MALE AND FEMALE HOMOSEXUALIT: A COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATION, MARCEL T. SAGHIR & ELI ROBINS, REVIEW BY VIOLET FRANKS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(1), P131-134.
SEXUAL ASPIRATIONS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIORS AMONG HOMOSEXUALLY BEHAVING MALES AND FEMALES: THE IMPACT OF THE GAY COMMUNITY, KENNETH L. NYBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 2(12), FALL 1976, P29-38.
Questionnaires were administed to 100 males and 168 females who expressed strong homoerotic aspirations. These two groups were further divided into those who were members of the gay community and those who were not. Two questions served to focus the research effort: (a) to what extent is the relationship between homoerotic sexual aspirations and subsequent gratifications different for homosexually behaving females and males, and (b) what, if any, effect does membership in the gay community have on the sexual facilitation of these aspirations? Analysis of the data suggests that issues pertaining to differences betweem homosexually behaving males and females cannot be addresed apart from corresponding issues concerning the impact of the gay community as a facilitator of homoerotic sexual aspirations.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION SURVEY OF STUDENTS ON THE SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS, MICHAEL G. SHIVELY, JOHN P. DE CECCO, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 4(1) FALL 1978, P29-39.
This study examined the sexual orientations of students on the campus of San Francisco State University. The sample consisted of 1,039 students who responded to a questionnaire administered in their classes. The results were as follows: (a) significantly more males than females reported the homosexual orientation for both behavior and feeling; (b) about the same proportion for whites and nonwhites reported the homosexual orientation for behavior; and (c) significantly more students in majors emphasising "divergent" thinking than those in majors emphasising "convergent" thinking reported the homosexual orientation for behavior. The first two findings were explained in terms of the differentiated and related development of social sex-roles and sexual orientation in females and males and minority and majority groups. The last finding was explained in terms of divergent and convergent thinking of students who choose particular disciplines.
HOMOSEXUALITIES: A STUDY OF DIVERSITY AMONG MEN AND WOMEN, REVIEW,RUSSELL BOXLEY; JOSEPH M. CARRIER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(3) P293-298.
SEX-ROLE PSYCHOLOGY, FRANK WESLEY AND CLAIRE WESLEY, HUMAN SCIENCES PRESS, 1977; THE LONGEST WAR: SEX DIFFERENCES IN PERSPECTIVE, CAROL TAVRIS AND CAROLE OFFIR, HARCOURT BRACE JOVANOVICH, 1977; THE SEX ROLE SYSTEM: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES, EDITED BY JANE CHETWYND AND OONAGH HARTNETT, ROUTLEDGE & KEGAN PAUL, 1978; UNDOING SEX STEREOTYPES, MARCIA GUTTENTAG, HELEN BRAY, MCGRAW-HILL, 1976, REVIEW BY RICHARD W. SMITH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 7(1), P81-86.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND LESBIANISM, D.J. WEST, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, VOL 143, 1983, P221-226.
Discusses definitions, bisexuality, male and female patterns, ontogenesis of sexual orientation, problems arising from homosexuality. Very male biased but with some interesting differences. J.B.
HOMOSEXUALS' AND LESBIANS' PHILOSOPHIES OF HUMAN NATURE, LEONARD WELLER & MOTTI BENOZIO, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY, 1987, VOL 15(2), P221-224.
The study compares 57 homosexuals and 45 lesbians on six dimensions of beliefs about human nature. On only one dimension, altruism-selfishness, was a significant difference found. While there are no similar studies of the comparison of attitudes and values, the findings are consistent with the few personality studies which likewise reported no differences between homosexuals and lesbians.
PERSONALITY PROFILES OF HOMOSEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN, JOHN H. CUKITT, LAETITIA DU TOIT, THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, 1989, VOL 123(5), P497-505.
There has been surprisingly little research on possible differences between homosexual and heterosexual personalities, although the few studies that have been conducted suggest some interesting differences. We devised two hypothesis that may account for these differences. First, differences appear to reflect generalized social nonconformity and alienation due to the social stigmatization of the homosexual. Second, these differences seem to express a more specific tendency to deviation from socially normative sex roles. The two hypotheses imply a number of predictions concerning specific personality traits, which were tested by comparing the 16PF (Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) personality profiles of a gorup of male (N = 34) and female (N = 31) homosexuals with those obtained from the two large student samples (male, N = 899 and female, N = 912) whose scores are commonly used as norms for the South African version of the 16PF. The findings suggested reasonably good support for the two hypotheses, particularly considering the limitations of the study with respect to the adequacy of the comparison groups used and the relative heterogeneity of the 16PF scale content.
