DISCRIMINATION AND LAW

RESOURCE LIST

There has been little research in Britain in regard to lesbians/gays. The majority of the following articles are from the U.S.A. and are available through your local library (you will have to complete an order card and it will probably take about a month as they will have to send to the British Library for a copy; this should cost you about .50p).

Discrimination against homosexuals occurs in every aspect of life in Britain today, including education, the family, the media, religion, medicine, employment, law, housing, language, local authority services and H.M. Forces. This Resource List is one of a series; others include Lesbians, Gays and Education, Working with Lesbian and Gay Youth, Religion, Lesbians and Health Care, Etiology of Lesbianism, Lesbians, Gays and Social Work, Butch/Fem, Lesbians, Gays and Alcohol and Lesbians Who Are Mothers, all of which include articles which give further examples of discrimination.

DISCRIMINATION

THE RELATIONSHIP OF ASSUMPTION AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE HOMOSEXUAL ORIENTATION TO THE ABRIDGMENT OF CIVIL LIBERTIES, PETRA LILJESTRAND, ROBERT P. PETERSEN, RUSSELL ZELLERS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(3), P243-248.

This article is concerned with the relationship of assumption or knowledge of departure from the heterosexual orientation to the abridgment of civil liberties. The methodology for obtaining data on sexual orientation is described. The definitions for assumption and knowledge of sexual orientation are provided. The results indicated that: (a) the most frequently violated civil liberties were equality and procedural due process; (b) there was more assumption than knowledge of sexual orientation; (c) patterns of violations of civil liberties were similar whether sexual orientation was known or assumed; and (d) there was much more use of avoidance than any other mode of resolution, both when the sexual orientation was known and when it was assumed.

METHODOLOGY FOR STUDYING DISCRIMINATION BASED ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND SOCIAL SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPES, JOHN P. DE CECCO, MARY C. FIGLIULO, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(3), P235-241.

This article presents the methodology used in collecting data for the study of the relationship of sexual orientation and social sex-role to the protection of civil liberties. The methodology is designed to determine how departures in sexual orientation and social sex-role are the basis for the abridgment of civil liberties. Departure in sexual orientation is defind as physical sexual activity involving individuals of the same sex. Departure in stereotype for men, the feminine stereotype for women, the masculine stereotype for men, and the masculine stereotype for women.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF DEPARTURES IN SOCIAL SEX-ROLE TO THE ABRIDMENT OF CIVIL LIBERTIES, MARY C. FIGLIULO, MICHAEL G. SHIVELY, FREDERICK MCENROE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(3), P249-255.

This article examines the relationship of departures from the feminine stereotype for women and the masculine stereotype for men to the abridment of civil liberties. The methodology is described for determining conformity to and departures from social sex-role stereotypes. Results show that: (a) there was more conformity than departure from social sex-role stereotypes; (b) there were proportionately more violations of the right of equality for those who departed: (c) sexual orientation was more often known for those who departed; (d) biologial sex was not related to the violations of particular civil liberties for those who departed; and (e) for modes of conflict resolution, there was proportionately more use of avoidance by those who departed.

DETECTION OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION BY HETEROSEXUALS AND HOMOSEXUALS, GREGORY BERGER, LORI HANK, TOM RAUZI, LAWRENCE SIMKINS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALTY, VOL 13(4) SUMMER 1987, P83-100.

The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual orientation can be correctly identified under controlled conditions. A series of 24 brief videotaped interviews with homosexual and heterosexual men and women were presented to a sample of 143 subject raters divided into four sexual preference and gender groups. None of the groups were able to exceed levels of correct detection. Approximately 20% of the total subject pool did exceed change levels. There were significantly more women than men in this sub-sample and homosexual women were represented disproportionately. Although there were some differences in the types of behavioral cues used by the different sexual preference groups to make their judgments, with the possible exception of homosexual women. These cues were unrelated to accurate identification of sexual orientation. The relatively better performance of female raters is discussed in terms of differences in the socialization process of men and women.

VICTIMS OF ANTI-GAY/LESBIAN VIOLENCE, GARY DAVID COMSTOCK, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1989, VOL 4(1), P101-106.

In total, 294 lesbians and gay men responded to a national survey about their experiences of anti-gay/lesbian violence. Rates for various kinds of assaults and settings in which violence occurs are reported by gender and race of respondents. Rates of reporting to and experiences with the police are discussed and compared with those of victims of criminal violence in general. The impact of surveys on legislators and policy makers is indicated.

LESBIANS' AND GAY MEN'S EXPERIENCES OF DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT IN A UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, 1989, VOL 17(3), P317-321.

A survey of 125 lesbians and gay men in a university community was conducted to determine the incidence of discrimination, harassment, and violence. Nearly three fourths had experienced verbal abuse; 26% were threatened with violence; and 17% had personal property damaged. Students and roommates were most often those responsible. Most incidents were not reported to authorities, and many made changes in their daily routines to avoid harm. Over half of the sample feared for their personal safety; their fear was related to the amount of harassment and previous property damage. Men were more often victimized than women.

ABUSIVE HEALTH CARE INTERACTIONS EXPERIENCED BY LESBIANS: A CASE OF INSTITUTIONAL VIOLENCE IN THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN, PATRICIA E. STEVENS, JOANNE M. HALL, RESPONSE, 1990, VOL 13(3), P23-27.

HETEROSEXISM: REDEFINING HOMOPHOBIA FOR THE 1990s, JOSEPH H. NEISEN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P21-35.

The author reviews previous use of the concept of homophobia and argues that its meaning has broadened to the point of loss of utility. Homophobia is redefined, delineated into two constructs: heterosexism and shame due to heterosexism. The delineation of heterosexism and shame due to heterosexism is presented as a valuable therapeutic technique bearing sociopolitical implications.

JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), INCLUDES:

FOREWARD, ECFORD S. VOIT J.R. P267-268.

VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, AN INTRODUCTION, KEVIN T. BERRILL, GREGORY M. HEREK, P269-273.

ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES, AN OVERVIEW, KEVIN T. BERRILL, P274-294.

This article provides a general description of the nature and scope of violence and harassment against lesbians and gay men in the United States. It summarizes the results of local, state, and national surveys, and discusses gender and racial/ethnic differences in types and incidence of victimizations. The article examines anti-gay violence and harassment in such contexts as the home, schools, college and university campuses, and prisons and jails. There is a discussion of the perpetrators of anti-gay violence and the growing role of organized hate groups in such attacks. The article also examines time trends in anti-gay violence and the possible relationship between such violence and increasing public awareness about AIDS. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing data and the need for greater attention to the issue.

VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, JOYCE HUNTER, P295-300.

This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behaviour. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to 21 years, were predominantly minority (35% black, 46% latino) and typically were referred by peers, media, schools and emergency shelters. Of the youths, 41% in the sample reported having suffered violence from families, peers or strangers; 46% of that violence was gay-related. These reports of violence occurred in conjunction with a high rate of suicide attempts; 41% of the girls and 34% of the boys who experienced violent assaults reported having attempted suicide. These alarming rates indicate the need for more systematic monitoring of violence toward and suicidal behaviour among lesbian and gay male youths.

DOCUMENTING THE VICTIMIZATION OF LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES, GREGORY M. HEREK, KEVIN T. BERRILL, P301-315.

Documenting the extent of anti-gay hate crimes is of critical importance in responding effectively to them and preventing them. The task of documentation is difficult and time-consuming, but is tremendously valuable if done correctly. Recognizing that the bulk of information about hate crimes currently comes from small-scale community surveys, this article describes some of the major methodological issues involved in conducting such surveys. Issues of sampling, instrument design, data collection, and data analysis are discussed. Guidelines are offered for reporting the survey results. A victimization questionnaire is presented. Using the guidelines and resources provided in this article may yield survey results that will be more useful for researchers, service providers, policymakers, and the lesbian and gay community.

THE CONTEXT OF ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE, NOTES ON CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HETEROSEXISM, GREGORY M. HEREK, P316-333.

Hate crimes against lesbians and gay men occur within a broader cultural context that is permeated by heterosexism. Heterosexism is defined here as an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, relationship, or community. It operates principally by rendering homosexuality invisible and, when this fails, by trivializing, repressing, or stigmatizing it. This article focuses upon the nexus between cultural heterosexism and individual prejudice against lesbians and gay men. Key components of the ideologies of sex and gender from which heterosexism derives are identified: (a) the personal-public dichotomy, (b) the stigmatization of particular forms of sexuality, and (c) the linkage of heterosexuality to gender-role conformity. Supported by these ideological underpinnings, cultural heterosexism fosters individual anti-gay attitudes by providing a ready-made system of values and stereotypical beliefs that justify such prejudice as "natural." By imbuing homosexuality with a variety of symbolic meanings, cultural heterosexism enables expressions of individual prejudice to serve various psychological functions. Further, by discouraging lesbians and gay men from coming out to others, heterosexism perpetuates itself. Recent social trends that may affect the ideology of heterosexism are identified, and their potential for reducing anti-gay prejudice is discussed.

THINKING ABOUT HATE-MOTIVATED CRIMES, RICHARD A. BERK, P334-349.

This article discusses a variety of problems related to the general conceptualization of hate crimes. Beginning with the question of what attributes differentiate a hate-motivated cime from other types of crime, the article discusses problems associated with discerning time trends, the possible role of the AIDS epidemic in hate-motivated crimes, and the import of particular risk factors. The article identifies the symbolic and actuarial status of crime victims as the defining feature of hate crimes, and points out that such crimes may be both expressive and instrumental. A preliminary list of eight variables is proposed that might be related to hate-motivated crimes. In a discussion of how time trends might be identified in hate-motivated crimes, the article briefly describes some procedures by which data might be analyzed. In the discussion of risk factors, the article discusses how minority groups targeted by hate-motivated crimes might be sampled, and how data collected from those groups might be analyzed. In conclusion, a parallel is drawn between current knowledge on hate-motivated crimes and the status of knowledge about family violence 15 years ago.

CONCEPTUALIZING ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE, JOSEPH HARRY, P350-358.

