FEMINISM

SAPPHO WAS A RIGHT-ON WOMAN: A LIBERATED VIEW OF LESBIANISM, SIDNEY ABBOTT & BARBARA LOVE; WOMAN PLUS WOMAN: ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANISM, DOLORES KLAICH; LESBIAN/WOMAN, DEL MARTIN & PHYLLIS LYON; THE LESBIAN MYTH: INSIGHTS AND CONVERSATIONS, BETTIE WYSOR; REVIEW BYJULIA P. STANLEY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(2), P220-223.

PSEUDOHOMOSEXUALITY IN FEMINIST STUDENTS, Z. DEFRIES, THE AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, 1976, VOL 133(4), P400-404.

The author describes is influence of the feminist movement on the intellectual, social, and sexual behavior of feminist college students. The complex interrelationship between sexual political ideology and actual sexual behavior creates confusion and anxiety for some vulnerable students in their attempts to evolve a satisfactory sexual identity. A series of vignettes illustrates the struggle of such students, who initially expressed concern over actual or potential lesbianism and its connection to the movement, to resolve their conflicts concerning feminism and sexual preference.

SCARLET WOMEN, JULY 1981, SEXUALITY, VOL 13(1/2), INCLUDES:

LESBIANS IN THE WOMEN'S MOVEMENT

DISABLED LESBIANS AND THE LESBIAN COMMUNITY

REFLECTIONS ON THE BREAK-UP OF A LESBIAN RELATIONSHIP. ONE SIDE OF THE STORY.

SEX AMD THE EXPERTS OR MALE SEXUALITY RULES OK

PAEDOPHILIA AND PUBLIC MORALS, VIOLENCE AGAINS LESBIANS AND THEIR STATE - BY MEN

COMPULSORY HETEROSEXUALITY AND LESBIAN EXISTENCE, LOVE YOUR ENEMY? THE DEBATE BETWEEN HETEROSEXUL FEMINISM AND POLITICAL LESBIANISM, REVIEWS.

THE SPINSTER AND HER ENEMIES, SEXUALITY AND THE LAST AVE OF FEMINISM; BACKLASH AGAINST SPINSTER.

SADO-MASOCHISM.

THE "NEW GAY" LESBIANS, LILLIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 10(3/4), P85-95.

The three-stage progression toward homosexual identity that Minton and McDonald (1983/1984) delineate in Bisexual and Homosexual Identities (De Cecco & Shively, eds., 1983/1984) is generally not applicable to women who have come to lesbianism through the radical feminist movement of the past 15 years. Their progression toward a lesbian identity was in an order roughly the reverse of what Minton and McDonald describe: Through the movement they came to understand that society's norms can be critically evaluated and that heterosexuality was detrimental to women's freedom, often before they had homosexual genital experience. The "egocentric" stage for these women may have been no different from that of heterosexuals. They may have escaped the guilt and isolation associated with the "sociocentric" stage because they first viewed themselves as lesbian in the context of a supporive social group. There is also some evidence to suggest that many premovement lesbians made their decision to identify as homosexual on the basis of their political views about heterosexuality. Thus, they too may not have experienced Minton and McDonald's three-stage progression toward identity.

FEMINISM AS A CORRELATE OF SELF-ESTEEM, SELF-ACCEPTANCE, AND SOCIAL

SUPPORT AMONG LESBIANS, RICHARD L. LEAVY AND EVE M. ADAMS, PSYCHIOLOGY

OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, 1986, VOL 10(4), P321-326.

In this study it was hypothesised that, among lesbians, agreement with feminist ideology and participation in feminist activities would correlate positively with self-esteem, self-acceptance and social support.

Demographic variables were also examined as correlates. Respondents were contacted through 11 lesbian, gay, and feminist organisations and establishments and asked to complete a research questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-three usable questionnaires were returned. Age and

current involvement in a lesbian relationship were significantly related to self-esteem, self-acceptance, and social support. Participation in feminist activities also correlated with self-acceptance. The results

give tentative, but important, information useful in understanding the correlates of self-esteem and support among lesbians.

INTRODUCTION: LESBIANISM AS A MODEL OF A POSITIVE LIFESTYLE FOR WOMEN, ESTHER D. ROTHBLUM, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P1-12.

FROM ILLNESS TO ACTION: CONCEPTIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE LADDER, 1956-1965, KRISTIN GAY ESTERBERG, THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1990, VOL 27(1), P65-80.

The views of medical and psychiatric professionals had an important effect on lesbians' conceptions of themselves and their sexuality in the 1950s and 1960s. This article traces the depiction of professional discourse on homosexuality in The Ladder, the first widely circulated lesbian publication in the United States. Published by the Daughters of Bilitis, a group of largely white, middle-class lesbians, The Ladder shows evidence of changes in lesbians' acceptance of negative conceptions of homosexuality during the period 1956 to 1965. These changes are in part attributed to the increasing militancy of the homophile movement during the 1960s.

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OR EXTENDED FAMILIES? THE RECONSTRUCTION OF GENDER IN WOMEN'S COLLEGES IN THE LATE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, ELIZABETH EDWARDS, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1990, VOL 2(1), P17-35.

This article aims to develop our theorisation of gender as a category of analysis in education, by examining how the meaning of gender has been socially constructed historically within specific educational contexts. A post-structuralist perspective is used to show how gender meaning is constructed both from competing and conflicting discourses within these specific historical contexts, and also by the transformation of existing discourses into new contexts. It first discusses how the discourse of social practice and family organisation in the Victorian middle-class home were translated from their domestic setting and transformed to provide new meanings in the institutional context of women's colleges. The translation and transformation of these domestic and familial discourses was relatively straightforward; but the construction of the new role of the woman principal from the discourses of Victorian middle-class femininity was always highly problematic. The second part of the article examines the difficulties faced by women principals in constructing their dual gender role as both father and mother of the institutional families which they served. Finally I attempt to decode the homoerotic friendships which some principals formed in order to express the emotional and sexual needs of their own femininity.

HETEROSEXUALITY: SEXUALITY OR SOCIAL SYSTEM? CONSTANCE DUROCHER, RADICAL FEMINIST REVIEW, RESOURCES FOR FEMIMIST RESEARCH DOCUMENTATION, 1990, VOL 19(3/4), P13-19.

THE SYMBOLIC/VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION OF OUTGROUP ATTITUDES AMONG HOMOSEXUALS, CONNIE M. KRISTIANSEN, THE JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1990, VOL 130(1) P61-69.

