MALE HOMOSEXUALS: THEIR PROBLEMS AND ADAPTATIONS, MARTIN S. WEINBERG & COLIN J. WILLIAMS, REVIEW BY RAY B. EVANS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL1(1) P127-130.
TEACHING ASSERTIVE SKILLS TO A PASSIVE HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENT: AN ILLUSTRATIVE CASE STUDY, THOMAS MCKINLAY, JEFFREY A. KELLY, JUD PATTERSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(2) P163-170.
Social skills training was used to alter the socially inappropriate and inefffectual behavior of a 17-year old homosexual male. Target behaviors selected for treatment were the subject's effeminate mannerisms and lack of assertiveness in conflict situations, especially those involving other persons making derisive comments to him. A multiple baseline design was used to increase the patient's (a) eye contact, (b) rate of making appropriate requests for behavior change in others, and (c) general level of assertive affect. Six training and six generalization role-played interpersonal scenes were used. Results indicated significant improvement on trained social skills components with generalization to nontrained scenes as well. Implications of these findings are discussed, particularly with respect to social skils and assertion training for effeminate homosexuals.
ADULT DEVELOPMENT AND AGING: A GAY PERSPECTIVE, DOUGLAS C. KIMMEL, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P113-130.
To provide a model for understanding gay adult development and aging, Levinson's developmental periods are applied to the existing data on older gays. In addition, an historical lifeline for a hypothetical gay person born in 1910 is presented to illustrate the relationship between developmental data and historical events. The lack of data on older lesbians and nonadvantaged males is noted. Stereotypes of lonely, depressed, sexually frustrated aging gay men are clearly not valid for the majority of respondents studied. However, there are particular needs of older gays, e.g. support during bereavement, assistance if physically disabled, and a reduction in stigmatization.
GAY MALE FANTASIES AND REALITIES, GREGORY K. LEHNE, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P28-37.
The sexual fantasies of 47 gay men were studied using an open-ended questionnaire to determine the influences of fantasy on developing a gay identity and lifestyle. Early fantasies, occurring around age 12, preceded interpersonal sexual experience by an average of four years. They functioned as a source of self-knowledge about respondents' affectional reference and influenced early homosexual experiences. Current affectional and sexual fantasy themes were related to respondents' lifestyles or desire for a male affectional relationship.
VARIABLES RELATED TO THE ACQUISITION OF A GAY IDENTITY, RICHARD R. TROIDEN, ERICH GOODE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(4), P383-392.
The research reported here examines variables that relate to the speed at which gay identities are acquired. Age cohort, high school heterosexual activity involving more than kssing, and high school homosexual activity involving more than kissing were found to relate to the ages at which a sample of homosexual males suspected they might be homosexual, labeled their feelings as homosexual, defined themselves as homosexual, started to socialize with members of the gay community, and initiated their first love relationships with other males.
NEW PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE TREATMENT OF A HOMOSEXUAL MALE, WILLIAM G. HERRON, THOMAS KINTER, IRWIN SOLLINGER, JULIUS TRUBOWITZ, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(4), P393-401.
This paper is an exploration by four psychotherapists of the probable and actual treatment of a homosexual male in psychotherapy with one of the therapists. A brief case description is followed by opinions on the "pathology" of homosexuality and by discussions of possible psychodynamics, the patient's symptoms, and actual treatment process. The authors express optimism for the value of a psychoanalytic model in helping people to attain their desired sexual identities.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE OLDER HOMOSEXUAL MALE, RAYMOND M. BERGER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(3), P161-175.
Social, psychological, and demographic characteristics of older homosexual males were examined through analysis of the questionnaire responses of 112 homosexual men 40 years of age or older. Few of the negative stereotypes that usually characterize descriptions of this group were supported. Most respondents were well adjusted and satisfied with their lives. Variables relating to good psychological adaptation included integration into the gay community, commitment to homosexuality, a low concern with concealment of sexual preference, a current exclusive relationship and a statisfactory sex life. There was some evidence to indicate that age is positively related to several aspects of psychological adaptation.
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA IN GAY MEN, ALAN K. MALYON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY 1981, VOL 7(2/3), P105-112.
Group psychotherapy has been employed in past years for the purpose of extinguishing homosexuality. recent changes in nosology have allowed mental health professionals to develop groups designed to enhance or facilitate sexual expression in the context of minority sexual orientation. This paper describes one such group model presently in operation as a psychiatric outpatient service of a general hospital in Vancouver, Canada.
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA IN GAY MEN, ALAN K. MALYON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 7(1), P59-69.
