HOMOPHOBIA AWARENESS TRAINING
Britain is about 20 years behind the U.S.A. with regard to research, provision and training in relation to lesbians and gay men. We are just beginning in this country - it makes sense, therefore, to examine what has been achieved in the U.S.A.
Most of the articles and books referred to in this Resource List come from the U.S.A. All of the articles are available in this country through your local library (you will have to complete an order card and it will probably take about a month as they will have to send to the British Library for a copy; this should cost you about .50p).
THE USE OF STIMULUS/MODELING VIDEOTAPES IN ASSERTIVE TRAINING FOR HOMOSEXUALS, WAYNE D. DUEHN, NAZNEEN S. MAYADAS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(4), P373-381.
The purpose of this study was to develop and apply an experimental approach for teaching assertive behaviors in selective problematic interpersonal situations encountered by homosexuals. Specifically, the approach explicates a treatment format that combines the use of stimulus/modeling videotapes with behavioral rehersals, videotape feedback and home assignments. Results of a single-subject interrupted time-series analysis suggest that the client displayed significantly more assertive behaviors on four of the six criterion measures. The findings further suggest that with contextual modification this interventive format can be applied to a variety of sexual behavior patterns.
REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN HEALTH SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS, DAVID E. NEWTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(3) P245-254.
Discussions of homosexual behavior in 35 publications (textbooks, trade books, pamphlets) in the fields of health science and sex education were reviewed. Ten books referred to the subject. Major findings of the study were: (a) homosexual behavior receives significant attention in only 1 of the 10 publications; (b) discussions of homosexuality contain a number of hidden biases; (c) a large number of factual errors can be identified in most publications; and (d) most authors seem to believe that homosexual behavior may be tolerated during adolescence but, at the same time, should be a source of concern to teenagers.
THE EFFECT OF A WORKSHOP ON ATTITUDES OF FEMALE NURSING STUDENTS TOWARD MALE HOMOSEXUALITY, CARLA LEE ANDERSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 7(1), P57-69.
The responses of 64 female nursing students to the Survey of Attitudes Toward Deviance - Homosexuality Scale (May, 1974) indicated that they held more negative attitudes and more stereotyped beliefs regarding male homosexuality than did May's sample of male counselors and psychologists. After a 20-hour workshop, the attitudes of the 37 students in the experimental groups had changed and were similar to those expressed by May's sample. A testing 4 months later indicated that this change remained stable. Some attitudes relating to morality and social distance continued to be somewhat unfavorable. It made no difference in attitude change if the workshop presenters did or did not identify themselves as homosexual. The students with initially more negative attitudes toward homosexuality changed more as a result of the workshop experience than those with more positive attitudes. For both experimental and control subjects, more positive pretest attitudes toward homosexuality were associated with emotional stability, objectivity, good personal relations, restraint, friendliness, an interest in masculine activities, and greater support for equality of the sexes, as well as more liberal attitudes toward sex-appropriate behavior.
CONFRONTING HOMOPHOBIA IN HEALTH CARE SETTINGS: GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, ALICE E. MESSING, ROBERT SCHOENBERG, ROGER K. STEPHENS, HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 2 (2/3), P65-74.
Describes homophobia, understanding and countering homophobia in social workers, understanding internalized homophobia in patients, what social workers can do about homophobia: communica-
tion link, advocate, educator, service developer.
TEACHING SOCIAL WORKERS TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE HOMOSEXUALLY ORIENTED, HARVEY L. GOCHROS, HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 2 (2/3), P137-156.
THERAPISTS' NEEDS FOR TRAINING IN COUNSELING LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, DEE L.R. GRAHAM, EDNA I RAWLINGS, HARRIS S. HALPERN, JULIE HERMES, PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, 1984, VOL 15(4), P482-496.
The 1973 and 1975 decisions of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Pscyhological Association (APA), respectively, to remove "homosexuality" from their list of mental disorders led to a need for therapists to change their therapeutic strategies in counseling lesbians and gay men. A survey of present-day therapists' attitudes, knowledge, concerns, and strategies in counseling lesbians and gay men clients revealed a strong need for therapist training. The authors recommend that training in counseling lesbian/gay clients become a standard feature of APA-accredited training programs in clinical psychology, that competence in counseling lesbian/gay clients become a prerequisite for state licensure, and that the availability of continuing education regarding therapy for lesbian/gay clients continue for practicing clinical psychologists.