The claim that attitudes toward an outgroup symbolically represent beliefs that the outgroup violates important values was examined through the investigation of the intergroup versus intragroup nature of the relations between a sample of feminist lesbians (primarily involved in the women's movement), gay movement lesbians (primarily involved in the gay movement), and gay men. Consistent with the intergroup relations documented between some feminist women and men, feminist lesbians (compared with gay movement lesbians) had less favorable attitudes toward gay men, associated with fewer gay men, perceived less common fate with gay men, wished to cooperate less with gay men, and perceived less value similarity with gay men. These and other findings suggested that feminist lesbians shared an intergroup relationship with gay men, whereas gay movement lesbians and gay men shared an intragroup relationship. Consistent with the notion that intergroup attitudes symbolically represent beliefs that an outgroup violates important values, feminist lesbians' attitudes toward gay men were explained by their perceptions that gay men placed less importance on values they themselves regarded as important. The implications of these findings for understanding the nature of symbolic attitudes and subsequent research are discussed.

RESEARCH NOTE NEGOTIATING SEXUAL IDENTITY: NON-LESBIANS IN A LESBIAN FEMINIST COMMUNITY, LINDA SILBER, THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1990, VOL 27(1), P131-140.

Lesbian feminist communities present dilemmas for feminists who are involved in these communities yet do not define themselves as lesbians. In this exloratory study of nine non-lesbian feminists who were involved with a lesbian feminist community in the mid-1980s, important questions emerge about how to define oneself sexually and how to negotiate sexual identity. The politics of sexual identity is a core issue for these women, as lesbianism and feminism are entwined in a rhetoric which privileges lesbianism. On the other hand, the heterosexual world competes for their attention and offers a much less threatening lifestyle and political position. For the most part, these women resist defining themselves solely on the basis of sexual behavior and negotiate their identity depending on the audience or community. Sexual identity for these women is closely tied to overall self-concept and to the politics of lesbian feminist communities in the mid-1980s.

A MISSING VOICE IN FEMINIST LEGAL THEORY: THE HETEROSEXUAL PRESUMPTION,

LEIGH MEGAN LEONARD, WOMEN'S RIGHTS LAW REPORTER, 1990, VOL 12(1), P39-49.

EXTRACT: In this article I will first attempt to define the dimensions of the heterosexual presumption within feminist legal theory. Then I will examine the harm its perpetuation causes to lesbians and its potential threat to the integrity of the theory itself. Finally, I will outline a three-part process designed to facilitate the inclusion of lesbian existence in feminist legal theory.

BEYOND PLUMBING AND PREVENTION: FEMINIST APPROACHES TO SEX EDUCATION, HELEN LENSKY, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1990, VOL 2(2), P217-230.

This article offers a feminist critique of existing sex education policies and programmes in Candada, as well as examining common right-wing arguments against more progressive approaches. Two major forces shaping adolescent girls' developing sexuality - male sexual violence and compulsory heterosexuality - are discussed, and recent initiatives in Ontario to introduce these issues into sex education programmes evaluated. Toronto Board of Education's new policy on sexual orientation and the Ontario Ministry of Education AIDS Education Curriculum are assessed and strategies for anti-sexist, anti-heterosexist sex education developed.

PERCEPTIONS OF THE SEXUAL SELF: THEIR IMPACT ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, DIANE PALLADINO, YANELA STEPHENSON, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(3), P231-253.

This paper explores the role of women's sexual self in the formation of friendships between lesbian and heterosexual women. The Stone Center (Wellesley College) developmental theory is used as a framework through which to identify and examine the gaps in current thinking about the definition of women's sexual self and the impact of the erotic on "women bonding." Recent literature exploring women's friendships is used to illuminate the ambiguous, and sometimes distorted, definition of women's sexual self. A multi-ethnic, multi-racial approach is applied to reflect the diverse experience of American women.

LESBIAN, COLLEEN LAMOS, NWSA JOURNAL, 1991, VOL 3(2), P278-280.

Discusses use of the word lesbian.

THE SHIFT FROM IDENTITY POLITICS TO THE POLITICS OF IDENTITY: LESBIAN PANELS IN THE WOMEN'S STUDIES CLASSROOM, MARY MARGARET FONOW, DEBIAN MARTY, NWSA JOURNAL, 1991, VOL 3(3), P402-413.

This essay discusses the teaching implications of constructionist approaches to the study of sexual identity and evaluates our efforts in implementing these approaches in introductory women's studies classes. Borrowing insights from postmodern feminism we also offer suggestions for how we teach and theorize about sexual identities. Primary attention is given to an analysis of students' reactions to lesbian panels and to an assessment of the usefulness of these panels in fostering student understanding of sexual identity. Our discussion is based on our own teaching experience, on interviews with other instructors, and on 169 written student responses to lesbian panels. Our primary goal is to examine how the topic of sexual identity is taught to general education students enrolled in the basic women's studies survey course offered by the Center for Women's Studies at the Ohio State University. Students who take this course to fulfill general education requirements usually have little or no knowledge of feminist scholarship and rarely have had the opportunity to study and discuss the topic of sexual identity.

THERAPY FOR LESBIANS?: THE CASE AGAINST, RACHEL PERKINS, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1991, VOL 1(3), P325-338.

From a lesbian feminist perspective the problematic nature of developments in 'lesbian' and 'feminist' psychological therapies is considered. It is argued that such therapies are, despite their expressed aims, essentially anti-lesbian and anti-feminist.

WOMEN WITH LONG-TERM MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: ISSUES OF POWER AND POWERLESSNESS, RACHEL E. PERKINS, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1991, VOL 1(1), P131-139.

IDENTITY POLITICS: LESBIAN FEMINISM AND THE LIMITS OF COMMUNITY, SHANE PHELAN, TEMPLE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1989, REVIEW BY CHERYL KADER, GENDER & SOCIETY, SEP 1991, VOL 5(3), P425-428.

WAITING FOR THE REVOLUTION - OR WORKING FOR IT?: A REPLY TO LAURA BROWN AND KATHERINE SENDER, RACHEL PERKINS, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 2(2), P258-261.

LESBIANS, THERAPY AND POLITICS: INCLUSION AND DIVERSITY, KATHERINE SENDER, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 2(2), P255-276.

LESBIAN CONNECTIONS: SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR AND FEMINISM, MARGARET A. SIMONS, SIGNS, 1992, VOL 18(1) P136-161.

SISTERS AND QUEERS, THE DECENTERING OF LESBIAN FEMINISM, ARLENE STEIN, SOCIALIST REVIEW, 1992, VOL 22(1), P33-55.

AGAINST THE DIVIDING OF WOMEN: LESBIAN FEMINISM AND HETEROSEXUALITY, DENISE THOMPSON, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 2(3), P387-398.

I am arguing for a continuity of interests between lesbians and heterosexual women, and that lesbians and heterosexual women have common experiences which enable them to understand and empathize with each other. I document the history of the feminst critique of heterosexuality from early radical feminism to the contemporary arguments of Rich (1980), Raymond (1986) and Penelope (1985a, 1985b, 1985c). From a lesbian feminist standpoint, I suggest that setting up an oppositional dichotomy between 'lesbian' and 'heterosexual' divides women from each other and perpetuates the heterosexual hegemony. The continuing revaluation and redefinition of lesbianism is essential in order to achieve the political priority of feminism: an end to male domination.