This article describes a psychodynamic model of affirmative psychotherapy for gay men. Special note is made of the clinical issues which arise from anti-homosexual attitudes that bias the psychological development of the homosexal male. In particular, the way in which identity formation is affected by heterosexual socialization is discussed. The psychotherapeutic implications associated with these developmental complications are indicated.
MALE HOMOSEXUALITY IN WESTERN CULTURE: THE DILEMMA OF IDENTITY AND SUBCULTURE IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH, GREGORY A. SPRAGUE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXULAITY, 1984, VOL 10(3/4) P29-43.
This article examines recent historical literature dealing with concepts of homosexual identity and subculture. It focuses on the current historiographical debate between the essentialists and the social constructionists. Historians and searching for the origins of the modern homosexual and for ways to explain the unique development of homosexual identities and subcultures in western societies. The distinction is drawn between macroanalysis and microanalysis. After critically examining their efforts, the article suggests the need to avoid focusing on global historical forces, which might account for the emergence of a homosexual identity (macroanalysis), and, instead, to analyze carefully particular homosexual subcultures (microanalysis). This latter approach can provide insights into the variety of homosexual social roles and identities that have existed in history.
CRISIS COUNSELING FOR DISPARATE ADOLESCENT SEXUAL DILEMMAS: PREGNANCY AND HOMOSEXUALITY, GARY ROSS-REYNOLDS, BARBARA S. HARDY, SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, 1985, VOL 14(3), P300-312.
Issues and considerations in counseling adolescents confronted by the two unrelated potential sexual dilemmas of pregnancy and homosexuality are presented. Within the framework of crisis counseling theory, roles and activities of the school psychologist confronting these issues are articulated. As crisis counselor the psychologist is called upon to facilitate rapid reduction of acute stress and to enhance adolescents' coping skills by helping them access personal and community resources. The psychologist's role in primary prevention is also discussed.
MEDICAL PROBLEMS OF THE HOMOSEXUAL ADOLESCENT, W.F. OWEN JR,JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE, 1985, JULY, VOL 6(4), P278-285.
Physicians treating adolescents should take a complete sexual history, including sexual orientation and practices, to determine whether their patients are homosexually active. Lesbians are at very low risk for
sexually transmitted diseases, but they do have other health concerns. Four general groups of conditions may be encountered in homosexually active men: classical sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, herpes simplex infections, genital warts, pubic lice, scabies); enteric diseases (infections with Shigella species, Campylobacter jejuni, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis non-A, non-B, and cytomegalovirus); trauma (fecal incontinence, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, foreign bodies, rectosigmoid tears, allergic proctitis, penile edema, chemical sinusitis, inhaled nitrite burns, and sexual assault of the male patient); and the AIDS. Clinicians can assist homosexual teenagers by understanding their special health needs, by counseling them about safe sexual practices, and by accepting their relationshps nonjudmentally.
ADOLECENT HOMOSEXUALITY: PSYCHOSOCIAL AND MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS, G. REMAFEDI, PEDIATRICS, 1987, VOL 79(3), P331-337.
Despite a widespread interest in the health of the gay community, the psychosocial and medical problems of gay and bisexual adolescents have not been adequately investigated. In this study, 29 gay and bisexual male teenagers participated in anonymous and confidential interviews regarding the impact of sexuality on family, employment, education, peers, intimate relationsips, and physical and mental health. The majority of subjects experienced school problems related to sexuality, substance abuse, and/or emotional difficulties warranting mental health interventions. In addition, nearly half of the subjects reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases, running away from home, or conflict with the law. A minority had been victims of sexual assaults or involved in prostitution. Those less than 18 years of age experienced higher rates of psychiatric hospitalization, substance abuse, high school drop-out, and conflict with the law than did older participants. Various explanations for the prevalence of these problems and their implications for health professionals are discussed.
PERSONALITY CORRELATES OF POSITIVE IDENTITY AND RELATIONSHIP INVOLVEMENT IN GAY MEN, J. PATRICK SCHMITT, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P101-109.
Six personality variables (social anxiety, trait anxiety, locus of control, sensitization, depression, and self concept) were correlated with variables relevant to a positive gay identity (degree of communication about sexual preference and degree of comfort being gay) and to relationship involvement (being in a gay relationship, number of months in a gay relationship, and living with a partner) in a volunteer, nonclinical sample of 51 gay males. Men who informed others of their sexual preference were low on trait anxiety, sensitization, and depression and high on self concept. Men comfortable with their gay identity were low on social anxiety, sensitization, and depression and high on self concept. Men involved in long-term relationships were low in trait anxiety, had an internal locus of control, and were low in depression. Men living witha partner had a higher self concept than men not living with a partner. Results are discussed in terms of previous studies of gay male relationships.