Anti-gay violence is here viewed as being the result of immature males fulfilling sexual status needs. Through such violence they reaffirm their commitment to heterosexuality in a way visible way to their peers. Anti-gay offenders are divided into activists, who seek out homosexual victims; opportunists, who victimize gays and lesbians as occasions arise; and a much larger number who abandon any helping-citizen role when faced with such violence by others. Activists resort to gay-defined places to find victims; opportunists use other cues to identify victims. Chief among the cues used by offenders are behaviors and deportments that depart from traditional gender roles. Visibility of the victim as homosexual plays a dominant role in distinguishing gays or lesbians who have been assaulted from those who have not.

THE ECOLOGY OF ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE, HOWARD J. EHRLICH, P359-365.

This article discusses how prejudice and violence directed at lesbians and gay men are unique and how they are similar to other forms of prejudice and violence in American culture. The article begins with a brief discussion of how children learn prejudice in general and speculates about the possible origins of anti-gay prejudice in particular. Then, violence in American society is discussed, and the concept of "ethnoviolence" is introduced to refer to violence motivated by a desire to do harm to an "other" who represents a group against which the attacker is prejudiced. The assumption that most anti-gay violence is perpetated by young males is rejected as biased because it is based only on reported cases. The characteristics of the attacker often are not known and, where known, are likely to vary according to the site of the attack. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the psychological impact of ethnoviolence on victims (who are more traumatized than victims of other crime), on witnesses, and on researchers and service providers.

VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION OF LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, MENTAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES, LINDA GARNETS, GREGORY M. HEREK, BARRIE LEVY, P366-383.

This article describes some of the major psychosocial challenges faced by lesbian and gay male survivors of hate crimes, their significant others, and the gay community as a whole. When an individual is attacked because she or he is perceived to be gay, the negative mental health consequences of victimization converge with those resulting from societal heterosexism to create a unique set of problems. Such victimization represents a crisis for the individual, creating opportunities for growth as well as risks for impairment. The principal risk associated with anti-gay victimization is that the survivor's homosexuality becomes directly linked to her or his newly heightened sense of vulnerability. The problems faced by lesbian and gay male victims of sexual assault, and the psychological impact of verbal abuse also are discussed. Suggestions are offered to assist practitioners in helping the survivors of anti-gay hate crimes.

TREATMENT AND SERVICE INTERVENTIONS FOR LESBIAN AND GAY MALE CRIME VICTIMS, DAVID M. WERTHERIMER, P384-400.

This article describes the development of the New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project (AVP) since 1980. After a brief historical overview of the emergence of the victims' modern crime movement and a discussion of how the gay and lesbian victims' movement is related to it, AVP's treatment and service interventions are described. These include crisis intervention immediately after an attack and a wide variety of follow-up services, including short-term professional counseling, peer counseling, and group counseling. The AVP also provides advocacy services, including police advocacy, court monitoring, and advocacy with other human service organisations. In describing the AVP's activities, the article highlights unique problems faced by lesbian and gay survivors of assault.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY VICTIMIZATION IN ANTI-GAY HATE CRIMES, OFFICIAL RESPONSE AND PUBLIC POLICY, KEVIN T. BERRILL, GREGORY M. HEREK, P401-413.

Lesbian and gay male targets of hate crimes face multiple levels of victimization. In addition to suffering the effects of being a crime victim, they also face secondary victimization (i.e. additional victimization after a crime that results from societal heterosexism). Examples of secondary victimization include losing one's job, being evicted from housing, or being denied public services or accommodation once one's sexual orientation is disclosed as the result of an anti-gay attack. The inadequacies of government response to anti-gay hate crimes are discussed, and the secondary victimization perpetrated by the criminal justice system is described. A broad-based government response to anti-gay hate crimes is advocated. Specific policy recommendations are offered for formulating appropriate legislation, reforming the criminal justice system, and developing widespread community education programs.

ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND MENTAL HEALTH, SETTING AN AGENDA FOR RESEARCH, GREGORY M. HEREK, KEVIN T. BERRILL, P414-423.

Empirical studies are urgently needed of the scope and prevalence of anti-gay violence, its mental health consequnces, its prevention, and institutional response to it. Researchers should seek data from a variety of sources, use representative samples whenever possible, use reliable and valid measures and methods, and design studies that are longitudinal and prospective. Each of these components of a research agenda for studying anti-gay violence and hate crimes is described.

ATTACKS ON HOMOSEXUAL PERSONS MAY BE INCREASING, BUT MANY 'BASHINGS' STILL AREN'T REPORTED TO POLICE, PAUL COTTON, JOURNAL AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 1992, VOL 267(22) P2999-3000.

LIBERAL ATTITUDES AND HOMOPHOBIC ACTS: THE PARADOXES OF HOMOSEXUAL EXPERIENCE IN A LIBERAL INSTITUTION, WILLIAM P. NORRIS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P81-120.

Rates of victimization of and attitudes towards lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals at a well-known national liberal arts college were reported and compared to other institutions. Based on two campus-wide surveys of employees and students respectively, differences in degree of exclusion, isolation, sexual harassment, needing to deny one's sexuality, self-censorship, and other factors were found among employees and students, people with varying sexualities, people of color, and whites. The paradoxical finding of extensive attitudinal support and widespread victimization was explored. The explanation suggested for the paradox drew on institutional characteristics, culture, and prioritites. Based on the configuration of these, I suggested that the paradox resulted from two competing values, a liberal ethos focused on equal rights, and a heterosexual orthodoxy, and that many people were pulled between the two. Theoretical implications, counter-explanations, and implications were briefly expolored.

PERSONAL RISKING: LESBIAN SELF-DISCLOSURE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION TO PROFESSIONAL HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, JANICE MARLAND HITCHCOCK, HOLLY SKODOL WILSON, NURSING RESEARCH, 1992, VOL 41(3), P178-183.

Thirty three lesbians ranging in age from 18-68 participated as respondents in this qualitative, theory-generating study. Data were obtained through a written demographic questionnaire and in-depth taped inteviews. Findings revealed a two-phase basic social process (BSP) identified as personal risking that is used by lesbians to secure their physical and/or psychological safety within the health care system. In the anticipatory phase, the risk of self-disclosure is calculated using both imaginative and cognitive strategies to determine a disclosure stance. In the interactional phase, scanning and monitoring enable the lesbian client to revaluate the stance assumed. The data confirm that lesbians are uncomfortable in many health care situations and suggest provider responses to improve their comfort and the level of health care they receive.

LESBIAN AND GAY MALE UNDERGRADUATES' EXPERIENCES OF HARASSMENT AND FEAR ON CAMPUS, A.R. D'AUGELLI, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1992, VOL 7(3), P383-395.

Harassment and discrimination based on sexual orientation was studied in a sample of 121 undergraduate students between 19 and 22 years of age. Over three fourths of the respondents reported verbal abuse and over one fourth had been threatened with violence. Other students were the most frequent victimizers. Few reported victimization to authorities. Fear for one's personal safety on campus was related to frequency of personal harassment. The implications of harassment and discrimination on the development of young lesbians and gay men are discussed.

CHANGING THE GAME: HOMOPHOBIA, SEXISM, AND LESBIANS IN SPORT, PAT GRIFFIN, QUEST, 1992, AUGUST, P251-265.

The purpose of this article is to discuss, from a feminist perspective, the interconnected nature of homophobia and sexism in women's sport. After a brief description of the early 20th-century origins of the lesbian stereotype and the political function of homophobia in a sexist and heterosexist culture, manifestations of homophobia in women's sport are discussed: silence, denial, apology, promotion of a heterosexy image, attacks on lesbians, and preference for male coaches. The underlying beliefs that support homophobia in women's sport are describes, and several strategies for confronting homophobia in women's sport are suggested.

EXPLORING CAMPUS INTOLERANCE: A TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF COMMENTS CONCERNING LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL PEOPLE, LINDA A. LASALLE, PAPER PRESENTED AT ANNUAL MEETING OF AMERICAN EDUCATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, APRIL 1992, MICRO FICHE, SOURCE: ERIC, RIE FEB 1993.

HATE CRIME: CONFRONTING VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, GREGORY M. HEREK & KEVIN T. BERRIL, REVIEW BY JACK MCDEVITT, JOURNAL OF REVIEWS, CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY, MAY 1993, VOL 22(3), P356-357.

DOCUMENTING PREJUDICE AGAINST LESBIANS AND GAY MEN ON CAMPUS: THE YALE SEXUAL ORIENTATION SURVEY, G.M. HEREK, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P15-30.

College and university communities recently have begun to confront the problems of harassment, discrimination, and violence againt lesbians, gay men and bisexual people on campus. A first step in responding to attacks against gay and bisexual people is to document their frequency and the forms that they take. The present article reports the methodology and results of a survey conducted at Yale University in 1986, which subsequently has been replicated on several other campuses. The Yale survey revealed that many lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people on campus lived in a world of secretiveness and fear. Although experiences of physical assault on campus were relatively infrequent, many respondents reported other forms of discrimination and harassment. A majority reported that they feared antigay violence and harassment on campus, and that such fears affected their behavior. Replications on other campuses have yielded similar results. Suggestions are offered for researchers who wish to conduct such a survey on their own campus.

VERBAL AND PHYSICAL ABUSE AS STRESSORS IN THE LIVES OF LESBIAN, GAY MALE, AND BISEXUAL YOUTHS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH SCHOOL PROBLEMS, RUNNING AWAY, SUBSTANCE ABUSE, PROSTITUTION, AND SUICIDE, R. C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1994, VOL 62(2), P261-269.

A common theme identified in empirical studies and clinical reports of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths is the chronic stress that is created by the verbal and physical abuse they receive from peers and adults. This article reviews the verbal and physical abuse that threatens the well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. This response to gay male, lesbian and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away from home, conflict with the law, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Although the causal link between these stressors and outcomes has not been scientifically established, there is suggestive evidence that these outcomes are consequences of verbal and physical harassment.

THE EXPERIENCE OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS IN MEDICAL SCHOOL, JILL TINMOUTH, JAMA, 1994, VOL 271(9), P714-715.