WHILE WAITING FOR THE REVOLUTION: THE CASE FOR A LESBIAN FEMINIST PSYCHOTHERAPY, LAURA S. BROWN, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 2(2), P239-253.

This article addresses itself to points raised by Rachel Perkin's criticism of feminist therapy with lesbians. A model of politically aware feminist therapy is described and contrasted with non-feminist 'therapy with lesbians'. The effect of the work context of the therapist on the potential for a genuinely feminist therapy is explored.

REVIEW ESSAY, SALLY MUNT: LESBIAN TEXTS AND CONTEXTS: RADICAL REVISIONS ED. KARLA JAY & JOANNE GLASGOW; LESBIAN AND GAY WRITING, ED. MARK LILLY; THE SAFE SEA OF WOMEN: LESBIAN FICTION 1969-1989, BONNIE ZIMMERMAN, FEMINIST REVIEW 1992, NO 40, P94-99.

LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGY, LESBIAN POLITICS, MARNY HALL, CELIA KITZINGER, JOANN LOULAN, RACHEL PERKINS IN CONVERSATION, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 2(1), P7-25.

Four lesbians - two psychotherapists, a clinical psychologist and a social psychologist - met me in the Sage offices in London, where I chaired a discussion of the role of psychology and therapy for lesbians. In conversation, over lunch and a couple of bottles of wine, they explored their differing experiences of psychology, therapy and lesbian politics, in Britain and the USA (California). What does it mean to say that 'the personal is political'? What is the relationship between lesbian feminist politics and the practice of lesbian therapy? Is the psychological concept of 'homophobia' politically useful? What is the relationship between heterosexual feminism and lesbianism? These questions (and more) were passionately debated - with occasional consensus but more often fervent disagreements. There were shared understandings of lesbian oppression, but irreconcilable differences as to how that oppression can be countered. It's hard to convey the tone of the discussion: though often serious and intense, with a clear awareness of the importance of these issues, there was also a tremendous sense of fun, and sheer enjoyment. This is only an extract from an impassioned and absorbing conversation of over four hours. As Editor of Feminism & Psychology I am pleased and proud that the journal is able to host discussions of this sort, and I hope that readers who feel strongly about the issues raised here will contribute to ongoing debate by writing for 'Observations and Commentaries'.

SISTERS AND QUEERS, THE DECENTERING OF LESBIAN FEMINISM, ARLENE STEIN, SOCIALIST REVIEW, 1992, VOL 22(1) P33-55.

LESBIANS WHO HAVE NEVER VOLUNTARILY HAD SEX WITH MEN, MONIFA AJANAKU, SINISTER WISDOM, WINTER 1992/93, NO 48, P112-116.

WOMEN'S CULTURE AND LESBIAN FEMINIST ACTIVISM: A RECONSIDERATION OF CULTURAL FEMINISM, VERTA TAYLOR AND LEILA J. RUPP, SIGNS, AUTUMN, 1993, VOL 19(1), P32-61.

FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 3(1), INCLUDES:

COMING OUT IN PSYCHOLOGY: LESBIAN PSYCHOLGISTS TALK, CHRISTINE GRIFFIN AND MIRIAM ZUKAS, P111-133.

OUR MASTER'S VOICE? ON NOT GETTING AWAY WITH 'LESBIAN STUDIES', TAMSIN WILTON, P137-139.

RESPONSE TO TAMSIN WILTON: 'OUR MASTER'S VOICE', CHRISTINE GRIFFIN, P142-144.

(BE)COMING OUT: LESBIAN IDENTITY AND POLITICS, SHANE PHELAN, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P765-790.

QUEER THEORY: A REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENCES SPECIAL ISSUE AND WITTIG'S THE STRAIGHT MIND, ROSEMARY HENNESSY, SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4), P964-973.

UNCONSCIOUSNESS RAISING: HIDDEN DIMENSIONS OF HETEROSEXISM IN THEORY AND PRACTICE WITH LESBIANS, E.C. SPAULDING, SMITH COLLEGE STUDIES IN SOCIAL WORK, 1993, VOL 63(3), P231-245.

This article reviews major approaches to empirical research in the past decade on the lesbian "coming out" experience, and makes explicit the sociocultural context within which they may be configured. Structural aspects of heterosexism are discussed from a social point of view and also at the level of individual experience. The internalization processes of heterosexism are described through a review of clinical data. Examination of the data from these perspectives serves not only to enhance clinical sensitivity to the larger social context in which individuals experience themselves as gay, but also to the hidden dimensions of heterosexism in theory.

BOOKS

ALL THE RAGE, REASSESSING RADICAL LESBIAN FEMINISM, LYNEE HARNE & ELAINE MILLER, EDS., THE OWMEN'S PRESS, 1996.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

THE BLACK WOMAN, EDITED BY LA FRANCES RODGERS-ROSE, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1980, INCLUDES:

THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT, UNDERSTANDING BLACK WOMEN'S ATTITUDES, WILLA MAE HEMMONS, P285-299.

NO TURNING BACK, WRITINGS FROM THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT 1975-80, EDITED BY FEMINIST ANTHOLOGY COLLECTIVE, THE WOMEN'S PRESS, 1981, INCLUDES:

PREJUDICE AND PRIDE, ANNY BRACKX, P162-171.

BIRMINGHAM AND THE SIXTH DEMAND, LESBIAN LEFT, P172-174.

HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, ED. WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, SAGE PUBLICATIONS 1982,INCLUDES:

INTRODUCTION, P1-7.

FROM ACCOMMODATION TO REBELLION: THE POLITICIZATION OF LESBIANISM, ROSE WEITZ, P233-248.

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:

CHANGING THEORIES OF LESBIANISM: CHALLENGING THE STEREOTYPES, CHRISTINE BROWNING, P11-30.

DEVELOPING A LESBIAN IDENTITY, JEANNINE GRAMICK, P31-44.

THE OLDER LESBIAN: LOVE RELATIONSHIPS AND FRIENDSHIP PATTERNS, SHARON RAPHAEL, MINA ROBINSON, P67-82.

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES, PAMELA ABBOTT & CLAIRE WALLACE, ROUTLEDGE, 1990, INCLUDES:

THE PRODUCTION OF FEMINIST KNOWLEDGE.

WORLDS APART: A LESBIAN FEMINIST APPROACH TO MADNESS AND SOCIAL DISABILITY, RACHEL E. PERKINS; PAPER PRESENTED AT NATIONAL FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY CONFERENCE, 1992, LONG BEACH, CLAIFORNIA.

