women were largely forced to deny their love for other women unless they were willing to acknowledge their concomitant morbidity.
FORBIDDEN LOVE, ELIZABETH WILSON, FEMINIST STUDIES, 1984, VOL 10(2), P213-226.
SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH LESBIANISM: FIRST STEPS, ELAINE HOBBY, PAPER PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE: HOMOSEXUALITY, WHICH HOMOSEXUALITY, AMSTERDAM, 1987.
A RESPONSE TO MYRIAM EVERARD'S "LESBIAN HISTORY: A HISTORY OF CHANGE AND DISPARITY," LILIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P137-141.
MAKING HISTORY: THE CHALLENGE OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDIES, WILL ROSCOE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P1-40.
This paper addresses a central problem of gay and lesbian studies: how is the subject to be defined? Current essentialist and constructionist positions are ultimately ahistorical and reductionist, reflecting the residual influence of the medical model and its sexual definition. In place of a single-dimensional and a priori sexual category, the author proposes sociosexual specialization as the appropriate focus of gay and lesbian studies and outlines a heuristic, multidimensional model for describing not only contemporary, but historical and cross-cultural evidence. Six dimensions of social and sexual variation are reviewed: sexuality, subjecivity and identity, gender, social roles, economic roles, and spirituality.
THE SHAMAN: THE GAY AND LESBIAN ANCESTOR OF HUMANKIND, KRIS JETER, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, 1989, VOL 14(3/4), P317-334.
THE WILL TO REMEMBER: THE LESBIAN HERSTORY ARCHIVES OF NEW YORK, JOAN NESTLE, FEMINIST REVIEW NO 34, SPRING 1990.
CATEGORIZATION IN CONCENTRATION CAMPS AS A COLLECTIVE FATE: A COMPARISON OF HOMOSEXUALS, JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES AND POLITICAL PRISONERS, RUDIGER LAUTMANN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(1), P67-88.
Using socio-historical data some critical features of Nazi Concentration Camps are discussed: uniqueness vs. normality; extermination vs. re-ed ucation of gay prisoners. The special fate of the Pink Triangle in comparison to other non-Jewish victims is demonstrated. The determinative qualities of life and death conditions in the camps are: the National Socialist interpretation of the prisoner category; the repressive content of social control; the marginalisation in general society. The relative strength of a single influence cannot be separated one from the other.
INVENTING OURSELVES: LESBIAN LIFE STORIES, EDITED BY HALL CARPENTER ARCHIVES/LESBIAN ORAL HISTORY GROUP, ROUTLEDGE, 1989, REVIEW BY SARAH GREEN, 1990, FEMINIST REVIEW 34, SPRING P176-177.
THE RISE OF A GAY AND LESBIAN MOVEMENT, BARRY ADAM, 1987, TWAYNE PUBLISHERS, REVIEW BY BECKI ROSS, RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH DOCUMENTATION, 1990, VOL 19(3/4) P113-114.
DEVIANT HISTORIOGRAPHY, JENNIFER TERRY, DIFFERENCES, A JOURNAL OF FEMINIST CULTURAL STUDIES, 1991, VOL 3(2), P55-74.
HIDDEN FROM HISTORY: RECLAIMING THE GAY AND LESBIAN PAST, MARTIN D. DUBERMAN, MARTHA VICINUS AND GEORGE CHAUNCEY, EDITORS, NEW AMERICAN LIBRARY 1989, REVIEW BY GERT HEKMA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P103-107.
FROM SAPPHO TO DE SADE: MOMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF SEXUALITY, JAN BREMMER, ROUTLEDGE AND KEGAN PAUL, 1989, REVIEW BY JOHN P ELLIS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(3), , P102-117.
COMING OUT UNDER FIRE: THE HISTORY OF GAY MEN AND LESBIANS IN WORLD WAR TWO, ALLAN BERUBE, THE FREE PRESS, 1990, REVIEW BY NANCY C. UNDGER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P107-112.