THE GAY REPORT, LESBIANS AND GAY MEN SPEAK OUT ABOUT SEXUAL EXPERIENCES AND LIFESTYLES, KARLA JAY, ALLEN YOUNG, SUMMIT BOOKS, 1977.
HOMOSEXUALITIES, A STUDY OF DIVERSITY AMONG MEN & WOMEN, ALAN P. BELL, MARTIN S. WEINBERG, MITCHELL BEAZLEY, 1978.
SOMETHING TO TELL YOU...THE EXPERIENCES AND NEEDS OF YOUNG LESBIANS AND GAY MEN IN LONDON, LORRAINE TRENCHARD, HUGH WARREN, LONDON GAY TEENAGE GROUP, 1984.
CAMDEN RESEARCH PROJECT, 1991 (very important - differences around housing, employment, etc).
FIRST HOMOSEXUAL AND HETEROSEXUAL EXPERIENCES REPORTED BY GAY AND
LESBIAN YOUTH IN AN URBAN COMMUNITY, REVIEW AUTHORS J.A. COOK, A.M.
BOXER, G. HERDT. SCHOOL SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION, UNIVERSITY OF
CHICAGO, IL 60637, U.S.A. (Have not been able to acquire).
An examination of events associated with pathways of the coming-out process for a sample of 200 self-identified gay and lesbian youth who were members of the youth group of a large gay and lesbian social
service agency located on the north side of Chicago, Ill. Focus is on the ages at which these respondents report their first homosexual and heterosexual activity, and the sequencing of homosexual and heterosexual experiences as youth develop their sexual identities. Statistical and qualitative analyses reveal that girls reported a significantly later mean age of first same-sex sexual activity, even when controlling for the effects of minority status, age at time of inteview, current employment status, and whether the youth currently resided with family members. A significantly larger proportion of young lesbians reported having heterosexual sex than did gay males. Girls reported a more positive reaction than boys to their first homosexual activity, while boys felt significantly more positive than girls about their first heterosexual experiences. A sequencing variable was constructed to assess the ordering of first heterosexual and homosexual experience among the youth. Gender was found to be significantly related to the sequencing variable: girls were more likely to report first heterosexual sex followed by homosexual sex, while boys were more likely to report first homosexual sex before first heterosexual sex, or homosexual sex only. This gender relationship remained stable even when controlling for the variables mentioned above. The meaning of these findings for understanding the coming-out process among contemporary gay and lesbian youth is discussed, as well as their implications for AIDS.
SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE WHO HOLD POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS, A.P. MACDONALD, RICHARD G. GAMES, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 1(1) 1974, P9-27.
This study (presented as a paradigm study in the area of majority-minority relations) replicates previous findings that negative attitudes toward homosexuals are associated with lack of support for equality between the sexes. It includes a multidimensional measure of support for equality between the sexes; Semantic Differentials for Man, Woman, Male Homosexual, and Lesbian; four value factors derived from Rokeach's 36 Instrumental and Terminal Values; measures of authoritarianism, cognitive rigidy, and ambiguity tolerance; a premarital sexual permissiveness scale; and attitudes toward male and female homosexuality scales. Most interesting among the findings are the correlations to the Potency dimension of the Semantic Differential. Implications for the gay and feminist movements are briefly discussed.
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY VOL 2(1), 1976, INCLUDES:
A FACTOR-ANALYTIC CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD MALE AND FEMALE HOMOSEXUALS, JIM MILLHAM, CHRISTOPHER L. SAN MIGUEL, RICHARD KELLOGG, P3-10.
A wide sprectrum of opinions and beliefs concerning homosexuals was sampled, compiled into a questionnaire format, and administered to a large group of heterosexual subjects. Factor analysis yielded six independent sets of attitudes that describe the variance in heterosexual reactions to homosexuals. The relationship of sex differences and familiarity with homosexuals to variations in response style is discussed.