BODY MATTERS: ESSAYS ON THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODY, ED. SCOTT, S & MORGAN, D. 1993, THE FALMER PRESS INCLUDES:

THE INVERTED GAZE, RUTH WATERHOUSE, P105-119.

BREAKING OUT AGAIN, FEMINIST ONTOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY, LIZ STANLEY AND SUE WISE, ROUTLEDGE, 1993, INCLUDES:

CHAPTER 3: BEYOND THE PERSONAL, P66-91.

CHAPTER 4: SOCIALIZATION AND GENDER ROLE, A SORT OF CRITIQUE, P92-117.

CHAPTER 7: AND SO DEAR READER, P173-229.

THE LESBIAN AND GAY STUDIES READER, ED HENRY ABELOVE, MICHELE AINA BARALE, DAVID M. HALPERIN, ROUTLEDGE, 1993.

BITS & PIECES

LESBIAN FEMINISM AND THE GAY RIGHTS MOVEMENT: ANOTHER VIEW OF MALE

SUPREMACY, ANOTHER SEPARATISM, MARILYN FRYE, 1983.

This essay is a revision of a talk the author gave at an event in the Spring of 1981, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, organized by the Grand Rapids chapter of the gay catholic organization, Dignity, and co-sponsored by Aradia.

25 YEARS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD, MS, DECEMBER 1988.

LIBERATING LESBIAN RESEARCH, ANNABEL FARADA, MAKING OF THE MODERN HOMOSEXUAL, ED KENNETH PLUMMER, HUTCHINSON, 1981.

CROSS REFERENCES

ALCOHOL

PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AMONG WOMEN: FOCUS ON SPECIAL POPULATIONS, TONDA L. HUGHES, MARILYN L. FOX, CLINICAL ISSUES IN PERINATAL WOMEN'S HEALTH NURSING, 1993, VOL 4(2), P203-212.

Despite the growing national concern about the effect of the use of alcohol and other drugs on the health and productivity of men and women, relatively little is known about alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems in women. Because of this lack of research and the stigma associated with women who are alcoholic or drug addicted, AOD problems among women are less likely to be recognized and addressed. This article reviews patterns and consequences of AOD use among a number of special populations of women. Information about risk factors and assessment and screening are included to assist the nurse in the identification, counseling, and referral of women with AOD related problems.

A FEMINIST APPROACH TO SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY, ANN A. ABBOTT, SOCIAL WORK IN HEALTH CARE, 1994, VOL 19(314), P67-83.

A major concern among service providers and policy makers has been the increase in the number of individuals and families that enter the health care system either using or abusing alcohol and other drugs or suffering from the ramifications of a significant family member's substance abuse. An additional concern involves a lack of adequate understanding of these clients and a lag in the development of appropriate treatemnt strategies, especially in relation to women (Blume, 1993; Googins, 1984; National Council on Alcoholism an Drug Dependence, 1987). This article pays particular attention to substance use among women; the identification of deficits in current mainstream, treatment efforts, which historically have been developed primarily by male providers for male substance abuses; the advantages and specifics of treatment based on a feminist perspective; and their application to other at-risk populations.

ATTITUDES

RECENT CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HOMOSEXUALITY: SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE, DIANE RICHARDSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P1-12.

During the last decade there has been a change in professional attitudes toward homosexuality reflected in the development of new models of treatment. Rather than offering a cure the aim is to help homosexuals adjust positively to their orientation. Such attitudinal change on the part of the practitioners has not, in the main, questioned the fundamental assumptions of theories which seek to explain homosexuality. Recent theoretical inquiry into homosexuality, however, has done this, posing an important challenge to the traditionally held view that people have an essential sexuality that is either homosexual or heterosexual and which remains fixed and unchanging throughout their lifes. This paper addresses some of the more important clinical implications of these recent developments, in particular, the suggestion that "the homosexual" as a certain type of person is an "invention." In addition, the therapeutic, value and difficulties associated with an acknowledgment that sexual preference and identity may change over time are considered. Finally, there is consideration of what the goals should be in the case of the person who seeks professional help in changing from a homosexual to a heterosexual orientation.

BATTERING

LESBIAN VICTIMS OF RELATIONSHIP VIOLENCE, NANCY HAMMOND, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P89-105.

CONFRONTING LESBIAN BATTERING, RSEARCH COMMITTEE AND STAFF OF LONDON BATTERED WOMEN'S ADVOCACY CENTRE, 69 WELLINGTON STREET, LONDON, ONTARIO, N6B 2K4, CANADA. 1993.

Excellent little booklets which gives three case studies and analyses as well as action to take to confront battering.

BISEXUALITY

THE POLITICS OF SEXUAL IDENTITY: SEXUAL ATTRACTION AND BEHAVIOR AMONG LESBIAN AND BISEXUAL WOMEN, PAULA C. RUST, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, 1992, VOL 39(4), P366-386.

In the lesbian community, one which is based upon a shared sexual minority identity, recent attempts to add the category "bisexual" to the prevailing dichotomous conceptualization of sexuality have led to various popular conceptualizations of sexuality. Lesbian-identified women disagree among themselves with bisexual-identified women over whether bisexuality exists, and if so, what it is. As a result, individuals develop lesbian and bisexual identities based on differing conceptions of sexuality, thereby undermining the basis for affiliation among women with a shared sexual identity. This paper, based upon data from 365 lesbian- and bisexual-identified women who were questioned about their sexual identity histories, behaviors, and feelings of sexual attraction, demonstrates that while there are aggregate differences between the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women, there is also a wide range of sexual experience common to both groups. The paper argues that the tension which characterizes relations between lesbian- and bisexual-identified women is not the result of failure to recognize these similarities in experience. Instead, historical circumstances have led to a situation in which bisexuality poses a personal and political threat to lesbians and lesbian politics; the similarity between lesbians' and bisexuals' experiences aggravates rather than mitigates this threat.

BUTCH/FEM

BUTCHES, FEMMES, AND FEMINISTS: THE POLITICS OF LESBIAN SEXUALITY, ELIZABETH A. SMITH, NWSA JOURNAL, 1989, VOL 1(3), P398-421.

THE RETURN OF BUTCH AND FEMME: A PHENOMENON IN LESBIAN SEXUALITY OF THE 1980S AND 1990S, LILLIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF SEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 2(4), P578-596.

GENDER ROLES AND ROLE CONFLICT IN FEMINIST LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, DEBRA K. PETERS, PEGGY J. CANTRELL, SEX ROLES, 1993, VOL 28 (7/8), P379-392.