KEEPING THEM IN THEIR PLACE: (HETERO)SEXIST HARASSMENT, GENDER AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF HETEROSEXUALITY, DEBBIE EPSTEIN, PAPER PREPARED FOR BSA CONFERENCE 1994, SCHOOL OF SOCIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ENGLAND, PERRY BARR, BIRMINGHAM, B42 2SU.

THE VICTIMIZATION OF GAY TEENAGERS IN SCHOOLS: HOMOPHOBIA IN EDUCATION, IAN RIVERS, PASTORAL CARE, MARCH 1995, P35-41.

Evidence presented in this paper suggests that bullying is a problem for a number of pupils in school, either because they are gay or are perceived as being so. For some of these pupils the effects have been traumatic and long term. As the paper points out, the support of gay pupils coming to terms with their sexuality has never been an area that many schools handle effectively, and recent legislation has done little to encourge the development of effective work in this area. However, the author believes that not only do schools have a responsibility to respond to this particular dimension of bullying, but also that the lowering of the age of consent for sexual intercourse between males will mean that it will be even more important for schools to include homosexuality in the issues raised and discussed with pupils.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS FOR PEER COUNSELLING: DEALING WITH HOMOPHOBIC ABUSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS, IAN RIVERS, PEER COUNSELLING NETWORKER, 1995, ISSUE 1, P8.

MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES AMONG YOUNG LESBIANS AND GAY MEN BULLIED IN SCHOOL, IAN RIVERS,
HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, 1995, VOL 3(6), P1-3.

VICTIMIZATION OF LESBIAN, GAY, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS, NEIL W. PILKINGTON, ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLI, JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1995, VOL 23, JANUARY, P33-56.

One hundred ninety-four lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth between the ages of 15 and 21 were surveyed about victimization due to their sexual orientation. Three areas were assessed: (1) the prevalence of different kinds of victimization, ranging form verbal abuse to armed assault; (2) the specific social contexts in which anti-lesbian/gay victimization occurred, including family, school, work, and the broader community; and (3) correlates of anti-lesbian/gay victimization, including age-related sexual orientation milestones, concealability of sexual orientation, sex, race/ethnicity, and safety fears. Most respondents had experienced some form of victimization, with no social environment being free from risk of harm. Particularly vulnerable for abuse were youth who self-labeled or self-disclosed at an earlier age and those whose sexual orientation was less concealed or concealable.

YOUNG, GAY AND BULLIED, IAN RIVERS, YOUNG PEOPLE NOW, JANUARY 1996, P18-19.

A survey by Stonewall, the national lesbian and gay campaign group, found that more than a third of gay men and women - and half of those aged under 18 - have been victims of homophobic violence in the last five years. Ian Rivers, lecturer of psychology at the University of Luton, has conducted extensive research in homophobic abuse in schools and paints a gloomy picture of systematic violence.

MEAN STREETS, LUCY JOHNSTON, THE BIG ISSUE, JANUARY 1996

A startling number of gay men and lesbians are being subjected to homophobic attacks ranging form verbal abuse to beatings and murder.

BOOKS

ATTACKS ON GAY PEOPLE, A REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON DISCRIMINATION, CHE, 1980.

VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, GARY DAVID COMSTOCK, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW YORK, 1991.

HATE CRIMES: CONFRONTING VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIANS AND GAY M EN, ED. GREGORY M. HEREK, KEVIN T. BERILL, SAGE, 1992.

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST GAY MEN AND LESBIANS, A STUDY OF THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST HOMOSEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN BRITAIN TODAY, DAWN SNAPE, KATARINA THOMSON, MARK CHETWYNBD, SOCIAL & COMMUNITY PLANNING RESEARCH, 1995.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, SAGE PUBLICATIONS 1982, INCLUDES:

INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SECTION, WILLIAM PAUL, P295-302.

MINORITY STATUS FOR GAY PEOPLE, MAJORITY REACTION AND SOCIAL CONTEXT, WILLIAM PAUL, P351-369.

SAN FRANCISCO'S 1979 WHITE NIGHT RIOT, INJUSTICE, VENGEANCE, AND BEYOND, DAVID J. THOMAS, P337-350.

MINORITY STATUS FOR GAY PEOPLE, MAJORITY REACTION AND SOCIAL CONTEXT, WILLIAM PAUL, P351-369.

BEYOND TOLERANCE. GAYS, LESBIANS AND BISEXUALS ON CAMPUS, 1991, ED NANCY J. EVANS & VERNON A. WALL, AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION, INCLUDES:

CH 3: HOMOPHOBIA, KATHY OBEAR.

LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL IDENTITIES OVER THE LIFESPAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, ED ANTHONY R. D'AUGELLIE, CHARLOTTE J. PATTERSON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1995, INCLUDES:

PSYCHOLOGICAL HETEROSEXISM IN THE UNITED STATES, GREGORY M. HEREK, P321-346.

EMPLOYMENT

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION LAW AND THE RIGHTS OF GAY PERSONS, JUDITH M. HEDGPETH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979-1980, VOL 5(1-4), P67-78.

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION LAW AND THE RIGHTS OF GAY PERSONS, JUDITH M. HEDGPETH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY 1979/1980, VOL 5(1/2), P67-78.

WORKING LESBIANS: ROLE CONFLICTS AND COPING STRATEGIES, SANDRA A. SHACHAR, LUCIA A. GILBERT, PSYCHOLOGIY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY, 1983, VOL 7(3), P244-256.

This study investigated areas of interrole and intrarole conflict reported by 79 lesbian working women and factors influencing the types of coping strategies these women used. The three coping strategies identified by Hall (1972) were used to code responses to a questionnaire sent to women on the mailing list of a local lesbian newsletter. The most frequently reported interrole conflicts were between the work and lover roles, and the most frequently reported intrarole conflicts involved the work and daughter roles. Subjects viewed being lesbian as contributing little to their interrole conflicts and, as hypothesized, used predominantly role restructuring strageties (Types I and II) to deal with the conflicts. Also, as hypothesized, higher self-esteem was reported by individuals using restructuring strategies than by those using reactant strategies (Type III). In contrast, subjects viewed being lesbian as highly related to their intrarole conflicts, and, contrary to predictions, used reactive strategies almost as frequently as role restructuring strategies. Moreover, self-esteem did not differ among subjects using the three strategy types. The unexpected findings for contrarole conflict are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of reactant-avoidant strategies in work situations.

HOMOPHOBIC VIOLENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE, TED R. BOHN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK & HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1983/1984, VOL 2(3/3), P91-110.

Homophobic violence, that is, violence directed at an individual perceived by his/her assailants to be homosexual is a pervasive social problem in the U.S. Research indicates that anti-gay violence differs markedly from generic violence (that is, violence not motivated by hatred of homoseuals) on several variables. These differences appear to affect the course of treatment and recovery for gay victims, and make necessary specialized interventions. Strategies for service delivery to, and engaging victims of, homophobic violence are considered, as are idiosyncratic clinical concerns, and preventive interventions. The relationship of homophobic violence to the maintenance of the male sex role is also examined.

IN PASSING ... TEACHERS AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, GILLIAN SQUIRRELL, TEACHERS, GENDER AND CAREERS, ED. SANDRA ACHER, 1988, FALMER PRESS.

CAREER COUNSELING AND LIFE PLANNING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN, CHERYL HETHERINGTON, ANN ORZEK, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, VOL 68, 1989, P52-57.

The psychological development and 'coming out' process of lesbian women are examined with regard to career planning. The intraction of these issues with a model of lesbian identity provides a framework for career counselors who work with individuals or lesbian couples.

THE INFLUENCE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION ON CAREER DECISION-MAKING: A RESEARCH NOTE, BRUCE D. ETRINGER, ERIC HILLERBRAND, CHERYL HETHERINGTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(4), P103-111.

This study investigates differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals of both sexes with regard to several variables in the career decision-making process: anxiety about making a career choice, indecisiveness about the choice, need to acquire information about the career of choice, uncertainty about the choice, and career choice dissatisfaction. Significant interactions are found on choice uncertainty (gay men having the highest level of uncertainty and lesbian women the lowest) and choice dissatisfaction (heterosexual women and gay men showing more dissatisfaction than the other two groups).

LEGALIZED INVISIBILITY, THE EFFECT OF BILL 7 ON LESBIAN TEACHERS, DIDI KHAYATT,
WOMEN'S STUDIES INT. FORUM, 1990, VOL 13(3) P185-193.

This paper addresses the lived reality/realities of being a lesbian teacher currently in Ontario. Based on interviews with working elementary and secondary teachers, the author looks at the teachers perceptions of the effects of Bill 7, an amendment to the Ontario Human Rights Code which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

Starting from the perspective of the teachers, this paper undertakes to address the Canadian social, political, and economic contexts which give meaning to the experiences of lesbian teachers, and in which their experiences arise. The paper raises such questions as "What kind of protection from discrimination is actually possible under the new Bill?" and how the teachers themselves see it affecting their lives both in the private and the public realms. The central discussion is whether the teachers feel safe enough to "come out," how and to whom, as well as the more specific ways they may experience change/no change in attitudes toward homosexuality in their eveyday lives.

LESBIAN CAREER DEVELOPMENT, WORK BEHAVIOR, AND VOCATIONAL COUNSELING, KRIS S. MORGAN, LAURA S. BROWN, THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2), P273-291.

Women's career development has recently been a popular topic in counseling psychology, for both theoretical and empirical work. This article extends that line of inquiry to address the unique career development issues of lesbians. The available literature on lesbians and work is reviewed, and parallels are drawn between the work experiences of lesbians, nonlesbian women, and other minority status groups. Three models of career development in women (Astin, 1985; Farmer, 1985; Gottfredson, 1981) are presented, and the applicability of each theory to increasing understanding of lesbian experience is explored. Implications for vocational and work-related counseling for lesbians are suggested, and recommendations for the field are made.

PUT UP AND SHUT UP: WORKPLACE SEXUAL ASSAULTS, BETH E. SCHNEIDER, GENDER & SOCIETY, 1991, VOL 5(4), P533-548.