HETEROSEXUAL BIAS AMONG COUNSELOR TRAINEES, AUDREY A. GLENN, RICHARD K. RUSSELL, COUNSELOR EDCUATION AND SUPERVISION, MARCH 1986, P222-229.
Master's level counselor trainees rated an audiotaped and role-played intake interview of a female client whose sexual orientation was varied. In Condition 1, the client referred to her partner as "Doug," a man; in Condition 2, the client referred to her partner as "Diane," a woman; in Condition 3, the client referred to her partner as "Chris," whose sex was unidentifiable. Subtle forms of heterosexual bias were found through participants' ratings of the unidentifiable client. When reponding to the ambiguous condition involving the unidentifiable client, 83% of the participants assumed the client was heterosexual. When they were debriefed, participants expressed concern over the lack of training on issues related to counseling lesbian and gay clients. Use of the ambiguous case example, as in this study, is recommended for training to assess and confront increasingly subtle forms of heterosexual bias.
TRAINING SERVICE PROVIDERS TO WORK WITH GAY OR LESBIAN ADOLESCENTS: A WORKSHOP, M.S. SCHNEIDER & B TREMBLE JOURNAL OF COUNSELLING & DEVELOPMENT, 1986, VOL 65(2), P98-99.
Describes a 3 hour workshop for service providers of male and female homosexual adolescents designed to address issues such as developmental tasks, informing the family of one's homosexuality, confusion over sexual identity, the relevance of sexual orientation to other personal problems, stereotypes concerning homosexuality and the placement of a homosexual identity in an appropriate perspective. Questionnaire data from participants indicate that they acquired a more positive attitude toward homosexuality and a more accurate perception of the homosexual population.
UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICES SPONSORING LESBIAN HEALTH WORKSHOPS: IMPLICATIONS AND ACCESSIBILITY, D. EDELMAN, JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH, 1986, VOL 35(1), P44-45.
Discusses lesbian health workshops developed in response to an informal needs assessment survey by two health educators from a university health service. Workshops are co-facilitated by a health educator and a female nurse practitioner or physician and provide in-service training for practitioners on health issues among homosexual students.
TEACHING ABOUT GAY AND LESBIAN SEXUAL AND AFFECTIONAL ORIENTATION USING EXPLICIT FILMS TO REDUCE HOMOPHOBIA, JOEL W. WELLS, JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 28(1), P18-34.
An educational approach to reduce homphobia effectively among undergraduate university students using explict films, lectures, discussions, and a gay-lesbian panel was investigated.
SOME CHALLENGES OF INTEGRATING SEXUAL ORIENTATIONS INTO COUNSELOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH, SUZANNE IASENZA, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P73-76.
The field of counseling currently lacks an integrative approach on issues of sexual orientations in training and research. Despite changes in social and political realities and calls within the field for attention to these areas, little response has been forthcoming. Some of the challenges and difficulties involved in integrating sexual orientations into counselor training curricula and research are discussed. Suggestions are presented to help professionals gain a better understanding of sexual orientation isssues for research and practice.
INCORPORATING LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES INTO COUNSELOR TRAINING: A RESOURCE GUIDE, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P77-80.
In order for counselors to facilitate the growth of their lesbian and gay clients, they must be familiar with and become sensitive to the special needs of this population. However, most counselors and counselor trainees have had little exposure to these needs. One way of increasing their awareness and sensitivity is to incorporate lesbian and gay issues into counselor training programs. The focus of this article is to present a limited list of strategies and resources that can be used to supplement materials in traditional courses in counselor training so as to better prepare counselors for dealing with lesbian and gay clients.
EFFECTS OF A WORKSHOP ON MENTAL HEALTH PRACTITIONERS' ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY AND COUNSELING EFFECTIVENESS, JAMES RUDOLPH, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, VOL 68, 1989, P81-85.
The effects of a training workshop on mental health practitioners' attitudes toward homosexuality and counseling behavior were compared with the effects of no intervention. Treated subjects (n = 21) were enrolled in a 3-day multimodal workshop about gay/lesbian counseling, and no-treatment comparison subjects (n = 31) were enrolled in other counselor education coursework. Before and after the workshop, subjects completed homosexuality attitude questionnaires and a quasibehavioral gay/lesbian counseling effectiveness measure. Treated subjects improved significantly more than comparison subjects on all measures, and the gains remained in evidence at an 8-week follow-up. The multimodal training workshop thus appears encouraging as a possible means of instilling needed attitudes and skills in counselors of gay and lesbian clients.