Thirty-nine lesbian and 39 heterosexual feminist women were compared on (1) gender role orientation; (2) intra- and interrole conflict in daughter, intimate partner, and work roles; and (3) satisfaction with interpersonal relationships with parents, intimate partners, and co-workers/employers. The majority were Caucasian and either graduate students or professionals. Contrary to theoretical assumptions, lesbians and heterosexual women did not differ in gender role orientation. Heterosexual women reported more interrole conflict between daughter and work roles; whereas lesbians reported more interrole conflict between daughter and intimate partner roles, primarily as a result of perceived disapproval of their intimate relationships by others. Lesbians additionally reported less satisfaction with their relationship with co-workers and employers. Role conflict/satisfaction was not a function of disclosure vs. nondisclosure of sexual orientation for the lesbian women.

CLASS

WORKING CLASS GIRLS AND THE CULTURE OF FEMININITY, ANGELA McROBBIE, WOMEN TAKE ISSUE, WOMEN'S STUDIES GROUP CENTRE FOR CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM, HUTCHINGSON OF LONDON, 1978, P96-108.

COMMUNITY

THE HOUSE THAT JILL BUILT: LESBIAN FEMINIST ORGANIZING IN TORONTO, 1976-1980, BECKI ROSS, FEMINIST REVIEW, 1990, NO 35.

SALIENCE AND SOLIDARITY: IDENTITY, CORRECTNESS, AND CONFORMITY IN A LESBIAN COMMUNITY, K. G. ESTERBERG, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL, OCT 1992, VOL 53(4), 1278A.

CULTURE

"LIFTING BELLY IS A LANGUAGE": THE POSTMODERN LESBIAN SUBJECT, PENELOPE J. ENGELBRECHT, FEMINIST STUDIES, 1990, VOL 16(1), P85-114.

EMPLOYMENT

PUT UP AND SHUT UP: WORKPLACE SEXUAL ASSAULTS, BETH E. SCHNEIDER, GENDER & SOCIETY, 1991, VOL 5(4), P533-548.

In the deviance literature, sexual assaults at work have not been given the sustained attention that harm to property or violation of production guidelines has received. This omission suggests that sexual harassment is considered normative and that when women fail to accommodate this reality, it is the suvivor rather than the perpetrator who is considered deviant. This article reports on 64 cases of attempted or completed rape in a sample of heterosexual and lesbian women workers in a wide range of occupations. Two atypical responses, quitting the job or filing a complaint as a result of a workplace sexual assault, highlight the process by which informal deviance defining occurs in everyday interactions at work.

ETIOLOGY

IS HOMOSEXUALITY HORMONALLY DETERMINED? LYNDA I.A. BIRKE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 6(4), P35-49.

This paper suggests there is insufficient evidence to conclude that homosexuality has endocrine bases. The search for hormonal correlates occurs within a model that views homosexuality as a medical problem requiring biolgical explanation and a program of treatment of prevention. This search is heavily rooted in popular conceptions of gender-appropriate behavior, as well as in naive concepts of the significance of hormonal changes.

Two kinds of hormonal study are considered here. Researchers may either (a) investigate hormone levels in adult populations or (b) investigate hypotheses of behavioral determination by prenatal hormones. Much of the latter information derives from animal studies, commonly on the laboratory rat. This paper questions the validity of assumptions underlying these studies - assumptions about the behavior of the laboratory rat itself and, more importantly, about the legitimacy of this animal as a model for human behavior. It is suggested that, although such hypotheses are naive, their current popularity arises from their potential role in "controlling" homosexuality.

EARLY AND LATER DETERMINANTS OF LESBIAN CHOICE, R.J. EISENBUD

PSYCHOANAL-REV, 1982, VOL 69(1), P85-109.

EXTRACT: Since the nineteenth century, consideration of the etiology of Lesbian choice has been emotionally charged by its close association with ignorance and injustice. The subject is suspect on political grounds, and abhorrent on personal grounds to many women of Lesbian orientation. Social scientists have been warned off reconsideration of etiology by their encounter with Radical Gay Liberation. Without new theoretical clarity, well-meaning liberal psychoanalysts also take flight. They resist debate and prejudge discussion of etiology as "stale," warn against its being "political," or settle the question with an evasive generality such as "we are all homosexuals." It is from the individual Lesbian woman in search of roots or from the practicing therapist in search of guidance that renewed questioning of etiology emerges.

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:

CHANGING THEORIES OF LESBIANISM: CHALLENGING THE STEREOTYPES, CHRISTINE BROWNING, P11-30.

DEVELOPING A LESBIAN IDENTITY, JEANNINE GRAMICK, P31-44.

HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, ED. WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, INCLUDES:

INTRODUCTION, JAMES D. WEINRICH, P165-211

HORMONES AND HOMOSEXUALTY, NANETTE K. GARTRELL, P169-182.

SELECTION AND SEXUALITY, THE DARWINIAN VIEW OF HOMOSEXUALITY, JOHN A.W. KIRSCH, JAMES ERIC RODMAN, P183-195.

LESBIANISM AND CHOICE, CLAUDIA CARD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P39-51.

Why does it matter whether a woman can choose whether to be lesbian? I argue by illustration that, first of all, it does make good sense to see the option to be lesbian as genuine for women in a fairly common sort of circumstance; that recognizing the genuineness of this option, however, does not impute to such women major control over their lives; that choosing to be lesbian may actually narrow rather than expand one's present options; and that nevertheless it is important to acknowledge such choices for their potentialities, in community, to change the meaning of "lesbian" in liberatory ways.

TRANSITIONS FROM HETEROSEXUALITY TO LESBIANISM: THE DISCURSIVE PRODUCTION OF LESBIAN IDENTITIES, CELIA KITZINGER, SUE WILKINSON, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1995, VOL 31(1), P95-104.

This article explored the discursive production of a major disjuncture in sexual identity in adult life: women's accounts of transitions to lesbianism after a substantial period of heterosexuality. Eighty semistructure interviews with self-identified lesbians, all with at least 10 years prior heterosexual experience (plus additional materials drawn from published autobiographical sources), were analyzed within a social constructionist framework. The article examined the creation of contexts in which sexual identity transitions become possible, explored how such transitions are defined and marked, identified the consequences, and detailed the continuing development of lesbian identity posttransition. In conclusion, the article reflected on the status and salience of such data in supporting the social constructionist position, particularly in the face of the continuing popularity of essentialist theories of sexual identity development.

THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF LESBIANISM, CELIA KITZINGER, SAGE, 1987.

HEALTH

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:

LESBIANS AND CONTEMPORARY HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS: OPPRESSION AND OPPORTUNITY, TRUDY DARTY & SANDEE POTTER, P195-210.

REDEFINING SEXUALITY FROM WOMEN'S OWN EXPERIENCES, L.A. BERNHARD, A.J.

DAN, NURS-CLIN-NORTH-AM, 1986, VOL 21(1), P125-36.