MUELOS: A STONE AGE SUPERSTITION ABOUT SEXUALITY, WESTON LA BARRE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1984, REVIEW BY DAVID F. GREENBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY 1987, VOL 13(4), P124-128.
NON-GHETTO GAYS: A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF SUBURBAN HOMOSEXUALS, FREDERICK R. LYNCH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P13-42.
This ethnographic study is focused upon the lifestyles of white, suburban, middle-class homosexuals. Interview data on some two dozen individuals obtained in the spring of 1982 was increasingly supplemented and supplanted by continued field observation and other techniques of data-gathering through the summer of 1985.
The data on the coming-out experiences were largely congruent with models of homosexual identity formation, especially those of Plummer (1975) and Troiden(1979). As expected, older subjects generally progressed through coming-out stages at a slower pace than their younger counterparts. The middle-class orientation and the suburban socio-cultural environment were also seen as inhibiting homosexual identity formation. The advent of AIDS seemed to have little obvious impact on behavior until the last months of the study.
Suburban homosexuals in this study were strongly oriented to their work and career-building, to suburban home ownership, and to obtaining a long-term love relationship with another male. Suburban homosexuals were also strongly individualistic and assimilationist, rather than oriented towards collective action or organizational membership based on shared sexual identity. While the fortunes of the two friendship groups differed, friendship bonds among suburban homosexuals compare favorably with male friendships in the general population. The findings in this study suggest that suburban homosexuals, like many other Americans, are finding suburban life increasingly attractive and that the lure of large cities and gay ghettos has faded.
ON "BEING A PROSTITITUE", PAUL W. MATHEWS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P119-135.
The book "On Being a Prostitute" (Perkins & Bennett, 1985) is a valuable contribution to the sociology of deviance and sexual ideologies. However, comprehensive as it is, the book presents certain omissions and flaws, with implications for both its empirical data and theoretical underpinnings. In focusing on male (homoerotic) prostitution, and drawing upon Bennett's (1983) "Twenty-Ten" survey (which forms the main empirical base of that aspect of the book), I argue that certain categories of male prostitutes have been excluded. These omissions, I suggest, were necessary to allow Bennett's hypothesis that most male prostitution derives from economic necessity - a recurrent economic determinism reminiscent of Havelock Ellis (1906/1936), and somewhat contrary to a broader strutural approach (see Mathews, 1983).
MALE PROSTITUTION AND HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITY, DEBRA BOYER, JOURNAL OF
HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (1/2).
The documentary film on transvestites, The Queen, has a scene where a young man tells a friend about a recent job interview (Litvinoff, 1968). His friend asks, "Did you tell them you were a homosexual?" The young man, who did not get the job, answers, "No, they told me." What this interaction reflected was not just the fact of the young man's homosexuality, but the social fact: What it means to be homosexual in
his culture and society. In this paper, I discuss the conduct of prostitution as one enactment of those meanings: Prostitution, as a social fact in the life of adolescent gay males, is understood by them
to be linked with their homosexual identity.
GAY YOUTH AND AIDS, DOUGLAS A. FELDMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (1/2)
Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop
appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MALE PROSTITUTION ACTIVITY AMONG GAY AND BISEXUAL
ADOLESCENTS, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (1/2)
The current research literature regarding male-juvenlie prostitution activity is reviewed. An attempt is made to develop some theoretical understanding of the development of this activity among gay and bisexual adolescents. A predisposition, resulting from faulty psychosexual and psychosocial development, appears to make these boys vulnerable to the situational variables that they encounter. More severe disruptions in psychosexual and psychosocial development seem to result in more destructive and non-ego-enhancing prostition activities. A clinical case study is presented which illustrates the development of this activity. Recommendations are made to help reduce the amount of self-destructive prostition activity among male adolescents.
GAY LIBERATION AND COMING OUT IN MEXICO, JOSEPH M. CARRIER, JOURNAL OF
HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (3/4)
This article presents information on three sociocultural variables and relates it to gay liberation and the behavior of gay youth in Guadalajara, Mexico's second largest city. A detailed history of the gay liberation movement in Guadalajara is given because it provides an excellent example of the interaction of sociocultural variables and shows how different the outcome of liberation may be for gay people in
Mexico. Brief life histories of the "coming out" of two Guadalajaran gay men further illustrate some of the unique ways in which gay identities change the lives of gay youth in Mexico.