ATTITUDINAL HOMOPHOBIA AND SUPPORT OF TRADITIONAL SEX ROLES, LINDA E. WEINBERGER, JIM MILLHAM, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 4(3), 1979, P237-246.
The present study investigated the relationships among various attitudes toward homosexuality and the maintenance of traditional male/female gender distinctions. The results supported both the importance of separate attitude dimensions describing reactions to homosexuality and the meaningfulness of an overall pattern of homophobia. Components of homophobic style were evaluated and related to components of support for traditional male/female roles. An individual's own congruence with traditional gender expectations and his/her attitudes toward sex-role incongruence were evaluated within the context of social psychological research on deviance.
SEXUAL PREFERENCE OR PERSONAL STYLE? WHY LESBIANS ARE DISLIKED, MARY RIEGE LANER, ROY H. LANER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 5(1/4) 1979/80, P339-356.
MacDonald and Games (1974) have argued that homosexual men and women are disliked because they are thought to display inappropriate gender-related mannerisms (either "butch" or "femme"). Storms (1978) argued that sex-object choice, nor personal style, is the basis for dislike. Laner and Laner (1979) have presented evidence that both dimensions - sexual preference and personal style - are implicated in dislike of homosexual men. The present study replicates the design of Laner and Laner's (1979) study but compares likeableness ratings and quality attributes of lesbian and nonlesbian women, divided into three subtypes: hypofeminine (masculine), feminine (average), and hyperfeminine (effeminate). Findings parallel those of Laner and Laner's earlier work and lend partial support both to MacDonald and Games's and to Storms's propositions. Conventionality of style, as heterosexually defined (in this case, average feminine), appears most likely to reduce dislike of lesbians. A publicly conventional presentation of self is not incompatible with private individualism, however.
ASCRIPTION OF NEGATIVE TRAITS BASED ON SEX ROLE AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, RODNEY K. GOODYEAR, PHILIP D. ABADIE, KAREN A. BARQUEST, PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS, 1981, VOL 49(1), P194.
HETEROSEXUALS' ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANISM AND MALE HOMOSEXUALITY: THEIR AFFECTIVE ORIENTATION TOWARD SEXUALITY AND SEX GUILT, WILLIAM L. YARBER, BERNADETTE YEE, JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH, VOL 31(5), 1983, P203-208.
This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their affective orientation toward sexuality (erotophilia-erotophobia) and sex guilt. Subjects were 72 male and 57 female heterosexual college undergraduates. A self-report questionnaire was administered in a health education class and mailed to campus dormitories. The variables were measured by four scales: Attitudes Toward Leesbianism, Attitudes Toward Male Homosexuality, Sex Guilt Subscales, and modified Sexual Opinion Survey (erotophilia-erotophobia). Through a sample selection process involving randomization, the sample was made proportional to the university's undergraduate students by sex, class standing, and school.
Affective orientation toward sexuality was established to be related to attitudes toward lesbianism for both sexes, and related to attitudes toward male homosexuality for female subjects only (all p<.05). Sex guilt was related to both sexes' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality (p<.05). Erotophilic (more positive sex attitudes) and lower sex-guilt males and females had more positive attitudes toward lesbianism than the erotophobic (more negative sex attitudes) and higher sex-guilt subjects of their own sex. Lower sex-guilt males and females were found to have more positive attitudes toward male homosexuality. And, erotophilic females had more positive attitudes toward male homosexuality than the erotophobic females, with the relationship for males being similar although not significant.
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 10(1/2), 1984, INCLUDES:
ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: A FACTOR-ANALYTIC STUDY, GREGORY M. HEREK, P39-51.
This paper reports a series of factor analyses of responses to attitude statements about lesbians and gay men. Using a common factor model with oblique rotation, a bipolar "Condemnation-Tolerance" factor was observed repeatedly in four separate samples of undergraduates. The factor accounts for 35-45% of the total common variance in responses, and is similar for male and female respondents and for questionnaires concerning both lesbians and gay men. A "Beliefs" factor accounts for another 5% of the total variance. It is argued that scales assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men should restrict their content to items loading highly on the Condemnation-Tolerance factor.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELF-REPORTED SEX-ROLE CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY, KATHRYN N. BLACK, MICHAEL R. STEVENSON, P83-93.