HEALTH LIFE-STYLES OF LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, JULIE A. BUENTING, HEALTH CARE WOMEN INTERNATIONAL, 1992, VOL 13(2), P165-171.

In this exploratory descriptive study, lesbian and heterosexual women's health life-style activities and health histories were investigated. Distribution of 200 written questionnaires by nonprobability snowball sampling obtained a sample of 79 heterosexual and lesbian women. The sample was predominantly white, middle class, and college educated. Responses to questions about participation in mental health counseling, birth control use, and pregancy history showed significant differences between the groups. Likert scale questions were used to identify degree of participation in various health life-style activites. Alternative diet, use of meditation-relaxation techniques, and recreational drug use had significantly higher means in the lesbian group. Fulfiling family oblications, regular Pap testing, and use of prescription drugs were significantly higher among the heterosexual group. This study represents the author's initial exploration of lesbian health life-styles and describes similarities and differences in the health life-styles of lesbian and heterosexual women.

HISTORY

THE MORBIDIFICATION OF LOVE BETWEEN WOMEN BY 19TH CENTURY SEXOLOGISTS, LILLIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 4(1), P73-90.

Twentieth-century attitudes toward love between women are very different from those of previous centuries. Fiction and personal correspondence that antedate the work of Kraft-Ebing and Havelock Ellis in the late 19th century indicate that a much broader spectrum of expression of love and affection between women had been acceptable than that to which we have become accustomed. Medical science and psychology for the past 100 years have morbidified intense love relationships between women by inventing a syndrome of ills that supposedly accompany such affection, and by denying the validity or seriousness of the affection where such ills are clearly not present. The result has been that (until the lesbian-feminist movement) 20th century women were largely forced to deny their love for other women unless they were willing to acknowledge their concomitant morbidity.

FORBIDDEN LOVE, ELIZABETH WILSON, FEMINIST STUDIES, 1984, VOL 10(2), P213-226.

A RESPONSE TO MYRIAM EVERARD'S "LESBIAN HISTORY: A HISTORY OF CHANGE AND DISPARITY," LILIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P137-141.

IDENTITY

IDENTITIES IN THE LESBIAN WORLD - THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF SELF, BARBARA PONSE, GREENWOOD PRESS.

THEORY AND RESEARCH ON LESBIAN IDENTITY FORMATION, PHYLLIS E. ELLIOTT,

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S STUDIES, 1985, VOL 8(1), P64-71.

The lesbian identity formation process is examined. Lesbian identity is differentiated from lesbian erotic interests, lesbian behaviour and emotional attachments to women. Lesbian identity is defined phenomenologically. Acceptance of such an identity involves a number of changes in the ways that a woman comes to perceive, define, and evaluate both her 'self' and society. Contributions to these changes are outlined. It is suggested that although the processes of lesbian identity formation and gay male identity formation might involve similar events, that their relative importance might show some female/male differences. The author derives her idea from empirical investigations of the coming

out process in both women and men and on theoretical papers written on this issue. The process is seen as developmental in nature. The importance of the lesbian's interactions with her society is stressed.

Recommendations for further research are made.

ATTAINING AND MAINTAINING POSTIVE LESBIAN SELF-IDENTITY: A COGNITIVE THERAPY APPROACH, CHRISTIN A. PADESKY, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8 (1/2), P145-156.

LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES OVER THE LIFESPAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ED ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLIE, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995, INCLUDES:

LESBIAN IDENTITIES: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES, LAURA S. BROWN, P3-23.

LESBIAN,GAY AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES OVER THE LIFESPAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ED ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLIE, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995, INCLUDES:

LESBIAN IDENTITIES: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES, LAURA S. BROWN, P3-23.

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR LESBIAN AND GAY PSYCHOLOGY, CELIA KITZINGER, P136-164.

LAW

LESBIANS AND THE LAW: WHERE SEXISM AND HETEROSEXISM MEET, MEREDITH GOULD, IN WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, 1984, P 147-162.

MENTAL HEALTH

HOMOSEXUALITY. IV. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND DISABILITY IN THE FEMALE HOMOSEXUAL, MARCEL T. SAGHIR, ELI ROBINS, BONNIE WALBRAN, KATHYE A. GENTRY, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, 1970, VOL 127(2), P147-154.

A study of 57 homosexual women and 43 single heterosexual controls revealed slightly more clinically significant changes and disability in the lives of the homosexual women as compared with the heterosexual women. The chief differences were in the increased prevalence of alcoholism and of attempted suicide. Despite these difficulties, the homosexual women were able to achieve, adapt, and be productive citizens.

PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST DATA ON FEMALE HOMOSEXUALITY: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, BERNARD F. RIESS, JEANNE SAFER, WILLIAM YOTIVE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(1), P71-85.

A critical and compartive review is presented of all existing studies on responses by female homosexuals to projective and nonprojective tests. Although much of the data is contradictory, there is some consistency of findings on Rorschach protocols and other instruments. Evidence also indicates that female homosexuals seem to differ from male homosexuals in psychodynamics and to have no more psychopathology than heterosexual female controls.

THE LESBIAN AS A "SINGLE" WOMAN, NANETTE GARTRELL, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1981, VOL 35(4), P502-509.

Until recently, lesbianism was considered a developmental disorder. Studies have now shown that lesbians are indistinguishable from heterosexual women in psychological adjustment. However, lesbians must cope with considerable stress living in a society which is intolerant of homosexuality. This paper will discuss the unique conflicts which cultural definitions of the "single" woman create for lesbian women.

THERAPY FOR LESBIANS?: THE CASE AGAINST, RACHEL PERKINS, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1991, VOL 1(3), P325-338.

From a lesbian feminist perspective the problematic nature of developments in 'lesbian' and 'feminist' psychological therapies is considered. It is argued that such therapies are, despite their expressed aims, essentially anti-lesbian and anti-feminist.

WOMEN WITH LONG-TERM MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: ISSUES OF POWER AND POWERLESSNESS, RACHEL E. PERKINS, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1991, VOL 1(1), P131-139.

LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGY, LESBIAN POLITICS, MARNY HALL, CELIA KITZINGER, JOANN LOULAN, RACHEL PERKINS IN CONVERSATION, FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 2(1), P7-25.

Four lesbians - two psychotherapists, a clinical psychologist and a social psychologist - met me in the Sage offices in London, where I chaired a discussion of the role of psychology and therapy for lesbians. In conversation, over lunch and a couple of bottles of wine, they explored their differing experiences of psychology, therapy and lesbian politics, in Britain and the USA (California). What does it mean to say that 'the personal is political'? What is the relationship between lesbian feminist politics and the practice of lesbian therapy? Is the psychological concept of 'homophobia' politically useful? What is the relationship between heterosexual feminism and lesbianism? These questions (and more) were passionately debated - with occasional consensus but more often fervent disagreements. There were shared understandings of lesbian oppression, but irreconcilable differences as to how that oppression can be countered. It's hard to convey the tone of the discussion: though often serious and intense, with a clear awareness of the importance of these issues, there was also a tremendous sense of fun, and sheer enjoyment. This is only an extract from an impassioned and absorbing conversation of over four hours. As Editor of Feminism & Psychology I am pleased and proud that the journal is able to host discussions of this sort, and I hope that readers who feel strongly about the issues raised here will contribute to ongoing debate by writing for 'Observations and Commentaries'.