SIMPLY... NEW INTERNATIONALIST, NOV 1989
Simple, two sheet, article with cartoons to question homophobia.
DO YOU NEED TREATMENT? NEW INTERNATIONALIST, NOV 1989
One page questionnaire with cartoon: Gay people get asked some pretty strange questions. Often this is because their interrogators have a narrow, strictly heterosexual view of what is 'normal'. NI turns the tables and asks heterosexual people some strange questions too...
INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL ISSUE. COUNSELORS BE AWARE: CLIENTS COME IN EVERY SIZE, SHAPE, COLOR, AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, SARI H. DWORKIN, FERNANDO GUTIERREZ, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, VOL 68, 1989, P6-8.
In order to guarantee that each individual is free to pursue his/her potential, each member of AACD is charged to (a) engage in ongoing examination of his/her own attitudes, feelings, stereotypic views, perceptions and behaviors that might have prejudicial or limiting impact on women, ethnic minorities, elderly persons, gay/lesbian persons and persons with handicapping conditions; (b) contribute to an increased sensitivity on the part of other individuals, groups or institutions to the barriers to opportunity imposed by discrimination; (c) advocate equal rights for all individuals through concerted personal, professional and political activity. (Position paper of the Human Rights Committee of the American Association for Counseling and Development, 1987, p1)
INCLUDING CURRICULUM CONTENT ON LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES, BERNIE S. NEWMAN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION, 1989, FALL, NO. 3, P202-211.
This paper presents a rationale for requiring content on lesbian and gay issues in the social work curriculum. Recent research suggests that a considerable percentage of social workers possess homophobic attitudes. Some support exists for making education a tool to reduce negative attitudes toward the gay population. However, students are unlikely to receive adequate information about this population before they enter the social work curriculum. The goals of including content on lesbian and gay issues are to decrease homophobic attitudes and to prepare students to provide effective social work practice with lesbian and gay clients. Methods and resources for incorporating content on lesbian and gay issues in human behavior, direct practice, policy, community organization and research courses of social work curriculum are presented.
CAN ATTITUDES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS TOWARDS AIDS AND HOMOSEXUALITY BE CHANGED IN SIX-WEEKS?: THE EFFECTS OF A GAY PANEL, CHWEE LYE CHNG, ALAN MOORE, HEALTH VALUES, 1991, VOL 15(2), P41-49.
This study investigated the relationship between attitudes towards AIDS and homosexuality among a selected sample of college students who listened to a panel of speakers comprised of gay and lesbian individuals. There were 52 subjects, 20 males and 32 females, who completed, at three successive administrations, a questionnaire seeking demographic information and attitudes toward homosexuality using the Index of Homophobia (IHO). At the third testing, an attitudes-toward-AIDS questionnaire was also administered using the Fear of AIDS Scale (GFS). A repeated measures design suggested that homophobia scores were highly correlated over time. The Fear of AIDS scores were moderately correlated with scores on all three adminstrations of the IHP, and most correlated (r = 0.61) with test 3 homophobia scores. Male subjects were found to be more homophobic than females. T-tests of the differences between white and black subsamples reveal that black subjects were significantly more homophobic than whites at test 2, but at no other time.
DEALING WITH PREJUDICE AND CONFLICT IN THE CLASSROOM: THE PINK TRIANGLE EXERCISE, MARK A. CHESLER, XIMENA ZUNIGA, TEACHING SOCIOLOGY, 1991, VOL 19 (APRIL), P173-181.
A classroom exercise designed to explore students' attitudes and encounters with homophobia and discrimination against gay males and lesbians asked students to wear a pink triangle for one day. Students reported their internal conflicts - fears and anxieties - about identifying with gay and lesbian people, their external conflicts - encounters with peer pressure and prejudice - and their own efforts to assert a progressive and anti-discriminatory stance in the midst of these situations. In classroom discussion a heated encounter between a straight male and a gay male brought these issues into direct, personal focus and mandated the use of creative conflict management techniques to preserve open dialogue and positive learning. The exercise, and the classroom encounter, have great utility for examining other forms of oppression and discrimination and for experiential learning about important social psychological principles.
TRAINING ISSUES FOR COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGISTS IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, LOUISE A. DOUCE, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2), P216-234.