GAY YOUTH IN FOUR CULTURES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY, MICHAEL W. ROSS,
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 17 (3/4)
Young and older homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) were compared on a number of psychological, social, and psychometric indices to determine what differences existed between them, and the effect of culture on any such differences. Data show that there are greater differences between younger and older homosexual men as the culture appears more anti-homosexual, and that younger homosexual men are less likely to accept their sexual orientation and more likely to accept myths surrounding homosexuality. Younger homosexual men were also more likely to have had gonorrhea (regardless of their number of sexual partners), to prefer receptive anal intercourse, and to have contacted partners by cruising. These data confirm that mental health consequences of anti-homosexual environments are most negative where homosexuality is most severely stigmatized.
SEXUAL COMPULSIVITY IN GAY MEN: CONTROVERSY AND TREATMENT, LESTER PINCU, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, 1989, VOL 68, P63-66.
Compulsive sex among some gay men has been made a more significant issue by the AIDS epidemic. There is controversy as to whether or not compulsive sex is a disorder or if it should be thought of as addiction. The clinical usefulness of the addictive model is discussed, along with the commonalities between the two most prevalent and successful approaches used to treat this disorder: namely, group treatment and the self-help Twelve Step addictive model.
THE "SISSY BOY SYNDROME" AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOSEXUALITY, RICHARD GREEN, YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1987, REVIEW BY JAY P. PAUL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(3), P140-147.
A PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF GAY MALES, JOSEPH HARRY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL19(1), P89-104.
Data are presented from a national probability sample of males interviewed by telephone and asked their sexual orientation. Of these males 3.7 percent reported that they were homosexual or bisexual. Homosexual/bisexual men were compared with heterosexual ones on the demographic variables. This sample produced larger numbers in those groups which appear to be underrepresented in the usual samples drawn from the gay world. These groups include those with little education, married men, older men, minorities, and those living in small towns. It is suggested that probability samples which do not draw directly or heavily from the gay world for homosexual respondents obtain a broader sampling of those having homosexual feelings or behaviors.
ADULT RESPONSES TO CHILD BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES TOWARD FATHERING: GAY AND NONGAY FATHERS, JERRY J. BIGNER, R. BROOKE JACOBSEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P99-112.
This study examines gay and nongay fathers' responses to instruments measuring parenting style and orientation to the fathering role. Fifty-three respondents (24 gay and 29 nongay fathers) completed two surveys, and responses to each were analyzed. Both groups of fathers were found to have a developmental orientation toward their role as fathers, and no discernible parenting style could be found to distinguish one group from the other. Thus, gay and nongay fathers were found to be more similar than different with regard to parenting styles and attitudes toward fathering. This finding supports previous work (Bigner & Jacobsen, 1989a, 1989b) and expands the available knowledge based on the parenting styles of homosexual parents.
GAY FICTIONS: WILDE TO STONEWALL, CLAUDE J. SUMMERS, REVIEW BY JAMES E. BROGAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P113-117.
PASSING AND SOCIAL SUPPORT AMONG GAY MEN, RAYMOND M. BERGER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P85-97.
One hundred sixty-six gay men responded to a questionnaire survey which asked them to describe their social networks and the extent to which they 'passed;' (were assumed to be heterosexual) among network members. Most gay men were known as gay to most members of their networks; however, friends siblings and persons close to respondents were more likely to be aware of their homosexuality than co-workers, parents, and more distant relatives. Gay men were more satisfied with soical support available from those who knew of their sexual orientation. The author concludes that passing has important and complex effects on the social networks of gay men.
THE GAY PEDIATRICIAN: A REPORT, CHARLES R. FIKAR, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P53-63.
Since no articles in the medical literature could be found dealing with the subject of the gay pediatrician, a complete bibliographic search was conducted in order to find information about gay health professionals. Using both manual and computerized methods of access to information in many data bases, much pertinent material was found.
Reports were accessed which demonstrated tht gay pediatricians most certainly exist and that, in addition to their standard role in pediatric and adolescent medicine, they have special and unique contributions to make to the care of our nation's 2.9 million gay youth.
Gay pediatricians need to be accepted as valuable professionals by peers and by society. Whenever possible, gay pediatricians need to act as role models to our gay yoth. Pediatricians who happen to be gay have much to contribute to medicine.
ON A "MINORITY COMPLEX" RENE SCHERER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P283-292.
HOMOSEXUAL RITUALS AND SAFER SEX, MICHAEL POLLAK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P307-317.
After discussing different forms of collective homosexual rituals, the article discusses the emergence of new ritualized forms of safer sex, such as Jack-Off Parties.