WORLDS APART: A LESBIAN FEMINIST APPROACH TO MADNESS AND SOCIAL DISABILITY, RACHEL E. PERKINS; PAPER PRESENTED AT NATIONAL FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY CONFERENCE, 1992, LONG BEACH, CLAIFORNIA.

MOTHERS

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN RAISED BY LESBIAN MOTHERS; A REVIEW OF RESEARCH, ELIZABETH D. GIBBS, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P65-75.

CHOOSING CHILDREN: PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES IN LESBIAN PARENTING, JOANNA BUNKER ROHRBAUGH, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, OVL 8(1/2), P51-64.

LESBIAN MOTHERS: ETHICAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, KAREN LEE ERLICHMAN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P207-224.

FIT FOR A FAMILY, JANET CLARKE, COMMUNITY CARE, 5 APRIL 1990, P16-17.

Janet Clarke says heterosexuals are not the only resource available for adoption and fostering and that equal opportunities must include issue of sexuality.

DEFINITIONS AND DYNAMICS OF MOTHERHOOD AND FAMILY IN LESBIAN COMMUNITIES, JULIE AINSLIE, KATHRYN M. FELTEY, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, 1991, VOL 17(1/2), P63-85.

The purpose of this article is to explore the experience of motherhood and the definition of family in lesbian feminist communities.

LESBIAN MOTHERS: WOMEN WITH MUCH TO OFFER, PAT ROMANS, COMMUNITY CARE, 14 MARCH 1991, P14-15.

Pat Romans examines the attitudes of social workers towards a newly-confident group of woman - lesbians who are seeking to start a family.

THE LESBIAN, THE MOTHER, THE HETEROSEXUAL LOVER: IRIGARAY'S RECODINGS OF DIFERENCE, CHRISTINE HOLMLUND, FEMINIST STUDIES, 1991, VOL 17(2), P283-308.

OLD

GROWING OLDER FEMALE: HETEROSEXUAL AND HOMOSEXUAL, MARY RIEGE LANER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(3), P267-275.

An analysis of the age-related content of "Personals" ads placed by heterosexual and homosexual women was undertaken to test hypotheses derived from theoretical notions about differences and similarities between lesbian and nonlesbian aging. No support was found for a hypothesized overrepresentation of older advertisers of either sexual orientation. Contrary to popular notions, lesbians were not found to be seeking young partners. However, age differences between groups did indicate support for "accelerated aging" among heterosexual women. Possible advantages of lesbian over nonlesbian women in their experience of aging are presented.

CAREGIVING: WHAT DO MIDLIFE LESBIANS VIEW AS IMPORTANT? C. THORPE TULLY, JOURNAL OF GAY AND LESBIN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P87-103.

OUT

THE LESBIAN COMING OUT PROCESS: THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS, PATRICIA A. GROVES, LOIS A. VENTURA, THE PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE JOURNAL, 1983, VOL 62(3), P146-149.

The problems and therapeutic needs of women in the process of identifying themselves as lesbians are described. Means of working through denial rationales are explored.

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:

THE COMING-OUT PROCESS: VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIANS, RUTH BAETZ, P45-50.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITIES AS A MEANS OF SURVIVAL: CASE OF GAY AND LESBIAN TEACHERS, PETER DANKMEJER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P95-105.

The article, at its most general level, questions the requirement for "coming out" in public, which the author sees as the central demand of gay liberation ideology upon its adherents. Using research on teachers, the article shows that the political demand that teachers come out professionally ignores the central professional and political concerns of several teachers and their need for professional survival. In this study, teachers were found to have varying lifestyles. Coming out fitted the lifestyle only of those teachers who took the role of crusaders for gay liberation. This role was often a secondary concern for women, who were more strongly identified as feminists than lesbians, and for men for whom homosexuality was not a major aspect of their lifestyle. The author suggests that more attention should be given to the homophobic conditions under which such teachers work than the requirement that they all come out.

RELATIONSHIPS

THE ROLE OF FRIENDSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF LESBIAN LOVE RELATIONSHIPS, VICTORIA A. VETERE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1982, VOL 8(2), P51- 65.

The role of friendship in the development and maintenance of lesbian love relationships was investigated by means of a structured interviews with 23 lesbian women. Friendship was found to be a key factor in the development of the respondents' first same-sex love relationships: the first sexual/romantic relationship often grew out of an establihsed friendship between the women. Also, friendship was found to be a prime developmental and maintenance factor in the women's current relationships: 78% stated that their current lover had first been their friend, and 77% stated that their current lover had become their closest friend. Some related issues, such as development of a lesbian identity and definitional differences between "lover" and "friend" were also examined. A theoretical discussion interpreting the friendship findings within a feminist framework of women-identification is included.

SURPASSING THE LOVE OF MEN: ROMANTIC FRIENDSHIP AND LOVE BETWEEN WOMEN FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT, LILIAN FADERMAN, MORROW, 1981, REVIEW BY ROGER AUSTEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1983, VOL 8(2), P67-71.

DISTANCING AND CONNECTEDNESS: IMPACT ON COUPLE FORMATION IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, SARAH F. PEARLMAN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P77-88.

USING KOGHUT'S SELF PSYCHOLOGY IN WORK WITH LESBIAN COUPLES, VALORY MITCHELL, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P157-166.

NONMONOGAMY IN THE LESBIAN COMMUNITY, ELIZABETH KASSOFF, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P167-182.

RELIGION

DISCOURSES OF DESIRE: SEXUALITY AND CHRISTIAN WOMEN'S VISIONARY NARRATIVES, E. ANN MATTER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(3/4),

P119-131.

This article compares and contrasts two autobiographical accounts by seventeenth-century Italian religious women: Benedetta Carlini of Pescia, and Maria Domitilla Galluzzi of Pavia. Both were visionaries, highly regarded by their communities, but subject to suspicion and close scrutiny by ecclesiastical authorities. The trial records of Benedetta Carlini relate a series of sexual contacts with her young assistance, while no overt sexual expression is evident in the life of Maria Domitilla Galluzzi. This article questions the relationship betwen the categories of scholars and the sexual self-understanding of figures in their own historical context. It suggests that "lesbian nun" is too simplistic a dichotomy, and that in comparison to the life of Maria Domitilla, Benedetta Carlini's sexuality revolved around an elaborate organic connection between the spiritual and the sensual.