INVENTED TRADITIONS: TAKE ONE ON THE LESBIAN AND GAY PAST, SCOTT BRAVMANN, NWSA JOURNAL, 1991, VOL 3(1), P81-92.
Discusses use of constructionism and essentialism in history.
'HOMOSEXUALITY' HISTORICALLY RECONSIDERED CHALLENGES HETEROSEXUAL HEGEMONY, GARY KINSMAN, JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY, 1991, VOL 4(2), P91-111.
"THEY WONDER TO WHICH SEX I BELONG": THE HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE MODERN LESBIAN IDENTITY, MARTHA VICINUS, FEMINIST STUDIES, 1992, VOL 18(3), P467-497.
FRENCH RENAISSANCE TRAVEL ACCOUNTS: IMAGES OF SIN, VISIONS OF THE NEW WORLD, GUY POIRIER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P215-229.
Accounts of French Renaissance travels to America reveal how Europeans described a newly discovered "Other," and, indirecly, the "Self." Guy Poirier analyzes in his article how the images of acts against nature and prodigies could, at the same time, be linked to a European "episteme" and construct an ideological discourse of their own.
REMEMBERING LESBIAN BARS: MONTREAL, 1955-1975, LINE CHAMBERLAND, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P231-269.
This essay retraces the development of lesbian bars in Montreal between 1955 and 1975. It analyzes this process as a form of appropriation of urban public space which reveals the repressive elements confronting lesbians in their pursuit of the right to exist socially, and examines the key-role played by working-class lesbians in struggling against them. It also describes class-related divisions in the way these places are remembered, which may be paralleled to the opposite positions in the current debate about the role of bars in the development of a lesbian culture. Finally, it suggests explanations for class-related differences in bar-going habits and ways of expressing lesbian identity.
TWENTIETH CENTURY LESBIANS: SHOULD WE REVIVE MEMORY OR BREAK WITH THE PAST, G. PASTRE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(1/2), P127-145.
It is possible, through a reconsideration of historical facts, which have been relegated to the category of legends or myths, and widely scattered, to rethink the conditions in which some societies have conceived of possible sexual permutations. Amazons created, on the one hand, an autonomous and origianl social model which was exclusively homosexual. And on the other, a group of cities in Ionia, in the islands or cities other than Athens, provided social patterns for differing sexual practices. De-centering the scholar's vision in terms of Athenian thought and politics, while referring to all contemporary homosexual concepts and behaviours, allows a largely neglected past to emerge today.
SILENCED RESISTANCES AND CONFLICTUAL IDENTITIES: LESBIANS IN FRANCE, 1930-1968, C. LESSELIER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(1/2), P105-125.
Between the publication of Colette's Le pur et l'impur in 1932 and the emergence of lesbian groups in 1970-1971, silence and invisibility seem to have set in a society which remained traditional as far as gender roles and heterosexual norms were concerned. Through studying a few literary works and tapping the lesbian memory by the methods of oral history, however, it is possible to trace some aspects of the lesbian existence during this period and especially to document the likey issues of self-definition and resistance in front of the dominant categorizations, stigmatisation and repression.
A strong sense of individual legitimacy and claim to happiness stand in sharp contrast to the weakness of collective subcultural constructions; this appears in the ambivalence - as for every minority identity - towards the identification as a group and the word "lesbian" iteself. This, being the background of the lesbian movement after 1970, may help one to understand some of its characteristics.
MYTHS AND HISTORIOGRAPHIES OF LESBIAN SEXUALITY, D. KRAAKMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(1/2), P75-86.
In this paper I address the issue of female sexuality, in search of historical situations of female pleasure and enjoyment. I will thereby (re)unite or confuse lesbian and heterosexual identities in order to explore a method of historical research on lesbian sexuality. "Lesbian identity," as we know it today, is a sociocultural construction of the western world, thus this confusion seems necessary. The application of this or any notion of "lesbian identity" to historical and cultural periods prior to or outside of twentieth century western culture, would thus keep many moments, encounters and sensibilities, in which lesbian sexuality plays its part, out of our sight.