HOMOSEXUALS AND AIDS: A NEW APPROACH TO THE ILLNESS, CLAUDE VANDEVYER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY 1993, VOL 25(3), P319-327.
AIDS, historically connected with homosexuals, has provoked a number of social, psychological, and moral reactions within the homosexual community itself as well as elsewhere. Among questions raised, there are all those concerning the meaning and place of human sexuality. Between strict moral condemnation and publicity for "Safer Sex," there is room for a personal ethic, reflection, and a more responsible behavior.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE AIDS ILLNESS AND THE POLARISATION OF VALUES, LINDINALVA LAURINDO DA SILVA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P293-305.
This article is based on a study carried out in Sao Paolo, Brazil, from 1983 to 1986 among male homosexuals. It deals with the various practices and life-styles which constitute the homosexual world in Sao Paulo, and questions regarding AIDS. An analysis is made of the contrasting biographies of two patients suffering from the AIDS virus. The emphasis will be placed on the evolution of the illness and the changes in values that occur during this period. The ways in which the sexual life-style adopted prior to the illness influences the individual social course or mobility (i.e. trajectory of the inflicted person will also be illustrated.
GAY FATHERS IN STRAIGHT MARRIAGES, GERD BUNTZLY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P107-114.
The author bases his conclusions about gay parenthood on anecdotal evidence gathered from about 100 gay German fathers. First he notes how the religious ethic that surrounds the nuclear family stands in the way of a father's awareness and expression of his homosexual desires. Like van der Geest, he reports that many women are attracted to gay men and proceed to marry them. After coming to realize that husbands' homsexual affairs are transitory and do not constitute a serious challenge to marital and family bonds, a few couples have been able to preserve their marriages. In most cases the marriages collapse under the combined pressures of wife and gay lover both claiming exclusive proprietorship: "the 'love triange' can rarely be closed." The author laments the existence of all-male gay husbands and fathers to choose against marriage and parenthood.
THE MINESHAFT: A RETROSPECTIVE ETHNOGRAPHY, JOEL I. BORDSKY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4) P233-251.
The Mineshaft, a male sex club, is described from the patron's perspective, in retrospect, and in the context of gay male urban life in circa-1980 North America. It is suggested that the Mineshaft functioned to provicd, on a for-profit basis, a relatively safe environment for liminal erotic behaviors, and did so in response to a variety of sociocultural conditions. The latter include the lack of institutionalized anticipatory socialization for intramale sexual relations, and the tension betwen S&M and non-S&M gay male styles. The Mineshaft occupied marginal niches in terms of its physical location, its hours of operation, and its legal status. Acess was ritualized, social structure was simplified, social control was informal but adequate. The setting was amenable to a wide range of fantasy, eroticization and erotic role playing.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND POLICE TERROR IN TURKEY, ARSLAN YUZGUN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P159-169.
Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the plitical history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right ot speak out in political affairs.
IN NICARAGUA: HOMOSEXUALITY WITHOUT A GAY WORLD, BARRY D. ADAM, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P171-181.
This paper addresses the social construction of homosexual relations among men in Nicaragua in the late 1980s. The political economy of a nation, subjected to a devastating war by the United States, created conditions where sexual relations among men have not become organized into a gay world which would be familiar to North Americans and Europeans. Rather, homosexuallly-inclined men remain fully integrated in family and neighborhood life where they are often "known about" but not "recognized," a condition which dissolves separateness but also suppresses the development of a gay culture beyond the bounds of heterosexist expectations.
A VISITATION OF DIFFERENCE: RANDALL KENAN AND BLACK QUEER THEORY, R. MCRUER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXULAITY, 1993, VOL 26(2/3), P221-232.
This essay is a consideration of the position of "region" in queer theory, particularly black queer theory. Although only minimal analysis has been directed at black gay cultural production, most attention given to black gay cultural production has focussed predominantly on urban areas/communities re-presented in films such as Tongues Untied and Paris Is Burning. This paper employs Randall Kenan's novel A Visitation of Spirits, which focusses on a black gay youth growing up in the rural African-American community of Tims Creek, North Carolina, to consider what cultural work is done when queer desire turns up in such an apparently unlikely and inhospitable place. Examining how region plays a role in the construction of centers and margins, this article argues against always shuffling queer desire "safely" off to the big city, and considers what transformative cultural work can be done on the "margins" of the queer world.
A JEFFREY WEEKS SYMPOSIUM, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P121-135.
BEING GAY IN PRISON, PROBATION JOURNAL JULY 1993, VOL 40(2), P85-87.
A STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG GY MEN USING THE GHQ-30, ADRIAN COYLE, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 32, P218-220.