A BONDING OF CHOICE: VALUES AND IDENTITY AMONG LESBIAN AND GAY RELIGIOUS LEADERS, CLARE B. FISCHER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(3/4),

P145-174.

In this preliminary study of values and attitudes of a select number of lesbian and gay religious leaders, respondents reflected on the meaning of family, church, and community. Although the survey is modest in scope, several themes emerge that locate this study in the context of gender analysis. Female respondents had greater similarity in their emphasis upon relationality than did lesbian and gay respondents within the same denominational tradition. For male respondents, the "coming out" narrative was a central event and deepened the meaning of telling another about self.

RESEARCH

DEVELOPING PHENOMENOLOGICAL METHOD FOR RESEARCHING LESBIAN EXISTENCE, ROWENA J. HUNNISETT, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF COUNSELLING/REVUE CANADIENNE DE COUNSELING, 1986, VOL 20(4), P255-268.

This paper argues a complementary relationship between phenomenological method and feminist theory; then develops a research method suited to the study of lesbians in their communities. A comparison of three phenomenological methods produces one new method with metholodogical innovations in interviewing, mapping and data analysis. Findings of the study under discussion are summarized. Pitfalls and challenges of phenomenological research, and implications for counsellors and researchers are outlined.

SEXUAL ABUSE

SEXUAL MOLESTATION AND RAPE REPORTED BY HOMOSEXUAL AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, RALPH H. GUNDLACH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 2(4), P367-384.

Questionnaire returns from 225 homosexual and 233 heterosexual adult women revealed 115 cases of rape or attempted rape. Data from 78 follow-up questionniares are summarized. About the same proportion of lesbians and heterosexuals, age 16 or over, were the object of rape. The lesbians tended to reject all men as sexual partners or companions, while the heterosexuals tended to blame themselves for not being careful. Some of the heterosexual women, age 16 to 18, interpreted the rape as a compliment to their sexual attractiveness. Girls under 16 whose asssailant was a stranger are, as adults, as frequently homosexual as heterosexual. Sixteen of the 17 girls age 4 to 16, molested or seduced (6 for a long time) by a relative or close family friend are lesbians as adults. The subjects' attitudes about the incident were highly determined by parental reactions. Inferences are drawn about the rapists' attitudes toward women.

THE LESBIAN VICTIM OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL, ANN M. ORZEK, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P107-117.

SIZE

NOT IN MAN'S IMAGE: LESBIANS AND THE CULTURAL OPPRESSION OF BODY IMAGE, SARI H. DWORKIN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P27-39.

BODY IMAGE DISSATISFACTION AND DISORDERED EATING IN LESBIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS, RUTH H. STRIEGEL-MOORE, NAOMI TUCKER, JEANETTE HSU, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, 1990, VOL 9(5), P493-500.

Lesbian subcultures have been described to downplay the importance of physical attractiveness and to challenge culturally prescribed beauty ideals. Within this context, one might argue that lesbians should be more accepting of their bodies and less likely to engage in disordered eating, than would heterosexual women. The relationship between sexual orientation and body esteem has not been examined empirically yet. This study compared 30 lesbian undergraduates and 52 heterosexual undergraduates on measures of body esteem, self-esteem, and disordered eating. Few group differences were found. Lesbian students reported lower self-esteem, more ineffectiveness, more interpersonal distrust, and more difficulties in identifying their own emotions, than did heterosexual students. Body esteem was found to be related more closely with self-esteem in lesbians, than in heterosexual students. These group differences may reflect the lesbian experience more than distubances associated with disordered eating.

SEX

FEMINIST REVIEW, 34, SPRING 1990, INCLUDES:

THE DE-EROTICIZATION OF WOMEN'S LIBERATION: SOCIAL PURITY MOVEMENTS AND THE REVOLUTIONARY FEMINSM OF SHEILA JEFFREYS, MARGARET HUNT, P23-46.

SKIRTING THE ISSUE: LESBIAN FASHION FOR THE 1990S, INGE BLACKMAN AND KATHRYN PERRY, P67-78.

MAPPING: LESBIANS, AIDS AND SEXUALITY, AN INTERVIEW WITH CINDY PATTON BY SUE O'SULLIVAN, P120-133.

THE PLEASURE THRESHOLD: LOOKING AT LESBIAN PORNOGRAPHY ON FILM, CHERRY SMYTH, P152-159.

VOYAGES OF THE VALKYRIES: RECENT LESBIAN PORNOGRAPHIC WRITING, SARA DUNN, P161-170.

LETTER, SUSANNE KAPPELER, LIZ KELLY, JOAN SCANLON, P178-179.

THERAPY

LESBIAN-RELATED ISSUES IN COUNSELING SUPERVISION, ROBIN A. BUHRKE, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P193-206.

BEYOND THOU SHALT NOT: THINKING ABOUT ETHICS IN THE LESBIAN THERAPY COMMUNITY, LAURA S. BROWN, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P13-25.

SIGNIFICANT OTHERS: LESBIANISM AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY, DIANE HAMER, FEMINIST REVIEW, 1990, NO 34.

BETWEEN FEMINISM AND PSYCHOANALYSIS, EDITED BY TERESA BRENNAN, ROUTLEDGE, 1989, REVIEW BY DENISE O'CONNOR, FEMINIST REVIEW, 34, SPRING 1990, P171-175.

THE TRANSLATION OF KNOWLEDGE BETWEEN CLIENT AND THERAPIST CONCERNING LESBIAN SEXUALITY: ALL YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT LESBIAN SEX AND WERE SCARED TO ASK, JAN BURNS, COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY, 1990, VOL 3(4), P383-387.

Lesbian sexuality in the context of therapy is examined in terms of the change in the therapeutic gaze. Once seen as something to 'treat', it is now seen in different, more complex ways. Three different positions are described and evaluated. These are the liberal humanist, the liberal educator, and the political reactionary. Finally, a suggestion is made concerning a possible role for therapy within lesbians' lives.

LESBIAN CAREER DEVELOPMENT, WORK BEHAVIOR, AND VOCATIONAL COUNSELING, KRIS S. MORGAN, LAURA S. BROWN, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2),

P273-291.

Women's career development has recently been a popular topic in counseling psychology, for both theoretical and empirical work. This article extends that line of inquiry to address the unique career development issues of lesbians. The available literature on lesbians and work is reviewed, and parallels are drawn between the work experiences of lesbians, nonlesbian women, and other minority status groups. Three models of career development in women (Astin, 1985; Farmer, 1985; Gottfredson, 1981) are presented, and the applicability of each theory to increasing understanding of lesbian experience is explored. Implications for vocational and work-related counseling for lesbians are suggested, and recommendations for the field are made.

© Jan Bridget/Lesbian Information Service