In the deviance literature, sexual assaults at work have not been given the sustained attention that harm to property or violation of production guidelines has received. This omission suggests that sexual harassment is considered normative and that when women fail to accommodate this reality, it is the survivor rather than the perpetrator who is considered deviant. This article reports on 64 cases of attempted or completed rape in a sample of heterosexual and lesbian women workers in a wide range of occupations. Two atypical responses, quitting the job or filing a complaint as a result of a workplace sexual assault, highlight the process by which informal deviance defining occurs in everyday interactions at work.

NURSING AS A LESBIAN, THERESA M. STEPHANY, SEXUALITY AND DISABILITY, 1992, VOL 10(2), P119-124.

Minority status within any larger group is often difficult. Lesbian nurses face a dilemma of choice - whether or not to "come out of the closet" to their colleagues and patients. This essay describes the professional reflections of one lesbian nurse.

INTEGRATING COMMONALITY AND DIFFERENCE: THE KEY TO CAREER COUNSELING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN, JAMES M. CROTEAU, SUZANNE M. HEDSTROM, THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY 1993, VOL 41(3), P201-209.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT WITH LESBIAN AND GAY CLIENTS, JOHN E. ELLIOTT
, THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY, 1993, MARCH, VOL 41, P210-226.

Trends in career counseling with lesbian and gay clients are reviewed along with discussions on considering lesbian women and gay men a different cultural minority. The role and direction of career development with lesbian and gay clients is presented based on current information regarding employment discrimination, the decision to pass as heterosexual on the job, counselor and student training issues, age-related factors, and differences between gay men and lesbian women with respect to careers. Concrete suggestions are made to career counselors who wish to prepare themselves to work with this group or to extend their effectiveness, and suggestions for services are also presented.

SACKED FOR BEING LESBIANS? STEVE BRIGGS, SCOLAG JOURNAL, JUNE 1993, P84-85.

Reviews the case of two lesbians using sex discrimination law to challenge their dismissals.

COMING OUT AT WORK, KENDRA SONE, COMMUNITY CARE, 7 OCTOBER 1993.

Discrimination against homosexual men and women is rife in SSDs, despite claims to the contrary, Kendra Sone talks to some social workers who have come out.

VICTIMISED FOR BEING GAY: 'HARASSMENT CENTRES ON A VULNERABILITY WHICH MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO BLOW THE WHIST, LAURA MIDDLETON, PROFESSONAL SOCIAL WORK, OCTOBER 1995, P10-11.

BOOKS

WHAT ABOUT THE GAY WORKERS, A REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON DISCRIMINATION, CAMPAIGN FOR HOMOSEXUAL EQUALITY, 1981.

GAY WORKERS: TRADE UNIONS AND THE LAW, CHRIS BEER, ROLAND JEFFERY, TERRY MUNYARD, NCCL, 1983.

GAY MEN AT WORK, PHIL GREASLEY, LESBIAN AND GAY EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS, 1986.

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, GUIDELINES TO GOOD PRACTICE IN EMPLOYMENT, LESBIAN AND GAY EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS, 1993.

LESS EQUAL THAN OTHERS, A SURVEY OF LESBIANS & GAY MEN AT WORK, ANYA PALMER, 1993, STONEWALL, 2 GREYCOAT PLACE, LONDON, SW1P 1SB.

WE'RE COUNTING ON EQUALITY, MONITORING EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WORKPLACE IN RELATION TO SEX, RACE, DISABILITY, SEXUALITY, HIV/AIDS, AND AGE, MAREE GLADWIN, 1993, CITY CENTRE, 32-35 FEATHERSTONE ST, LONDON, EC1Y 8QX.

THE ISSUES: BLACK LESBIANS & BLACK GAY MEN, ANNE HAYFIELD, 1994, LESBIAN AND GAY EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS, ST MARGARETS HOUSE, 21 OLD FORD ROAD, LONDON, E2 9PL.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, ED. TRUDY DARTY & SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING CO., 1984, INCLUDES:

PERIL AND PROMISE: LESBIANS' WORKPLACE PARTICIPATION, BETH SCHNEIDER, P211-230.

OUR RIGHT TO LOVE, A LESBIAN RESOURCE BOOK, EDITOR GINNY VIDA, NATIONAL GAY TASK FORCE, 1978, INCLUDES:

LESBIANS AT WORK, BETTY L. POWELL
, P37-45.

ORGANISATIONS

LESBIAN AND GAY EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS, Unit 1G, Leroy House, Islingdon, London, N1 3QP. 0171.704.8066.

FORCES

THE HOMOSEXUAL PERSON IN THE MILITARY AND IN NATIONAL SECURITY EMPLOYMENT, JEREL MCCRARY, J.D. LEWIS GUTIERREZ, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979/1980, VOL 5(1/2), P115-146.

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the attitude of the government toward gay people in the military and in national security employment to see how this attitude has been translated into official policy, to view challenges to these policies, and to note how challenges have been received by courts and administrative agencies.

WHEN YOU'RE OUT YOU'RE OUT! JAN PARKER, SPARE RIB, JUNE 1982, NO 119, P6-8.

The Women's Army recruitment literature screams 'The Challenge You Need', 'A New Army, A New Job, A New You'. Jan Parker talked to three women, who were kicked out for being lesbian, and found out what it was really like.

HOMOSEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN WHO SERVED THEIR COUNTRY, J. HARRY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY 1984, FALL, VOL 10(1-2) 117-25

The present work examines the effectiveness of United States military
policies in excluding homosexual men and women from the armed forces by comparing percentages of homosexuals who have served in the armed forces with matched samples of heterosexuals. Interview data on 1,456 respondents from 1969 and 1970 are reported. The data show that homosexual and heterosexual men seem equally likely to have served in the military, while lesbians were more likely than heterosexual women to have served. The data also indicate that the policies of excluding homosexuals from the services are ineffective. The explanation for this may be that many homosexuals may not be aware of their homosexuality at the time of entry into the service, and, hence, cannot readily be identified either by themselves or others. It is also suggested that certain draft criteria have in fact increased the percentages of homosexuals serving in the military.

GAY PEOPLE AND GOVERNMENT SECURITY CLEARANCES: SOCIAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE, GREGORY M. HEREK, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, 1990, SEP, P1035-1042.

Lesbian and gay male applicants routinely are denied government security clearances or are subjected to unusually lengthy and intensive investigation. This article reviews social science data relevant to the principal publications that have been offered for this policy and presents the following conclusions: (a) Lesbians and gay men are no more likely than heterosexuals to suffer from personality disorder or emotional stress, or to be psychologically unstable; (b) lesbians and gay men are no more likley than heterosexuals to be unduly sensitive to coercion, blackmail, or duress; (c) lesbians and gay men are no more likely than heterosexuals to be unwilling to respect or uphold laws or regulations, or to be unreliable or untrustworthy. Three major flaws are discussed that underlie current government policies toward gay applicants security clearances; (a) Groups rather than individuals are screened for undesirable characteristics; (b) applicants are rejected on the basis of problems created by government policies themselves; and (c) homosexual applicants are scrutinized according to criteria that are not applied similarly to heterosexual applicants. An alternative hypothesis, that experience with stigma actually may increase a gay applicant's ability to maintain secrecy, is discussed. Finally, some consequences of current policies are noted.

MILITARY POLICIES REGARDING HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR: AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY, STANLEY E. HARRIS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P67-74.

The military attaches of 110 non-Communist embassies in Washington, DC, were surveyed from 1982-1984 regarding their countries' military policies about homosexuality. Of the 57 that responded, 37% reported policies excluding persons who engage in homosexual behavior from military service, 14% reported policies that accept homosexual and bisexual persons, and 49% reported having no policies about homosexual behavior. Cultural factors appear to be related to the military policies.

MANAGING THE MILITARY'S HOMOSEXUAL EXCLUSION POLICY: TEXT AND SUBTEXT, JUDITH HICKS STIEHM,
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW REVIEW, JAN 1992, VOL 46(3), P685-710.

GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, ROTC, AND THE NEW RULES, LOUIS CROMPTON, ACADEME, SEP-OCT 1993, VOL 79(5), P8-12.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:

SERVICE PERSONNEL, ANONYMOUS, P49

BOOKS

CONDUCT UNBECOMING, GAYS & LESBIANS IN THE U.S. MILITARY, RANDY SHILTS, ST MARTIN'S PRESS, 1993.

ORGANISATIONS

RANK OUTSIDERS, C/O STONEWALL (SEE LAW).

HOUSING

HOMOSEXUALITY AMONGST INMATES OF COMMON LODGING HOUSES, N.J. SHANKS, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, APRIL 1982, P16-18.

In a study conducted amongst some of Manchester's homeless men the incidence of homosexuality was found to be twice that expected for the rest of the population.

GAY AND LESBIAN HOMELESS/STREET YOUTH: SPECIAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS, GABE KRUKS, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH, 1991, VOL 12(7), SPECIAL ISSUE: HOMELESS YOUTH, P515-518.

THE REALITY OF SEXUALITY, GERARD LEMOS, PAUL CRANE, HOUSING, MAY 1993, P40-41.

Housing authorities could do much more to help homeless lesbians and gay men by interpreting the legislation favourably.

HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: NEW POLICIES, NEW PROGRAMS, NEW PRACTICE, ED. T. DECRESCENZO (also published as Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 1994, Vol 1(3/4) INCLUDES:

GAY, LESBIAN, AND BISEXUAL YOUTH, DENNIS D. DURBY, P1-37.

Adolescence is a period fraught with developmental challenges for all individuals. Those encountered by gay, lesbian, bisexual, and other sexual minority youth are particularly difficult. The knowledge that they are "different" somehow, although not yet necessarily fully aware of how they are different, leaves many isolated and unable to work through some typical developmental issues having to do with establishing romantic relationships and learning diverse social skills. Such teens may develop a host of coping mechanisms to ease the dissonance experienced when their forming identities are in conflict with peer, parental or, more broadly, societal expectations.

SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS FOR GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH, GREGG GREELEY, P111-130.

This paper discusses six youth service organizations that represent diferent solutions to the same problem: the acceptance of sexual minority youth. These solutions include youth-led groups, organizations dedicated to training and education, and agencies that provide direct services to youth. This chapter tries to bring some insight into the forces that formed these groups and discusses some of the new directions in the youth service community. Although each of these groups started with different structures and services, many have evolved to offer a common set of services. Future organizations will be able to benefit from this by assembling programs from the model components that have already been implemented. Future work should enhance those effective service components that have received little attention and develop new models to meet youth needs.