This study uses the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) to examine the psychological well-being of 140 gay men from the London area. These men exhibited a level of psychological well-being comparable to that shown by single men from the general population in a study by Cox, et al. (1987) and higher than that of divorced/separated and widowed men. This finding suggests that homosexuality per se is not inimical with psychological well-being.
ODDS & SODS
YOUNG GAY MEN, A GUIDE TO COMING OUT, THE TERRENCE HIGGINS TRUST, 1995, 52-54 GRAYS INN ROAD, LONDON, WC1X 8JU.
DOING SOMETHING, TERRY SANDERSON, GAY TIMES MAY 1989, P36-38.
The post bag of an agony aunt is peppered with letters from gay people who threaten suicide. Terry Sanderson considers a growing problem and some solutions.
EFFEMINACY, ALAN SINFIELD, CHANGES, AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1994, VOL 12(4), P246-253.
YOUNG GAY MEN TALKING, AVERT, 1994.
THE IMPACT OF AIDS ON A GAY COMMUNITY: CHANGES IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, SUBSTANC USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH, JOHN L. MARTIN, LAURA DEAN, MARC GARCIA AND WILLIAM HALL, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, 1989, VOL 17(3), P269-293.
This report describes progress made to date on a study of the impact of the AIDS epidemic on the gay community of New York City. Using a model of the life stress process described by Barbara Dohrenwend and her colleagues, the AIDS epidemic was conceptualized as a community stressor resulting in two key stress-inducing events: death of loved ones due to AIDS and potential illness and death of oneself due to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was hypothesized that these stressors would be significantly related to three domains of health outcomes: sexual behavior, drug and alcohol use, and psychological distress. Descriptive trends over time are provided for both the health outcome variables and the stressor variables. Cross-sectional analyses for 3 years of data provide evidence in support of the main hypothesis. The implications of these findings are discussed from the standpoints of methodology, public health, and the psychology of stress processes in community settings.
HOMOSEXUAL YOUTH, A CHALLENGE TO CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY, G. REMAFEDI, JAMA, 1987, VOL 258(2), P222-225.
MEETING THE CHALLENGE: ADDRESSING THE HEALTH CARE NEEDS OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, S.K. PARRISH, CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL QUARTERLY, 1991, VOL 3(4), P235-238.
The medical concerns facing gay and lesbian adolescents have received much attention in the medical and popular press over the preceding 10 years. However, many barriers to adequate and appropriate health services remain for this group of young people. Barriers exist within schools, communities, families and among health care providers. The lack of appropriate role models for gay and lesbian adolescents remains a problem for most teens facing concerns of sexual identity. Gay and lesbian adolescents also face many challenges to healthy development including substance abuse, suicide, mental health problems, homelessness as well as sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Health care providers working with teenagers must recognize the challenges to health facing gay and lesbian teens and work towards providing more accessible and appropriate services within this group of young people.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOMOPHOBIA AND SELF-ESTEEM IN GAY MALES WITH AIDS, G. LIMA, C.T. LO PRESTO, M.F. SHERMAN, S.A. SOBELMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P69-76.
Fifty-seven participants from various mental health centers and volunteers responding to an ad in a gay newspaper completed questionnaires designed to assess homophobia and self-esteem. Results indicated a significant relationship between homophobia and self-esteem. Moreover, it was found that gay males with AIDS displayed higher levels of homophobia and lower levels of self-esteem than healthy gay males. Results were interpreted employing attribution theory and self-theory.
TREATMENT OF DEPENDENCY DISORDERS IN MEN: TOWARD A BALANCE OF IDENTITY AND INTIMACY, PHILIP COLGAN, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT, SPECIAL ISSUE: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY AND INTIMACY DYSFUNCTION, 1987, VOL 1(1), P205-227.
In many male clients struggling with issues of dependency there are often dysfunctional patterns of recognizing, expressing, and satisfying needs for human contact. This paper presents a conceptual framework of dependency disorders as an organizing principle for understanding such patterns. The discussion will be directed toward the etiology of the patterns, their behavioral manifestations, and effective treatment strategies.
HOMOSEXUAL LABELING AND THE MALE ROLE, RODNEY G. KARR, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34 (3), P73-83.
This study attempted to experimentally isolate and determine the effects of the label "homosexual" upon the perceptions and behavior of the social audience toward men so labeled. Participants rated three different experimental confederates, each labeled homosexual in three groups and not labeled homosexual in three groups. Men were perceived as being significantly less masculiine and less preferred as fellow participants in any future experiment when they were labeled homosexual. The man responsible for the primary labeling of the homosexual was perceived as more masculine and more sociable when he labeled the homosexual than when he did not. Results are discussed in terms of the function of the fear of the homosexual label in maintaining the traditional male role.