BETWEEN MAN AND WOMAN: THE CHARACTER OF THE LESBIAN, B. LHOMOND, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXULAITY, 1993, VOL 25(1/2), P63-73.
Homosexuality, or inversion, is defined by medical discourses since the middle of the XIXth century, as a condition which radically marks individuals so labelled. Through those discourses, a figure, a character, is built. It is no longer precise sexual acts which are at stake, but the totality of the person, who has salient features, biological, psychological as well as behavioral. Those salient features are built on gender mixing, even on sexual characteristics mixing. The inverts, in such a definition, stress the bipolarity of sexes because they embody an intermediate state, the 'third sex'. But this conceptualisation implies also a reinforcement of the two poles of categorisation. Homosexuals do not follow 'the natural law' which defines men and women. Third part excluded from bicategorisation, indifferentiate freaks, those characters are analysers for social definitions of sexes, genders and their evolution.
"MY HEART SO WRAPT": LESBIAN DISRUPTIONS IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BRITISH FICTION, CAROLYN WOODWARD, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P838-865.
EMPOWERMENT VERSUS CONTROL: HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS OF LESBIAN AND GAY LIVES, H.L. MINTON, AUGUST 1992, MICRO FICHE, SOURCE: ERIC, RIE APRIL 1993.
THE TRIALS OF ALICE MITCHELL: SENSATIONLAISM, SEXUOLOGY, AND THE LESBIAN SUBJECT IN TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY AMERICA, LISA DUGGAN, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P791-814.
SEXUAL DIVERSITY AND SOCIETAL AMBIVALENCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE, NICHOLAS M. PRIESTLEY, CHANGES, 1994, VOL 12(4), P233-240.
LESBIAN WOMAN, DEL MARTIN AND PHYLLIS LYON, 1972, VOLCANO PRESS.
FOR THOSE WHO WOULD BE SISTERS: UNCOVERING LESBIAN HISTORY, WORK IN PROGRESS NO 2, BIRKBECK COLLEGE, UNVERSITY OF LONDON.
STONEWALL 25, THE MAKING OF THE LESBIAN AND GAY COMMUNITY IN BRITAIN, ED. EMMA HEALEY, ANGELA MASON, VIRAGO, 1994.
HERESY, WITCHCRAFT, AND SEXUALITY, VERN L. BULLOUGH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(2), P183-201.
BLACK & MINORITY ETHNIC LESBIANS
EXCERPTS FROM THE ORAL HISTORY OF MABEL HAMPTON, JOAN NESTLE, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4, P925-935.
INVISIBLE WOMEN IN INVISIBLE PLACES: LESBIANS, LESBIAN BARS, AND THE SOCIAL PRODUCTION OF PEOPLE/ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS, MAXINE WOLFE, ARCHITECTURE AND COMPORTMENT/ARCHITECTURE AND BEHAVIOR, 1992, VOL 8(2), P137-158.
SUMMARY: Though invisible in our literature as "environments for women" Lesbian bars exist in small towns and in large cities, all over the United States and the world. This paper traces the history of their development in the United States, their uses and meanings for Lesbians in different communities, as well as their relationship to Lesbian culture and to the emergence of the modern Lesbian and Gay political movement, and to the larger communities of which they are a part. A perspective called the "social production of people/environment relationships" is used, one in which historical anlaysis provides the link between existing macro- and micro-level approaches to understanding people/environment relationships at the present time. This perspective explores the relationship between environmental change and social change and leads to questions about assumptions, concepts and methods in current work in our field.
OBJECT CHOICE AND ACTUAL BISEXUALITY, A. LIMENTANI, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1975, VOL 5, P205-217.
Actual bisexuality is to be distinguished from homosexuality in a latent state and from conscious bisexual fantasies. Contemporary social changes have caused an increased demand for help by those men and women capable of engaging in protracted heterosexual and homosexual relations. Among such people narcissistic and border-line states are common.
Clinical material is presented in some detail. The author suggests that the condition is associated with a tendency to be caught up between the anaclitic and narcissistic types of object choice. The concurrent involvement with a male and female love object against a background of pseudogenitality creates the illusory appearance of two objects being involved, covering up the fact that there is splitting of the original love object together with severe preoedipal disturbance.
HOMOSEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE, MERVIN GLASSER, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 1977, VOL 50, P217-225.
This paper asserts that homosexuality in adolescence should not be regarded in the same way as it would be in adults. Different types of homosexuality emerge during adolescence according to the different psychodynamic conditions which occur at different stages of adolescence, particularly the changing relationship to the individual's parents, and these may subside or make an important contribution to the establishment and nature of an individual's homosexuality in adulthood.
The characteristic 'identificatory facility' of adolescence is discussed and it is suggested that this is retained in the make-up of the adult homosexual. Some comments on the clinical assessment of homosexuality in adolescence are briefly made.
THE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF HOMOSEXUALITY, A. LIMENTANI, BRITISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1977, VOL 50, P209-216.
The treatment of homosexuality presents serious difficulties owing to its multifactorial aetiology and variety of psychopathological views. It is suggested that the combined use of psychatric and psychoanalytic models can contribute to the establishment of a satisfactory differential diagnosis. Out of the innumnerable clinical types seen in practice and described in the literture, three major groups can be isolated. The homosexuality which occurs in the background of hysterical, obsessional and other neurotic personality types and related psychiatric conditions, tends to be linked with latent heterosexuality and responds well to all forms of psychotherapy. On the other hand, true homoexuality is often the major presenting symptom of borderline states, narcissistic disorders, psychopathy and the schizo-affective psychoses and carries an unfavourable prognosis with any form of treatment. Cases of actual bisexuality form the third group with its own specific psychopathology. The homosexual solution is seen as a defence and is regarded as a matter of survival for many individuals. It should be treated with the utmost caution by anyone who attempts to remove it.
THE MYTH OF LESBIAN IMPUNITY, CAPITAL LAWS FROM 1270-1791, LOUIS CROMPTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980/81, VOL 6(1/2), P11-25.
The standard history of antihomosexual legislation states that lesbian acts were not punished by medieval or later laws. This essay challenges this view by documenting capital laws since 1270 in Europe and America. A major influence was Paul's condemnation in Romans I, 26. By 1400, the lex foedissimam, an edict of the Emperors Diocletian and Maximianus, issued in 287, was interpreted to justify the death penalty. Executions took place in Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Spain. A brief survey of presently known male deaths in Europe and the Americas, which number about 400, also is included. This study draws on canon law and the commentaries of such jurists as Cino da Pistoia, Saliceto, Lopez, Gomez, Farinacio, Cotton, Carpzow, Sinistrari, de Vouglans, and Jousse. It also discusses the records of a German trial of 1721, published elsewhere in this issue, that also led to the execution of a woman.
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OR EXTENDED FAMILIES? THE RECONSTRUCTION OF GENDER IN WOMEN'S COLLEGES IN THE LATE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, ELIZABETH EDWARDS, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1990, VOL 2(1), P17-35.
This article aims to develop our theorisation of gender as a category of analysis in education, by examining how the meaning of gender has been socially constructed historically within specific educational contexts. A post-structuralist perspective is used to show how gender meaning is constructed both from competing and conflicting discourses within these specific historical contexts, and also by the transformation of existing discourses into new contexts. It first discusses how the discourse of social practice and family organisation in the Victorian middle-class home were translated from their domestic setting and transformed to provide new meanings in the institutional context of women's colleges. The translation and transformation of these domestic and familial discourses was relatively straightforwad; but the construction of the new role of the woman principal from the discourses of Victorian middle-class femininity was always highly problematic. The second part of the article examines the difficulties faced by women principals in constructing their dual gender role as both father and mother of the institutional families which they served. Finally I attempt to decode the homoerotic friendships which some principals formed in order to express the emotional and sexual needs of their own femininity.
DIFFERENCES AND IDENTITIES: FEMINISM AND THE ALBUQUERQUE LESBIAN COMMUNITY, TRISHA FRANZEN, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P891-906.
© Jan Bridget/Lesbian Information Service