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported sex-role characteristics and attitudes toward homosexuality using the Bem Sex Inventory, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Attitudes toward Homosexuality Scale. Relationships occur for both males and females who are exhibiting greater amounts of cross-sex traits. Females with more instrumental characteristics were more accepting while males with more expressive characteristics were more rejecting. These findings are discussed in relation to those of Weinberger and Millham (1979) who also investigated this relationship, as well as to research investigating the relationship between attitudes toward homosexuality and attitudes toward sex roles and feminism.
DEVELOPMENT OF SCALES MEASURING SOCIAL DISTANCE TOWARD MALE AND FEMALE HOMOSEXUALS, CYNTHIA S. GENTRY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P75-82.
The focus of this paper is the devcelopment of Guttman scales of social distance toward male and female homosexuals. The development of these scales was in three phases. In each phase, a series of items was distributed, analyzed and refined. These refinements were not solely statistical, but involved considerable conceptual clarification. The final scale is offered as a statistically sound and conceptually clear measurement of social distance towards homosexuals.
HETEROSEXUALS' ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: CORRELATES AND GENDER DIFFERENCES, G.M. HEREK, JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1988, VOL 25(4)
This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences. Three studies conducted with students at six different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men. The same social psychological variables appear to underlie both males' and females' attitudes toward both gay men and lesbians: religiosity, adherence to traditional ideologies of family and gender, perception of friends, agreement with one's own attitudes, and past interactions with lesbians and gay men. The role of these variables in shaping attitudes is discussed and areas for future research are proposed. Construction and validation of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale are also described.
THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES TO MALE AND FEMALE ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS, BERNIE S. NEWMAN, SEX ROLES, VOL 21 (7/8), 1989, P451-465.
Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were the only significant predictor, while gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, and eucational and media influences made a contribution to female attitudes toward lesbians. Despite more liberal gender role attitudes expressed by female respondents, there was no differences between male and female attitudes toward lesbians. This finding and the additional contribution to female attitudes toward lesbians made by the other predictors beside gender role attitudes suggests that the female respondents' development of attitudes toward lesbians is a product of a wider array of variables, with gender role attitudes playing a more central role in the development of male attitudes toward lesbians. Nevertheless, the importance of gender role attitudes to both male and female attitudes toward lesbians suggsts that stratification by sex might be an underlying variable for both gender role attitudes and attitudes toward lesbians.
ISSUES OF GENDER IN PROMOTING TOLERANCE FOR HOMOSEXUALITY, MICHAEL R. STEVENSON, WENDY M. GAJARSKY, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 3(2), P155-163.
Although a recent review suggests that students' attitudes toward homosexuality change as a result of taking a human sexuality course, research in this area has not adequately addressed the issues of gender of target and gender of respondent. Attitude measures rarely distinguish between lesbians and gay men; respondents are expected to hold more negative attitudes toward homosexuals of their own sex; and women are expected to be more readily influenced in some situations. This study shows that women and men did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, but attitudes toward lesbians were more easily changed than attitudes toward gay men regardless of the gender of the respondent.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF HETEROSEXUALS' ATTRIBUTIONS FOR THE CAUSES OF HOMOSEXUALITY TO ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, BERNARD E. WHITELEY, PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 1990, VOL 16(2), P369-377.
Attribution theory suggested the hypothesis that heterosexuals' attitudes toward persons bearing the social stigma of homosexuality would be more negative when homosexuality was attributed to controllable than to uncontrollable causes. It was further hypothesized that groups that have been found to express more favorable attitudes toward lesbians and gay men - persons rating other-sex gay people and those who know a gay person - would attribute homosexuality to less controllable causes. Data from 193 female and 173 male heterosexual college students supported the first, but not the second, hypothesis. In addition, heterosexual women were more likely to report knowing a lesbian than heterosexual men were to report knowing a gay man, and among respondents who reported knowing a gay man, women reported closer acquaintanceship than men did. The implications of these findings for changing antigay attitudes are discussed.
ATTITUDES AND EXPECTATIONS ABOUT CHILDREN WITH NONTRADITIONAL AND TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES, CAROL LYNN MARTIN, SEX ROLES, 1990, VOL 22(3/4), P151-165.
Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of typical boys, typical girls, tomboys, and sissies. Results revealed that sissies were more negatively evaluated than tomboys. Women were more accepting of, and perceived more societal acceptance from cross-sex children, than were men. One reasons for the negative evaluation of sissies may be that there is more concern for their future outcomes than for tomboys. Analyses of predictions concerning future behavior showed that sissies, more so than tomboys, were expected to continue to show cross-gender behavior into adulthood. Also, sissies were rated as likely to be less well adjusted and more likely to be homosexual when they grow up than other children. The accuracy of these beliefs and their implications for child-rearing practices are discussed.
BISEXUAL WOMEN IN MARRIAGES, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 11(1/2): BISEXUALITIES: THEORY AND RESEARCH, P87-99.
A clinical sample of women who were currently or previously married were surveyed regarding demographics, homosexual experiences before marriage, problems in marriage, and sexual orientation. The average age of the 45 participants was 35.9. Before marriage, 21 (47%) were somewhat aware of their homosexual feelings but were much less likely to have thought of or identified themselves as homosexuals. Sexual difficulties were very common in these marriages (89%), the most cited sexual difficulty being a lack of sexual desire for their spouse (62%). Based upon Kinsey-type ratings, the sample could be described as almost exclusively heterosexual in behavior and fantasies before marriage. Some changes could be seen during marriage toward more of a homosexual orientation. The dramatic change, however, occurred following marriage, when the women reported even more of a homosexual orientation, tending toward the homosexual end of the Kinsey continuum. At the time of the study, a majority of the sample was, in fact, relating almost exclusively to other women. This study found that, compared to homosexual men who have been married, these women are more likely to marry at an earlier age, unlikely to be aware of their homosexual feelings prior to marriage, and more likely to terminate their marriage earlier because of conflicts arising as a result of their bisexual orientation and sexual dissatisfaction.
VICTIMS OF ANTI-GAY/LESBIAN VIOLENCE, GARY DAVID COMSTOCK, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1989, VOL 4(1), P101-106.
In total, 294 lesbians and gay men responded to a national survey about their experiences of anti-gay/lesbian violence. Rates for various kinds of assaults and settings in which violence occurs are reported by gender and race of respondents. Rates of reporting to and experiences with the police are discussed and compared with those of victims of criminal violence in general. The impact of surveys on legislators and policy makers is indicated.
ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES, AN OVERVIEW, KEVIN T. BERRILL, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P274-294.
This article provides a general description of the nature and scope of violence and harassment against lesbians and gy men in the United States. It summarizes the results of local, state, and national surveys, and discusses gender and racial/ethnic differences in types and incidence of victimizations. The article examines anti-gay violence and harassment in such contexts as the home, schools, college and university campuses, and prisons and jails. There is a discussion of the perpetrators of anti-gay violence and the growing role of organized hate groups in such attacks. The article also examines time trends in anti-gay violence and the possible relationship between such violence and increasing public awareness about AIDS. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing data and the need for greater attention to the issue.
DEVELOPING A SENSE OF DIFERENCE AMONG GAY AND LESBIAN CHILDREN IN THE DEEP SOUTH: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEING QUEER AND BEING DIFFERENT, JAMES T. SEARS, OC 1987, ERIC, MICROFIESCHE.
LESBIAN FEMINISM AND THE GAY RIGHTS MOVEMENT: ANOTHER VIEW OF MALE
SUPREMACY, ANOTHER SEPARATISM, MARILYN FRYE, 1983.
This essay is a revision of a talk the author gave at an event in the Spring of 1981, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, organized by the Grand Rapids chapter of the gay catholic organization, Dignity, and co-sponsored by Aradia.
THE SYMBOLIC/VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION OF OUTGROUP ATTITUDES AMONG HOMOSEXUALS, CONNIE M. KRISTIANSEN, THE JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1990, VOL 130(1) P61-69.
The claim that attitudes toward an outgroup symbolically represent beliefs that the outgroup violages important values was examined through the investigation of the intergroup versus intragroup nature of the relations between a sample of feminist lesbians (primarily involved in the women's movement), gay movement lesbians (primarily involved in the gay movement), and gay men. Consistent with the intergroup relations documented between some feminist women and men, feminist lesbians (compared with gay movement lesbians) had less favorable attitudes toward gay men, associated with fewer gay men, perceived less common fate with gay men, wished to cooperate less with gay men, and perceived less value similarity with gay men. These and other findings suggested that feminist lesbians shared an intergroup relationship with gay men, whereas gay movement lesbians and gay men shared an intragroup relationship. Consistent with the notion that intergroup attitudes symbolically represent beliefs that an outgroup violates important values, feminist lesbians' attitudes toward gay men were explained by their perceptions that gay men placed less importance on values they themselves regarded as important. The implications of these findings for understanding the nature of symbolic attitudes and subsequent research are discussed.