BOOKS/REPORTS

LESBIANS AND HOUSING PACK, LESBIAN INFORMATION SERVICE, 1992.

EQUALITY IN HOUSING, LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, ASSOCIATION OF LONDON AUTHORITIES, 1991.

LESBIANS AND HOUSING IN LEICESTER, LESBIAN INFORMATION SERVICE, 1988.

GETTING IT TOGETHER: AN INFORMATION PACK ABOUT WAYS OF SERVING VULNERABLE YOUNG PEOPLE WITH BOTH HOUSING AND MENTAL HEALTH SUPPORT NEEDS, COMPILED BY JAN SHERLOCK AND CAROLINE HARDING, GOOD PRACTICE IN MENTAL HEALTH, 1996 INCLUDES:

HIDDEN BUT NOT FORGOTTEN: LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH, JAN BRIDGET, P16-19.

LAW

REPORTED CONSEQUENCES OF DECRIMINALIZATION OF CONSENSUAL ADULT HOMOSEXUALITY IN SEVEN AMERICAN STATES, GILBERT GEIS, RICHARD WRIGHT, THOMAS GARRETT, PAUL R. WILSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(4), P419-426.

This article reports of a survey of police officials, prosecuting attorneys, and members of homosexual groups in the seven states that had decriminalized private homosexual behavior between consenting adults. Despite the dire predictions of many, the responses indicate that, among other things, decriminalization has had no effect on the involvement of homosexuals with minors, the use of force by homosexuals, or the amount of private homosexual behavior. Additionally, decriminalization eased somewhat the problems of the homosexual community and allowed the police to devote more time to the investigations of what generally are regarded as more serious criminal offences.

SODOMY IN MEDIEVAL SECULAR LAW, MICHAEL GOODICH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(3), P295-299.

In the 13th century, legislation dealing with sodomy and other moral crimes was strongly influenced by the prevailing Catholic ideology. As a result, offenders were sought out by members of the lay confraternities, tried in the courts of the Inquisition, and generally punished with the death penalty.

HOMOSEXUALS AND THE DEATH PENALTY IN COLONIAL AMERICA, LOUIS CROMPTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(3), P277-293.

This article traces the legislative history of statutes prescribing the death penalty for sodomy in 17th-century New England and the other American colonies. New England and some middle colonies broke with English legal tradition by adopting explicitly biblical language. After the Revolution, Pennysylvania took the lead, in 1786, in dropping the death penalty.

LEGAL AND SOCIAL AMBIVALENCE REGARDING HOMOSEXUALITY, ROBERT G. MEYER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 2(3), P281- 287.

Social controversy and legal ambivalence have been prevalent regarding homosexuality. Guardians of tradition, such as the churches, the mental health professional organsiations, and the legal experts, have all moved toward decriminalization in their own fashion. Yet this thrust has been halted by a recent Supreme Court decision. The homosexual may have to retreat to the closet unless renewal occurs. Some information is available on what societal and behavioral changes will occur as the laws change. However, a more scientifically adequate information base, as well as political courage, is required before those seeking decriminalization are likely to succeed.

BISEXUAL, HOMOSEXUAL, AND HETEROSEXUAL: SOCIETY, LAW, AND MEDICINE, JOHN MONEY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 2(3), P229-233.

JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 2(4), 1977, INCLUDES:

RESEARCH ON THE VIOLATIONS OF CIVIL LIBERTIES OF HOMOSEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN,
P313-314.

STUDYING VIOLATIONS OF CIVIL LIBERTIES OF HOMOSEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN, JOHN P. DE CECCO,
P315- 322.

RIGHTS OR REPENTANCE, FRED A. MINNIGERODE, P323-326.

SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND VIOLATIONS OF CIVIL LIBERTIES, MARCY R. ADELMAN,
P327-330.

DEPARTURES FROM SEX ROLE STEREOTYPES OF APPEARANCE AND BEHAVIOR AND VIOLATIONS OF CIVIL LIBERTIES, MICHAEL G. SHIVELY, MARNY A. HALL, P331-335.

THE CIVIL LIBERTIES OF GAY PERSONS: PRESENT STATUS, DONALD C. KNUTSON,
P337-342.

SEXUAL PREFERENCE, SEX ROLE APPROPRIATENESS, AND RESTRICTION OF SOCIAL ACCESS, JIM MILLHAM, LINDA E. WEINBERBGER,
P343-357.

CIVIL LIBERTIES AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, JOHN P DE CECCO, PROJECT DESCRIPTION, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(4), P406-497.

STUDY OF LAW STUDENT ATTITUDES REGARDING THE RIGHTS OF GAY PEOPLE TO BE TEACHERS, JOSHUA DRESSLER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 4(4), 1979, P315-329.

JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY 1979/1980, VOL 5(1/2), INCLUDES:

INTRODUCTION, DONALD C. KNUTSON, P5-23.

THE LEGAL ARENA: PROGRESS FOR GAY CIVIL RIGHTS, DOMINICK VETRI, P25-34.

PERCEPTIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY BY JUSTICES OF THE PEACE IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA, ROBERT OAKS, P35-41.

HOMOSEXUAL ACTS AND THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO PRIVACY, DAVID A.J. RICHARDS, P43-65.

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION LAW AND THE RIGHTS OF GAY PERSONS, JUDITH M. HEDGPETH, P67-78.

THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT AND THE RIGHTS OF HOMOSEXUAL ALIENS, WILLIAM T. REYNOLDS, P79-87.

THE EMERGENCE OF ASSOCIATIONAL RIGHTS FOR HOMOSEXUAL PERSONS, DONALD M. SOLOMON, P147-155.

THE MYTH OF LESBIAN IMPUNITY, CAPITAL LAWS FROM 1270-1791, LOUIS CROMPTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980/81, VOL 6(1/2), P11-25.

The standard history of antihomosexual legislation states that lesbian acts were not punished by medieval or later laws. This essay challenges this view by documenting capital laws since 1270 in Europe and America. A major influence was Paul's condemnation in Romans I, 26. By 1400, the lex foedissimam, an edict of the Emperors Diocletian and Maximianus, issued in 287, was interpreted to justify the death penalty. Executions took place in Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Spain. A brief survey of presently known male deaths in Europe and the Americas, which number about 400, also is included. This study draws on canon law and the commentaries of such jurists as Cino da Pistoia, Saliceto, Lopez, Gomez, Farinacio, Cotton, Carpzow, Sinistrari, de Vouglans, and Jousse. It also discusses the records of a German trial of 1721, published elsewhere in this issue, that also led to the execution of a woman.

A LEGAL GUIDE FOR LESBIAN & GAY COUPLES, HAYDEN CURRY & DENIS CLIFFORD, NOLO PRESS BOOK, 1980, REVIEW BY JOSHUA DRESSLER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1983, VOL 8(2), P76-80.

CONSEQUENCES OF DECRIMINALIZATION OF HOMOSEXUALITY: A STUDY OF TWO AUSTRALIAN STATES, KEN SINCLAIR, MICHAEL W. ROSS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 12(1), P119-127.

A comparison between homosexual males in two Australian states, Victoria (prior to decriminalization of homosexuality) and South Australia (eight years after decriminalization), indicated that the consequences of decriminalization did not include an increase in the negative aspects of homosexuality, such as public solicitation or sexually transmitted disease. Findings suggest that as a consequence of decriminalization, the psychological adjustment of homosexual men will increase and sexually transmitted diseases and public solicitation will decrease. These data are tentatively interpreted as indicating that there are few if any negative consequences of decriminalizing homosexuality, and a number of positive consequeces.

LESBIANISM, HOMOSEXUALITY, AND THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION, VERN L. BULLOUTH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P23-33.

One of the turning points in changing the legal status of homosexuals in the United States was the change in policy of the American Civil Liberties Union. The author of this paper was instrumental in bringing about change in the Southern California ACLU, the first affiliate to modify the policy and carry on the legal battle for gay rights. This article details the background of and some of the insights gained from that experience.

OPEN MINDS FOR OPEN LIVES: REFLECTIONS ON SECTION 28 OF THE 1987 LOCAL GOVERNMENT BILL, L ROWLEY, YOUTH CLUBS FEB 88, P32-34.

Section 28 of the Local Government bill was formerly known as Section 27 and is concerned with preventing local authorities from 'promoting' homosexuality through teaching, publications or financial support of organisations. The implementation of this Section poses a threat to youth work and adds another weapon to the discrimination armoury. Urges all youth workers to understand the importance of being open to the needs of lesbian and gay young people in their clients.

SEXUAL IDENTITY AND OPPRESSION, DIANE HAMER, WOMEN'S STUDIES NEWSLETTER, 1989, 11, 12-13.

Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness, published in 1928, is probably the most widely read of lesbian novels, and was banned in Britain. This autobiographical novel was thought to be obscene because it portrayed lesbianism in an attractive light, and was thought likely to encourage young people to adopt a lesbian lifestyle. There is an historical continuity between this example of censorship and Section 28 of the Local Government Act (1988). For the first time lesbians as well as homosexual men were included in the legislation. Section 28 prohibits the positive representation of gay or lesbian lifestyles and thus attacks the notion that one can choose to be gay or lesbian and that one is entitled to decide how one wishes to live. Section 28 bans the discussion of this choice in state schools and connects homosexuality with disease, since that provides the only permissible context within which it may be discussed. This legislation insists that schools support conventional images of heterosexual family structures and warns them off gay and lesbian alternatives.

LESBIANISM IN ANGLO-EUROPEAN LEGAL HISTORY, RUTHANN ROBSON, WISCONSIN WOMEN'S LAW JOURNAL, 1990, VOLUME V.

A MISSING VOICE IN FEMINIST LEGAL THEORY: THE HETEROSEXUAL PRESUMPTION, LEIGH MEGAN LEONARD, WOMEN'S RIGHTS LAW REPORTER, 12(1), 1990, 39-49.