ALL IN THE JEANS/GENES? THE IMPORTANCE OF DETERMINIST DISCOURSES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF GAY NARRATIVES OF SELF, JOHN BARKER, SUE HEMMINGS, PAPER PRESENTED TO THE BSA CONFERENCE, UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE, MARCH 1994, DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF PLYMOUTH, DRAKE CIRCUS, PLYMOUTH, PL4 8AA.
GAY GHETTO, MARTIN P. LEVINE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL4(4), P363-377.
Gay people have claimed that there exist within major citis "gay ghettos", neighborhoods housing large numbers of homosexual men and women as well as gathering places where homosexual behavior is generally accepted, and have designated as such certain sections of Boston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Los Angeles (Aiken, 1976, p 27; Altman, 1971, p.42: Brill 1976, p 27; Chicago Gay Liberation, 1970, pp3-4; Kantrowitz, 1975, p. 48; Nassberg, 1970, p. 1; Russo, 1976, p. 47; Shilts, 1977, p. 20; Whitmore, 1975, p. 45; Whittman, 1972, pp. 167-168). Sociologists have picked up the term, using it repeatedly in research (e.g. Humphreys, 1972a, pp. 80-81; Weinberg & Williams, 1974, p.43). Typically, however, these authors ofer no observations to support their use of the phrase. This paper analyzes the validity of "gay ghetto" as a sociological construct, limiting discussion to the male homosexual community.
HOMOSEXUALITY AMONGST INMATES OF COMMON LODGING HOUSES, N.J. SHANKS, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SEXUZL MEDICINE, APRIL 1982, P16-18.
In a study conducted amongst some of Manchester's homeless men the incidence of homosexuality was found to be twice that expected for the rest of the population.
LESBIAN,GAY AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES OVER THE LIFESPAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ED ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLIE, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995, INCLUDES:
GAY MALE IDENTITIES: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, P24-47.
CONSEQUENCES OF DECRIMINALIZATION OF HOMOSEXUALITY: A STUDY OF TWO AUSTRALIAN STATES, KEN SINCLAIR, MICHAEL W. ROSS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 12(1), P119-127.
A comparison between homosexual males in two Australian states, Victoria (prior to decriminalization of homosexuality) and South Australia (eight years after decriminalization), indicated that the consequences of decriminalization did not include an increase in the negative aspects of homosexuality, such as public solicitation or sexually transmitted disease. Findings suggest that as a consequence of decriminalization, the psychological adjustment of homosexual men will increase and sexually transmitted diseases and public solicitation will decrease. These data are tentatively interpreted as indicating that there are few if any negative consequences of decriminalizing homosexuality, and a number of positive consequeces.
ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT, STONEWALL SURVEY ON THE AGE OF CONSENT & SEX EDUCATION, ANYA PALMER, 1994, STONEWALL, 2 GREYCOAT PLACE, WESTMINSTER, L0ND0N, SW1P 1SB.
COUNSELING THE PARENTS OF YOUNG HOMOSEXUAL MALE PATIENTS, MICHAEL F. MYERS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 7(2/3), P131-143.
This paper describes the author's practice of interviewing the parents of young homosexual men in therapy; specifically, parents who are in crisis after having recently learned their son is homosexual. A review of the literature on the "old" and "new" schools of thought in this area is presented, as well as an analysis of motivations for disclosure to parents. The importance of thorough patient assesment and preparation is emphasized. Therapist roles and functions in assisting parents are described and discussed in detail.
COMING OUT TO MOM AND DAD: A STUDY OF GAY MALES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR PARENTS, DAVID W. CRAMER, ARTHUR J. ROACH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P79-91.
This study explores the relationship between gay men coming out to parents and specific perceived parental variables in an attempt to discriminate between parents who are more or less accepting. In addition, other factors such as how the disclosure occurs and reasons for coming out were investigated.
Results indicate that most parents initially react negatively to the disclosure, but become more accepting over time. Parental values and characteristics associated with homohobia were found to be good predictors of the change in parent-son relationship following disclosure. However, the predictions were often in unexpected directions. The majority of respondents reported having a more positive relationship with their mothers than with their fathers, both before and after coming out.
CHAPTER 19, INTRODUCTION, MARY E. HOTVEDT, P215-291 HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, EDITED BY WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1982, INCLUDES:
GAY MALE RELATIONSHIPS, PAUL C. LARSON, P219-232.