Counseling psychology professional organizations clearly state that discrimination on the basis of minority status - be it racial/ethnic, sexual orientation, gender, or other - is unethical and unacceptable. Unfortunately, many counselors and counseling psychologists have received little training with regard to lesbian and gay issues. This article presents ways in which these issues can and should be incorporated into counseling psychology training programs. Academic and internship training are addressed, followed by a discussion of the importance of a safe and appropriate environment for lesbian and gay personnel. Specific recommendations are presented and discussed.
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAMS: REACTIONS TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE, NANCY E. BETZ, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2),
EDUCATING MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ABOUT GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES, BIANCA CODY MURPHY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P229-246.
Despite the large number of clients with gay and lesbian concerns, many mental health professionals remain biased and unqualified to serve them. Mental health professionals are poorly prepared to deal with sexuality in general and with gay and lesbian issues specifically. Education and training about gay and lesbian topics is needed both in graduate schools and in the field. This training should focus on three components: (1) information about sexual orientation, gay and lesbian lifestyles, and community resources; (2) the interface between the gay or lesbian client, his or her sexuality, and the effects of living in a heterosexist and homophobic society; and (3) the interaction between the attitudes, feelings, and sexual orientation of the clinician and of the client.
GAY AND LESBIAN SPEAKER PANELS: IMPLEMENTATION AND RESEARCH, JAMES M. CROTEAU, MICHAEL T. KUSEK, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1992, VOL 70(3), P396-401.
Speaker panels are educational interventions in which lesbian women and gay men share their personal stories and respond to questions and comments. The panels are frequently used with college and community groups to reduce homphobic attitudes. Counselors, student development professionals, and other human services professionals are given practical information on effective panel presentations. Then the empirical findings concerning panels are discussed, and recommendations are made to human development professionals for research to expand empirical knowledge about this intervention.
SHARING LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL LIFE EXPERIENCES FACE TO FACE, MARY MCCLINTOCK, THE JOURNAL OF EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION, 1992, VOL 15(3), P51-55.
CRITICAL RE-EVALUATION CAN OVERCOME DISCRIMINATION, PROVIDING EQUAL STANDARDS OF CARE FOR HOMOSEXUAL PATIENTS, ROBERT IRWIN, PROFESSIONAL NURSE, APRIL 1992, P4235-438.
Many nurses find the issue of homosexuality difficult to come to terms with. Gay men and lesbians, however, have the right to the same standards of care and considerations as heterosexual people. Nurses therefore need to confront their own prejudices and those of others, and should be helped in this by the provision of education aimed at dispelling myths about homosexuality.
THE EFFECTS OF A GAY/LESBIAN PANEL DISCUSSION ON COLLEGE STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD GAY MEN, LESBIANS, AND PERSONS WITH AIDS (PWAS), SHELLY GREEN, PAUL DIXON, VALERIE GOLD-NEIL, JOURNAL OF SEX EDUCATION AND THERAPY, 1993, VOL 19(1), P47-63.
This paper presents the results of a study examining the effectiveness of a gay/lesbian panel discussion conducted within a university-level human sexuality class. The panel was intended to alter the students' attitudes regarding gays, lesbians, and persons with AIDS (PWAS). A pretest-posttest design was used to assess students attitudes toward the target groups prior to and directly following the intervention. Results indicate that females reported significantly more positive attitudes than males overall, and that the panel was effective in altering the attitudes of females, while males showed no significant change from pretest to posttest. Supplemental analyses are presented, and implications for future research are discussed.
GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES IN RESIDENCY TRAINING AT U.S. PSYCHIATRY PROGRAMS, MARK H. TOWNSEND, MOLLIE M. WALLICK, KARL M. CAMBRE, ACADEMIC PSYCHIATRY, 1993, VOL 17(2), P67-72.
The authors conducted a survey that explored the training milieu of gay and lesbian psychiatric residents at various sites throughout the United States. In some ways, the residents surveyed have greater institutional support than was found in an earlier study of homosexual medical students. But there are clear and disturbing differences among residents based on gender, with men more likely than women to consider their program supportive of their sexual orientation. In spite of this relative advantage, gay men and lesbians, medical students and residents alike, would prefer that their training institutions be more supportive of their sexuality and more adept at facilitating sensitive care of homosexual patients.