EXTRACT: In this article I will first attempt to define the dimensions of the heterosexual presumption within feminist legal theory. Then I will examine the harm its perpetuation causes to lesbians and its potential threat to the integrity of the theory itself. Finally, I will outline a three-part process designed to facilitate the inclusion of lesbian existence in feminist legal theory.

LESBIANISM AND THE LABOUR PARTY: THE GLC EXPERIENCE, ANN TOBIN, FEMINIST REVIEW NO 34, SPRING 1990.

FAMILY RIGHTS AND THE 'REGISTERED PARTNERSHIP' IN DENMARK, LINDA NEILSEN, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND THE FAMILY, 1990, VOL 4, P297-307.

In 1989 Denmark took the innovative step of introducing a special legal regime, the 'registered partnership', of which only couples of the same sex, whether or not they are living together, may, if they choose, take advantage. The regime is closely modelled on marriage. This article explains the background to and motives which lie behind this legislation and considers the extent of its application and some of its implications.

SEX, SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND CRIMINAL AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR, LEE ELLIS, HARRY HOFFMAN, DONALD M. BURKE, PERSONALITY & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 1990, VOL 11(12), P1207-1212.

This study was undertaken to help determine if homosexuals and bisexuals are more or less criminal and/or violent than heterosexuals. Based upon samples of 197 male and 279 female college students, Pearson correlations revealed several significant, but weak, relationships between sexual orientation and most forms of self-reported criminal and/or violent behavior patterns. Among males, the data generally suggested that heterosexuals were more criminal and violent than homosexuals (except in the case of drug offenses), but that bisexuals were more criminal and violent than heterosexuals. Among females, lesbians (including only a few females with exclusively homosexual preferences) were generally more criminal and violent than heterosexuals, although they were still less so than males (except for homosexual males). Results suggest that some important differences may exist among both sexes regarding relationships between sexual orientations and criminal/violent behavior.

FURTHERING LESBIAN AND GAY MALE CIVIL RIGHTS, DONALD N. BERSOFF, DAVID W. OGDEN, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 46(9), P950-955.

The authors describe the American Psychological Association's (APA's) efforts to affect social policy and judicial decision making by delineating APA's participation as amicus curiae in five cases concerning the civil rights of lesbians and gay men. They discuss the function and importance of amicus briefs, review the legal principles used to advance the constitutional rights of lesbians and gay men, outline the facts in the cases APA entered, sketch the legal theories and scientific evidence that APA brought to the courts' attention, and relate the courts' decisions in those cases. They conclude with recommendations for the use of such briefs in future litigation and legislative efforts to advance the rights of lesbians and gay men.

GAYS/JUSTICE: A STUDY OF ETHICS, SOCIETY, AND LAW, RICHARD D. MOHR, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1988, REVIEW BY DAVID J. THOMAS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(3), P126-131.

BATTERED LESBIANS: ARE THEY ENTITLED TO A BATTERED WOMAN DEFENSE? D.S. DUPPS, JOURNAL OF FAMILY LAW, 1991, VOL 29(4), P879-899.

The battered woman syndrome evolved to recognize the psychological pressures that battered women suffer as a consequence of living in a battering relationship. Should the battered woman syndrome apply to battered lesbians? This Note will address that question by analogizing the situation of battered lesbians to battered heterosexual women. Part II introduces the concept of the battered woman syndrome. Part III examines battered woman syndrome as it is used as a defence. Part III also discusses the advantages of the battered woman syndrome over the traditional self-defense doctrine and pleas of temporary insanity. Part IV focuses on the psychological pressures upon battered lesbians. This Note concludes with the idea that the psychological pressures of living in a battering lesbian relationship are as severe as the psychological pressures that battered heterosexual women suffer.

AUTONOMY, EQUALITY, COMMUNITY: THE QUESTION OF LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS, MORRIS B. KAPLAN, PRAXIS INTERNATIONAL, 1991, VOL 11, P195-213.

In this paper I present an argument as to the principles at issue in the invocation of lesbian and gay rights. My immediate concern is to show the need for a more robust conception of lesbian and gay rights (and of human rights generally) than is implied in the analysis of such claims under the rubrics of liberty and the right of privacy. Lesbian and gay rights will be analyzed in terms of three kinds of claims: for the decriminalization of private, consensual homosexual acts between adults; for protection against invidious discrimination; and for the recognition of the ethical and social status of lesbian and gay relationships and associations. By emphasizing the distinctive features of the third class of claims, I articulate a political-ethical framework in which conceptions of autonomy, equality, and community are mutually develped and examined.

ARE THE FREE SPEECH RIGHTS OF HETEROSEXUALS AT RISK? PAUL SIEGEL,
JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION INQUIRY, 1991, VOL 15(1), P135-152.

LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS AS A FREE SPEECH ISSUE: A REVIEW OF RELEVANT CASELAW, PAUL SIEGEL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY VOL 21(1/2) 1991, P203-259.

The legal struggles waged by lesbian and gay male litigants almost invariably involve issues of freedom of expression, broadly construed. To illustrate this point, a wide array of caselaw is examined - ranging from classic "access to a forum" controversies to those concerning symbolic conduct and freedom of association (including marriage and child custody law), employment discrimination, and proscriptions against deviant sexual conduct. In each category, claims to a right of freedom of expression are manifested.

Cautionary notes are offered concerning those cases in which gay litigants try to protect their rights by inhibiting the speech of others. A brief concluding section assesses the long-term and short-term efficacy of raising first Amendment arguments (as opposed to privacy or equal protection arguments) in lesbian/gay male litigation.

WILL DRAFTING AND PROPERTY OWNERSHIP BEARING IN MIND COHABITEES AND LESBIAN AND GAY COUPLES, NICHOLAS ROBERTS, FAMILY LAW, 1992, VOL 22, P77-80.

FORWARD: GENDER AND JUSTICE, MARY I COOMBS,
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW REVIEW, JAN 1992, VOL 46(3), P503-510.

CAN TWO REAL MEN EAT QUICHE TOGETHER? STORYTELLING, GENDER-ROLE STEREOTYPES, AND LEGAL PROTECTION FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, MARC A. FAJER,
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW REVIEW, JAN 1992, VOL 46(3), P511-652.

MANAGING THE MILITARY'S HOMOSEXUAL EXCLUSION POLICY: TEXT AND SUBTEXT, JUDITH HICKS STIEHM,
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW REVIEW, JAN 1992, VOL 46(3), P685-710.

FORCED OUT OF THE CLOSET: SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND THE LEGAL DILEMMA OF "OUTING", DAVID H. POLLACK,
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI LAW REVIEW, JAN 1992, VOL 46(3), P711-750.

GAY AND LESBIAN EDUCATORS: PAST HISTORY/FUTURE PROSPECTS, KAREN M. HARBECK,
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4) , P121-140.

Although lesbians and gay men in education have been an invisible population, modern computer information retrieval techniques provided a mechanism to investigate the history of case law on gay and lesbian teacher dismissal and credential revocation. This legal framework was then augmented by social history gathered from newspapers and articles, and interviews with the parties involved in the legal or political debates. After presenting a history of the emergence of legal rights and political influence, the author discusses current trends in the employment rights and personal freedoms of gay and lesbian educators.

WHAT HAPPENS TO LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: WHY YOU SHOULD CARE, GAVIN DOLD,
PROBATION JOURNAL, JULY 1993, VOL 40(2), P69-71.

BEING GAY IN PRISON, PROBATION JOURNAL, 1993, VOL 40(2), P85-87.

WHAT HAPPENS TO LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: WHY YOU SHOULD CARE, GAVIN DOLD, PROBATION JOURNAL, 1993, VOL 40(2), P69-71.

RESEARCH SECTION 95 AND SEXUALITY, PROBATION JOURNAL, 1993, VOL 40(2), P96-97.

RESEARCH SECTION 95 AND SEXUALITY, PROBATION JOURNAL JULY 1993, VOL 40(2), P96-97.

LEGAL CHALLENGES FACING LESBIAN AND GAY YOUTH, ABBY ABINATI, HELPING GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH: NEW POLICIES, NEW PROGRAMS, NEW PRACTICE, ED. T. DECRESCENZO (also published as Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 1994, Vol 1(3/4), 149-169).

Legal constraints on minors can be especially problematic for lesbian and gay youth, who frequently lack support from their families and from school authorities, and whose circumstances are often misunderstood or disregarded by authorities throughout the juvenile system. Legal mechanisms exist or can be crafted to meet the needs of lesbian and gay youth who have been rejected by their families of origin. School, welfare, and juvenile justice administrators must become sensitive to the personal, economic, and societal pressures faced by lesbian and gay youth, and must tailor bureaucratic responses to the youth's particular needs. Finally, it is imperative that adults in the lesbian and gay communities take responsibility for protecting the interests of younger members of the community.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:

SOME LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DOMESTIC RELATIONSHIPS, KATHLEEN MAYER, P88

SOME LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO OUTSIDE INSTITUTIONS, FERN H. SCHWABER, P92

HOMOSEXUALITY: SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ISSUES, ED WILLIAM PAUL, JAMES D. WEINRICH, JOHN C. GONSIOREK, MARY E. HOTVEDT, SAGE PULBICATIONS 1982, INCLUDES:

HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE LAW, RHONDA RIVERA, P323-335.

HOMOSEXUALS AND THE CONSTITUTION, DAVID STIVISON, P303-321.

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, ED. TRUDY DARTY & SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING CO., 1984, INCLUDES:

LESBIANS AND THE LAW: WHERE SEXISM AND HETEROSEXISM MEET, MEREDITH GOULD, P147-162.

LEARNING OUR LINES, SEXUALITY AND SOCIAL CONTROL IN EDUCATION, CAROL JONES AND PAT MAHONY, EDITORS, THE WOMEN'S PRESS, 1989, INCLUDES:

CHAPTER 4: SECTION 28 AND EDUCATION, SUE SANDERS AND GILL SPRAGGS,
P79-121.

BOOKS

THE LAW AND SEXUALITY, HOW TO COPE WITH THE LAW IF YOU'RE NOT 100% CONVENTIONALLY HETEROSEXUAL, STEVE COHEN, STEPHANIE GREEN, LESLEY MERRYFINCH, GAY JONES, JANET SLADE, MAGGIE WALER, GRASS ROOTS BOOKS, 1978.