IN THE LIFE: A BLACK GAY ANTHOLOGY, ALYSON, 1986, INCLUDES:
WHY A GAY BLACK CHURCH? J. TINNEY, P70-86.
MALE RAPE: VICTIMS NEED SENSITIVE MANAGEMENT, LETTER, MICHAEL B. KING, 1990,
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, VOL 301, 15 DEC
HOMOPHOBIC VIOLENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, TED R.
BOHN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK & HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1983/1984, VOL 2(3/3), , P91-
Homophobic violence, that is, violence directed at an individual perceived by his/her assailants to be homosexual is a pervasive social problem in the U.S. Research indicates that anti-gay violence differs markedly from generic violence (that is, violence not motivated by hatred of homoseuals) on several variables. These differences appear to affect the course of treatment and recovery for gay victims, and make necessary specialized interventions. Strategies for service delivery to, and engaging victims of, homophobic violence are considered, as are idiosyncratic clinical concerns, and preventive interventions. The relationship of homophobic violence to the maintenance of the male sex role is also examined.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, PAUL A. PAROSKI, P68
PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF AIDS, GARY G. TREESE, P73
SAN DIEGO SUICIDE STUDY: COMPARISON OF GAY TO STRAIGHT MALES, CHARLES L. RICH, RICHARD C. FOWLER, MARY BLENKUSH, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BERAVIOR, VOL 16(4) 1986, P448-457.
Previous large studies of completed suicides have not considered sexual orientation in their data analyses. In this study, data from the known homosexual subpopulation (13 males, aged 21-42) in a series of 283 suicides were examined. They were compared with all other aged male suicides 21-42 (n = 106). Both groups showed considerable substance abuse plus a variety of other psychiatric diagnoses. Both also had a high frequency of relationship difficulties near the time of death. Gays who committed suicide did not have a history of more police trouble and were no more likely to be living alone than the comparison group. They did not have more prior suicide attempts or previous psychiatric treatment. We conclude that, among the factors examined here, there appears to be little differences between gay and heterosexual male suicides.
HOMOSEXUALITY, SUICIDE, AND PARASUICIDE IN AUSTRALIA, NEIL BUHRICH,
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY VOL 15 (1/2) 1988.
SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT GAY MEN, STEPHEN G. SCHNEIDER, NORMAN L. FARBEROW, GABRIEL N. KRUKS, SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR, VOL 19(4), 1989, P381-394.
The relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior was explored by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay-and-lesbian college organizations and 56 men in gay rap groups. A family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting of homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with a history of suicidal ideation, reported by 55% of the participants. Racial/ethnic minorities tended to be overrepresented among suicidal as compared to nonsuicidal gay men. Suicide attempts, reported by 20% of the sample, were most often associated with intrapersonal distress, and occured most often while individuals were "closeted" and/or in the context of recent rejection for being homosexual. Nearly all attempters were aware of their homosexual feelings, but had not yet established a "positive gay identity" at the time of their first suicide attempt. Suicidal behavior in gay youths may be the product both of familial factors that predispose youths to suicidal behavior, and of social and intrapersonal stressors involved in coming to terms with an emerging homosexual identity.
RISK FACTORS FOR ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN GAY AND BISEXUAL YOUTH, G. REMAFEDI, J.A. FARROW, R.W. DEISHER, PEDIATRICS, 1991, VOL 87(6), P869-875.
Studies of human sexuality have noted high rates of suicidality among homosexual youth, but the problem has not been systematically examined. This work was undertaken to identify risk factors for suicide attempts among bisexual and homosexual male youth. Subects were 137 gay and bisexual males, 14 through 21 years of age, from the upper Midwest and Pacific Northwest. Forty-one subjects (41/137) reported a suicide attempt; and almost half of them described multiple attempts. Twenty-one percent of all attempts resulted in medical or psychiatric admissions. Compared with non-attempters, attempters had more feminine gender roles and adopted a bisexual or homosexual identity at younger ages. Attempters were more likely than peers to report sexual abuse, drug abuse, and arrests for misconduct. The findings parallel previous studies' results and also introduce novel suicide risk factors related to gender nonconformity and sexual milestones.
AFFIRMATIVE PSYCHOTHERAY FOR GAY MEN, JOSEPH W. SHANNON, WILLIAM J. WOODS, 1991, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGISTVOL 19(2), P197-215.
This article explores unique issues that confront gay male clients. These issues include identity development and management, interpersonal issues, and special issues, such as the impact of aging, antigay violence, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diversity within the male gay community is also addressed throughout the article, and case examples are used to illustrate issues more fully. The article concludes with recommendations for treatment and research.
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