HEALING FROM CULTURAL VICTIMIZATION: RECOVERY FROM SHAME DUE TO HETEROSEXISM, J.H. NEISEN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1993, VOL 2(1), P49-63.
The author draws parallels between the painful effects of sexual/physical abuse and heterosexism. Heterosexism is defined as a form of cultural victimization that oppresses gay/lesbian/bisexual persons. Heterosexism stymies individual growth and development just as individuals who have been sexually/physically abused struggle with the painful effects of their own victimization. Recognizing heterosexism as a form of victimization and abuse, the parallels between the effects of sexual/physical abuse and heterosexism become more clear. A paradigm based on the healing process for individuals who have been sexually/physically abused can also be used with individuals who have been culturally victimized. The utility of the paradigm is in providing helping professionals and their gay/lesbian/bisexual clients with a means to articulate (1) how heterosexism is abusive, (2) the painful consequences of victimization, and (3) the healing process.
HOMOPHOBIA IN THE THERAPIST AND GAY OR LESBIAN CLIENT: CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS COLLUSIONS IN SELF-HATE, SHERRY S. MCHENRY AND JACKIE W. JOHNSON, PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1993, VOL 30(1) P141-151.
The biases of homophobia and heterosexism are present in everyone, in varying degrees, and can be largely denied by both the therapist and the gay or lesbian client. Denial of these biases in the therapist and the client, unless acknowledged and addressed, leads to a negative treatment outcome by a number of different conscious and unconscious collusions between therapist and client. Clinical examples of collusions are discussed according to the therapeutic stages of referral, history taking and diagnosis, treatment, collateral interventions, process, content, and outcome. Recommendations include correcting the problems in lack of training and education of mental health professionals, creating ongoing dialogue regarding self-examination of homophobia among practicing psychotherapists, using direct questioning of gay/lesbian clients regarding homophobia, and an affirmative psychotherapy approach.
HOMOPHOBIA - THEY'RE GLAD TO BE GAY. ARE YOU HAPPY ABOUT THEM? JOY LEGATTE, NEW WOMAN, NOVEMBER 1993, P69-71.
PUSHING AGAINST THE WIND: THE RECOGNITION OF LESBIANS IN COUNSELLING TRAINING, MICHELE CROUAN, COUNSELLING, FEBRUARY 1996.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
A PROTOTYPE FOR A COMPREHENSIVE CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM ON GAY AND LEBIAN ISSUES, TRAVIS L. PETERSON, P145
SOME GUIDANCE AND ADVICE FOR A CONTINUING EDUCATION SESSION ON GAY AND LESBIAN ISSUES, MARGARET NICHOLS AND MICHAEL SHERNOFF, P148
TWO-HOUR IN-SERVICE TRAINING SESSION ON HOMOPHOBIA, A. ELFIN MOSES AND ROBERT O. HAWKINS, JR. P152
HOMOPHOBIA: A WEAPON OF SEXISM, SUZANNE PHARR, CHARDON PRESS, 1988.
OPENING DOORS TO UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE: A FACILITATOR'S GUIDE TO PRESENTING WORKSHOPS ON LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES, 1990, CAMPAIGN TO END HOMOPHOBIA: P.O. BOX 819, CAMBRIDGE, MA 02139, USA.
A GUIDE TO LEADING INTRODUCTORY WORKSHOPS ON HOMOPHOBIA, 1990, CAMPAIGN TO END HOMOPHOBIA.
HOMOPHOBIA: HOW WE ALL PAY THE PRICE, ED. WARREN J. BLUMENFELD, BEACON PRESS, BOSTON, 1992.
PROJECT 10 HANDBOOK: ADDRESSING LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN OUR SCHOOLS, A RESOURCE DIRECTORY FOR TEACHERS, 1993, PRODUCED BY FRIENDS OF PROJECT 10, INC. 7850 MELROSE AVENUE, LOS ANGELES, CA 90046, U.S.A.
HOW TO MAKE THE WORLD A BETTER PLACE FOR GAYS AND LESBIANS, UNA FAHY, WARNER BOOKS, 1995.
COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW: EXPLORING ISSUES OF SEXUALITY AND DIFFERENCE, A RESOURCE FOR TEACHERS, GOVERNORS, PARENTS AND CAREERS, SANDRA MOLE, CAMDEN & ISLINGTON COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES NHS TRUST, ST PANCRAS HOSPITAL, LONDON, NW1 0PE, 1996.
© Lesbian Information Service, 1996.