GAYS AND THE LAW, PAUL CRANE, PLUTO PRESS, 1982.

THE SECOND ILGA PINK BOOK, A GLOBAL VIEW OF LESBIAN AND GAY LIBERATION AND OPPRESSION, ILGA, 1988.

LESBIANS AND POLICING (AND GAY MEN AND POLICING), LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES, POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND LEGISLATION, 1967-1987, LESBIAN AND GAY WORKING PARTY, LONDON STRATEGIC POLICY UNIT, 1988.

SECTION 28: A GUIDE FOR SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, GOVERNORS, STOP THE CLAUSE EDUCATION GROUP, 1988.

SECTION 28 AND THE YOUTH SERVICE, AN INFORMATION PACK, LONDON UNION OF YOUTH CLUBS, 1988.

SECTION 28: A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE LAW AND ITS IMPLICATIONS, MADELEINE COLVIN, JANE HAWKSLEY, LIBERTY, 1989.

LESBIAN AND GAY EQUALITY NOW! ASSOCIATION OF LONDON AUTHORITIES, 1990.

LESBIAN (OUT)LAW, SURVIVAL UNDER THE RULE OF LAW, RUTHANN ROBSON, FIREBRAND, 1992.

THE WRONG SIDE OF THAT SOMEWHERE, DOUGLAS SLATER, ANGELA MASON,
STONEWALL, 1992.

TROUBLE WITH THE LAW? A LEGAL HANDBOOK FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, CAROLINE GOODING, GAY MEN'S PRESS, 1992.

HOMOSEXUALITY: A EUROPEAN COMMUNITY ISSUE, ESSAYS ON LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS IN EUROPEAN LAW AND POLICY, KEES WAALDIJK AND ANDREW CLAPHAM
EDITORS, MARTINUS MIHHOFF PUBLISHERS, 1993.

ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT, STONEWALL SURVEY ON THE AGE OF CONSENT & SEX EDUCATION, ANYA PALMER, STONEWALL, 1994.

SEXUALITY AND THE STATE, C. FOLEY
, LIBERTY, 1994.

SEXING THE CITY, LESBIAN AND GAY POLITICS WITHIN THE ACTIVIST STATE, DAVINA COOPER, RIVERS ORAM PRESS, 1994.

ORGANISATIONS

ILGA (INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN AND GAY ASSOCIATION) INFORMATION SECRETARIAT, 81 RUE MARCHEAUCHARBON, 1000 BRUSSELLS, BELGIUM.

GALOP, (GAY AND LESBIAN POLICE MONITORING PROJECT) 36 OLD QUEEN STREET, LONDON, SW1H 9JF. 071.253.2043.

STONEWALL, 16 CLERKENWELL CLOSE, LONDON, EC1R 0AA. 0172.336.8860.

SEE 'LESBIANS WHO ARE MOTHERS RESOURCE LIST' FOR EXAMPLES OF LEGAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST LESBIAN MOTHERS.

MEDIA

JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY VOL 21(1/2) 1991 INCLUDES:

INTRODUCTION: THE BODY ELECTRIC - HUMAN SEXUALITY AND MASS MEDIA, MICHELLE A. WOLF, P7-18.

OUT OF THE MAINSTREAM: SEXUAL MINORITIES AND THE MASS MEDIA, LARRY GROSS, P19-47.

In a society dominated by centralized sources of information and imagery, in which economic imperatives and pervasive soures of values promote the search for large, common-denominator audiences, it is useful to look at the fate of those who, for one reason or another, find themselves outside of the mainstream. This paper addresses the general questions of minority perspectives in the context of the study of mass media content and effects. More specific attention is paid to the situation of lesbian women and gay men as members of the mass media audience.

LESBIAN AND GAY RIGHTS AS A FREE SPEECH ISSUE: A REVIEW OF RELEVANT CASELAW, PAUL SIEGEL, P203-259.

The legal struggles waged by lesbian and gay male litigants almost invariably involve issues of freedom of expression, broadly construed. To illustrate this point, a wide array of caselaw is examined - ranging from classic "access to a forum" controversies to those concerning symbolic conduct and freedom of association (including marriage and child custody law), employment discrimination, and proscriptions against deviant sexual conduct. In each category, claims to a right of freedom of expression are manifested.

Cautionary notes are offered concerning those cases in which gay litigants try to protect their rights by inhibiting the speech of others. A brief concluding section assesses the long-term and short-term efficacy of raising first Amendment arguments (as opposed to privacy or equal protection arguments) in lesbian/gay male litigation.

GAYS, LESBIANS AND THE MEDIA: A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, FRED FEJES, P261-277.

The focus of this selected bibliography is on print, aural, and visual resources dealing with gay males, lesbians, and the mass media. Listings were selected on the basis of their perceived value to scholarly researchers and interested members of the more general public. Individual news stories, reviews of specific films or television programs, and coverage of gay males and lesbians in the theatre and arts are not included. While references to popular music were sought, only a few items were located and are included. There were two major obstacles confronted when compiling this bibliography. First, much of the media of the gay and lesbian communities in the United States is not indexed. Second, very few libraries subscribe to many of the more popular and important print resources (e.g. Advocate, Gay Community News) on the topics of focus. Even more inaccessible are regional publications and literature that focus on erotica but often include valuable items on the gay and lesbian communities as well.

INVISIBILITY, HOMOPHOBIA AND HETEROSEXISM: LESBIANS, GAYS AND THE MEDIA, F. FEJES & K. PETRICH, CRITICAL STUDIES IN MASS COMMUNICATION, 1993, VOL 10(4), P396-422.

BOOKS

ARE WE BEING SERVICED, LESBIANS, GAYS AND BROADCASTING, PROJECT REPORT, HALL CARPENTER MEMORIAL ARCHIVES, 1987.

MEDICINE

THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE SEXUALITY, ERNEST JONES, THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS, OCTOBER 1927, VOL VIII(4), P459-472.

ADJUSTMENT OF HOMOSEXUAL AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, MARVIN SIEGELMAN,
BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY,1972, NO 120, P477-481.

PSYCHIATRIC OPINION AND HOMOSEXUALITY: A SHORT REPORT, R.F. BARR, S.V. CATTS,
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(2), P213-215.

In a survey of opinion among 100 psychiatrists and 93 trainees in Australia, the majority endorsed the view either that "homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily or commonly associated with neurotic symptoms" or that "homosexuality is a normal variant like left-handedness." Current psychiatric opinion on the nature of homosexuality has moved away from the traditional view that homosexuality is a neurotic disorder and is largely in accord with the results of controlled studies of non-patient homosexuals.

HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE MEDICAL MODEL, VERN L. BULLOUGH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL1(1), P99-110.

In the eighteenth century the whole subject of sexuality came to be of increasing medical concern, and medical concepts about sexual deviation came to enforce traditional religious concepts which were under attack. These ideas were amplified in the nineteenth century until all nonprocreative forms of sexuality were looked upon as pathological.

OBJECT CHOICE AND ACTUAL BISEXUALITY, A. LIMENTANI,
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1975, VOL 5, P205-217.

Actual bisexuality is to be distinguished from homosexuality in a latent state and from conscious bisexual fantasies. Contemporary social changes have caused an increased demand for help by those men and women capable of engaging in protracted heterosexual and homosexual relations. Among such people narcissistic and border-line states are common.

Clinical material is presented in some detail. The author suggests that the condition is associated with a tendency to be caught up between the anaclitic and narcissistic types of object choice. The concurrent involvement with a male and female love object against a background of pseudogenitality creates the illusory appearance of two objects being involved, covering up the fact that there is splitting of the original love object together with severe preoedipal disturbance.

HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE RORSCHACH: A NEW LOOK AT THE OLD SIGNS, STEPHEN J. HENDLIN,
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1976, VOL 1(3), P303-312.

Content responses to the Rorschach inkblot test have been used by clinicians to assess homosexuality. In comparing educated, adjusted male homosexuals to educated, adjusted heterosexuals, no differences were found between the groups when the traditional index of homosexuality on the Rorschach was used. The index was unable to distinguish the groups on a number of criteria. The reliability of the index was found to be significantly greater for the homosexual group than for the heterosexual group. It was suggested that the traditional index is not valid and that it should not be used in a clinical setting as a measure to assess homosexuality.

HOMOSEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE, MERVIN GLASSER,
BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 1977, VOL 50, P217-225.

This paper asserts that homosexuality in adolescence should not be regarded in the same way as it would be in adults. Different types of homosexuality emerge during adolescence according to the different psychodynamic conditions which occur at different stages of adolescence, particularly the changing relationship to the individual's parents, and these may subside or make an important contribution to the establishment and nature of an individual's homosexuality in adulthood.

The characteristic 'identificatory facility' of adolescence is discussed and it is suggested that this is retained in the make-up of the adult homosexual. Some comments on the clinical assessment of homosexuality in adolescence are briefly made.

AN EVALUATION OF THE VALIDITY OF THE FREUDIAN THEORY OF PARANOIA, GARY ANTON CHALUS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(2), P171-188.

This paper evaluates the validity of the Freudian theory of paranoia on the basis of the available research evidence. This theory essentially states that delusional thinking arises as a result of the reaction-formation and projection of threatening unconscious homosexual wishes. It is concluded that a positive association between paranoid and homosexual tendencies has been found, but only for the case of male paranoid patients. The research leading to this conclusion has not, however, demonstrated that a defensive attempt against unconscious homosexual impulses causes delusional thinking. Rather, the argument is made that it is more parsimonious to assume that only the second step in the Freudian etiological mechanism, a continuous tension-reducing projection of the patient's threatening and intense hostility, need be invoked to account for paranoia.

THE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF HOMOSEXUALITY, A. LIMENTANI, BRITISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1977, VOL 50, P209-216.

The treatment of homosexuality presents serious difficulties owing to its multifactorial aetiology and variety of psychopathological views. It is suggested that the combined use of psychiatric and psychoanalytic models can contribute to the establishment of a satisfactory differential diagnosis. Out of the innumnerable clinical types seen in practice and described in the literture, three major groups can be isolated. The homosexuality which occurs in the background of hysterical, obsessional and other neurotic personality types and related psychiatric conditions, tends to be linked with latent heterosexuality and responds well to all forms of psychotherapy. On the other hand, true homosexuality is often the major presenting symptom of borderline states, narcissistic disorders, psychopathy and the schizo-affective psychoses and carries an unfavourable prognosis with any form of treatment. Cases of actual bisexuality form the third group with its own specific psychopathology. The homosexual solution is seen as a defence and is regarded as a matter of survival for many individuals. It should be treated with the utmost caution by anyone who attempts to remove it.

AN INVOLVEMENT AND OVERTNESS MEASURE FOR LESBIANS: ITS DEVELOPMENT AND RELATION TO ANXIETY AND SOCIAL ZEITGEIST, K.D. FERGUSON, DEANA C. FINKLER, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1978, VOL 7(3), P211-227.

The relationships among anxiety, degree of overtness in homosexuality, involvement in homosexuality, and occupational status were investigated to test prevalent hypotheses relating homosexuality and neoroticism. Sixty-three acknowledged lesbians completed the Manifest Anxiety and Defensiveness Scale (MAD), the Lesbian Degree of Involvement and Overtness Scales (DIOS), and a biographical data sheet. Reliability and validity indices for the DIOS are presented. Some findings were that anxiety was not related to degree of involvement in homosexuality, that anxiety was related to degree of overtness in low- but not in high-status lesbians, and that the social Zeitgeist at the time of first lesbian activity was related to degree of overtness but not to degree of involvement in homosexuality. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between social desirability and hostile society. Additionally, comparisons of anxiety levels in homosexual and heterosexual women are presented and discussed. The results are interpreted as lending support to the emerging view of the homosexual as nonneurotic.

THE MORBIDIFICATION OF LOVE BETWEEN WOMEN BY 19TH CENTURY SEXOLOGISTS, LILLIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 4(1), P73-90.

Twentieth-century attitudes toward love between women are very different from those of previous centuries. Fiction and personal correspondence that antedate the work of Kraft-Ebbing and Havelock Ellis in the late 19th century indicate that a much broader spectrum of expression of love and affection between women had been acceptable than that to which we have become accustomed. Medical science and psychology for the past 100 years have morbidified intense love relationships between women by inventing a syndrome of ills that supposedly accompany such affection, and by denying the validity or seriousness of the affection where such ills are clearly not present. The result has been that (until the lesbian-feminist movement) 20th century women were largely forced to deny their love for other women unless they were willing to acknowledge their concomitant morbidity.

BEHAVIOURAL APPROACHES TO THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL DEVIATIONS, KEITH HAWTON, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, 1983, VOL 143, P248-255.

CLASSIFYING SEXUAL DISORDERS: THE DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION, FREDERICK SUPPE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 9(4), P9-28.

The objectivity of the classification of sexual disorders in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM -III)) of the American Psychiatric Association is explored via a critical examination of (1) the replacement of homosexuality per se by ego-dystonic homosexuality, (2) DSM's working concept of a mental disorder, (3) the notion of a paraphilia, (4) components of sexual identity, and (5) the literature on variant sexual behaviors. It is argued that (a) the same criteria that led to the removal of homosexuality per se as a mental disorder require the removal of all the paraphilias per se, (b) there is no empirical warrant to justify their continued inclusion, and (c) while there is legitimacy for a generalized ego-dystonic category, such ego-dystonias are only incidentally sexual. It is suggested that the present classification of sexual disorders is merely the codification of social mores.

THE ETHICAL AND MORAL IMPLICATIONS OF SEXUAL CLASSIFICATION: A COMMENTARY, CHARLES SILVERSTEIN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 9(4), P29-38.

This paper reviews the relationship between psychiatic diagnosis and morality, suggesting that moral reasoning has been the primary determinant in the diagnosis of sexual disorders. It suggests two hypotheses to explain why homosexuality was eliminated from DSM. One, that homosexuality is now viable as a lifestyle and therefore has become socially regulated; and two, that the normal is the intractible. It further suggests that there is no scientific reason to keep the parphilias in DSM.

ALLIES AND PERSECUTORS: SCIENCE AND MEDICINE IN THE HOMOSEXUALITY ISSUE, GUNTER SCHMIDT, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 10(3/4), P127-140.

Using Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935) and his Zwischenstufentheorie (theory of intersexual stages) as an example, the problems raised for homosexuals by etiological research into homosexuality are scrutinized. Hirschfeld, one of the most influential sex reseachers working in the first part of the century, fully intended his biological theory to support his campaign on behalf of homosexuals' rights. However, the Zwischenstufentheorie and modern variations of it, such as the ideas of the endocrinologist, Gunter Dorner, have been converted into strategies for preventing or curing homosexuality. From an historical point of view, it becomes clear that, in a society hostile to homosexuals, the results gained from research into the causes of homosexuality can be used against homosexuals and, in fact, have been.

HETEROSEXUAL BIAS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON LESBIANISM AND MALE HOMOSEXUALITY (1979-1983), UTILIZING THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND TAXONOMIC SYSTEM OF MORIN (1977), ALAN T. WATTERS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P35-58.

Utilizing the concept of heterosexual bias, recent research on homosexuality is evaluated to see if this bias has lessened in recent years. In 1977 the suggestion was made that a new vision of homosexuality as an alternate and equally valid lifestyle would result in changes in the questions posed, the data collected, and the interpretation made in research on homosexuality. Recent journal article asbstracts are examined and weighed to find the extent to which they reflect a change in the social values of the behavior under study. These findings are compared to those of the original study in 1977 and assessed to see if the predicted changes have come about. Strong evidence of such a change was found.

FEMININITY IN MEN AND MASCULINITY IN WOMEN: AMERICAN PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHOLOGY PORTRAY HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE 1930'S, HENRY L. MINTON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P1-21.

Two influential studies of homosexuality are reviewed. Both were conducted in the United States in the 1930s and involved rather large samples of homosexual men and women. Each investigation concluded that homosexuality was linked to cross-gender identification. Consequently, these studies served as justification for perpetuating a clear distinction between masculine and feminine roles. Consideration is given to the intellectual and social context within which the association of gender deviation and homosexuality was promulgated.

LESBIANS UNDER THE MEDICAL GAZE: SCIENTISTS SEARCH FOR REMARKABLE DIFFERENCES, JENNIFER TERRY, JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1990, VOL 27(3), 317-339.

This paper examines research, conducted under the auspices of the Committee for the Study of Sex Variants during the 1930s in New York City, which sought to determine what characteristics distinguished lesbians from heterosexual women. Assuming that marks of difference would appear either on the body or in the mind, researchers x-rayed skeletons, inspected genitals and conducted psychiatric interviews looking for indicators of masculinity. This inquiry was intended to establish scientific ways to identify, treat and prevent homosexuality. Although physical findings alone were inconclusive, morphological and experiential patterns were noted. Because lesbians were assumed to be masculine, the research framework failed to explain the cases of 'feminine' women who sexually pursued women or who responded favourably to sexual advances by women. Recommendations for prevention identified the family as the appropriate site for establishing and reinforcing
proper gender behaviours.

EROTOMANIA IN AN ADOLESCENT: CLINICAL AND THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS, JOHN R. URBACH, CYMA KHALILY, PATRICIA P. MITCHELL, JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE, 1992, SEPT., VOL 15, P231-240.

Erotomania is a relatively rare delusional syndrome, typically seen in heterosexual women of middle-age or beyond. This is the first reported occurrence in an adolescent, and one of very few involving homosexual orientation. A detailed case report is discussed in the context of adolescent developental phenomena, including "crushes", identity formation, and the resolution of sexual orientation. The presentation of erotomania as alleged sexual abuse, and a possible etiologic role for childhood sexual trauma, are considered.

"SHE FORESWORE HER WOMANHODD": PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS OF FEMALE HOMOSEXUALITY, MAGGIE MAGEE, DIANA C. MILLER, CLINICAL SOCIAL WORK JOURNAL, 1992, VOL 20(1), P67-87.

Just as in early psychoanalytic views of female sexual development women's sexual anatomy, psychic development, and object relations were seen relative to male norms and found wanting, in much of psychoanalytic thinking the sexual and psychic development of women in lesbian relationships are seen relative to heterosexual women and found lacking. Various etiological explanations of female homosexuality attempt to isolate a particular developmental arrest or disorder characteristic of female homosexual relations. This paper reviews the major psychoanalytic formulations of female homosexuality and discusses them in terms of two phallocentric assumptions: 1) A woman who loves a woman must be a man, or be like a man, or must want to be a man; and 2) A relationship between two women must always remain incomplete compared to the complementarity assumed in a heterosexual relationship. Increased understanding of the sexual desires and experience of women in lesbian relationships would contribute to expanded perspectives about female sexuality and development. The paper offers two paradigms for thinking about homosexual object choice which are not based on analogies to pathological conditions.

THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF HOMOSEXUALS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: THE SHIFT FROM THE SIN TO THE INFLUENCE OF MEDICINE ON CRIMINALIZING SODOMY IN GERMANY, JORG HUTTER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P73-93.

Psychiatry and forensic medicine developed a medical model of deviance locating the source of homosexual behavior within the individual and postulating a physiological condition that is assumed to cause the deviant behavior. The shift in deviance designation from sexually sinful behavior to sexually unhealthy individuals affected social control and sexual criminal law in Germany during the second half of the 19th century. This research project analyzes the process of legislation and the application of sexual law in the German Reich during the period between 1860 and 1920.

BOOKS

HOMOSEXUALITY: ITS NATURE, CAUSATION AND TREATMENT, CLIFFORD ALLEN,
1958.


HOMOSEXUALITY, A GUIDE FOR PARENTS & TEACHERS, DR JOAN GOMEZ,
ROBERT HALE, 1994.

CHAPTERS IN BOOKS

WOMEN-IDENTIFIED-WOMEN, EDITED BY TRUDY DARTY AND SANDEE POTTER, MAYFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1984, INCLUDES:

CHANGING THEORIES OF LESBIANISM: CHALLENGING THE STEREOTYPES, CHRISTINE BROWNING P11-30.

© Lesbian Information Service, 1996.