GAY GHETTO, MARTIN P. LEVINE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL4(4), P363-377.
Gay people have claimed that there exist within major citis "gay ghettos", neighborhoods housing large numbers of homosexual men and women as well as gathering places where homosexual behavior is generally accepted, and have designated as such certain sections of Boston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Los Angeles (Aiken, 1976, p 27; Altman, 1971, p.42: Brill 1976, p 27; Chicago Gay Liberation, 1970, pp3-4; Kantrowitz, 1975, p. 48; Nassberg, 1970, p. 1; Russo, 1976, p. 47; Shilts, 1977, p. 20; Whitmore, 1975, p. 45; Whittman, 1972, pp. 167-168). Sociologists have picked up the term, using it repeatedly in research (e.g. Humphreys, 1972a, pp. 80-81; Weinberg & Williams, 1974, p.43). Typically, however, these authors ofer no observations to support their use of the phrase. This paper analyzes the validity of "gay ghetto" as a sociological construct, limiting discussion to the male homosexual community.
FAMILY DYNAMICS IN HOMOSEXUAL WOMEN, JAN LONEY, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1973, VOL 2(4), P343-349.
Subjects for this study were drawn from an informal social group of young, relatively well-functioning lesbians. Overall scores on a projective questionnaire (the Elias Family Adjustment Test) confirmed the prediction that homosexual women would show more evidence of adverse factors in their upbringing than would a matched heterosexual comparison group. Statistically significant differences were also found between the homosexual and heterosexual groups on subtests measuring negative attitudes toward mother, negative attitudes toward father, struggle for independence, parent-child friction, interparental friction, family inferiority, rejection of child, and parental qualities. No differences were found on subtests tapping preference for one parent over the other or oedipal concerns. Inspection of significantly differentiating FAT items revealed a remarkably consistent picture of the childhood homes of these lesbian subjects. The homosexual women described a neglecting and churlish father, a martyred and preoccupied mother, and children who felt angry and spiteful. Discussion is focused upon the findings for construction of a valid general theory of the genesis of homosexuality in women. Inferences drawn from this study - particularly those concerning the importance of negative childhood experiences with the father - are compatible with some previous studies of lesbian women and with many investigations of female role development in general.
SEX HORMONES AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: A CRITIQUE OF THE LINEAR MODEL, RUTH G. DOELL, HELEN E. LONGINO, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P55-78.
Behaviors in which human males and females differ are frequently attributed to fetal gonadal hormone exposures. Much current thinking on this topic relies on a model of explanation the authors call linear-analytic. This model emerges from studies of hormone-behavior relationships in nonhuman animals. Examining three ares of hormone-behavior research in humans, the authors argue that the form of explanation is inappropriate to the behavioral phenomena being explained. They urge the adoption of a more complex neurobiological approach that emphasizes the role of the cerebral cortex and correlatively minimizes the role of fetal hormones.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AFTER PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO EXOGENOUS ESTROGEN, A.A. EHRHARDT, ET AL, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1985, VOL 14(1) P57-75. REVIEW BY RUTH G. DOELL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P177-182.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES, GORDON E. TUTTLE, RICHARD C. PILLARD, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1991, VOL 20(3), P307-318.
We asked whether homosexual and heterosexual men and women differ on standard measures of cognitive ability. Subjects were adults recruited for a family study of sexual orientation. They completed the Fy Scale of the California Psychological Inventory, a self-administered measure of psychological "femininity," and were given subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Primary Mental Abilities test which had been previously shown to discriminate between the sexes. We predicted that homosexual subjects would score significantly in the gender-atypical direction on the Fy scale. We also predicted that they would achieve scores on the tests of cognitive abilities significantly in the direction of the other gender. Comparisons were made between homosexual and heterosexual individuals within gender. Also, comparisons were made between heterosexual men and women to see if our results replicate differences typically found between the genders. As predicted, both homosexual men and women were strongly gender-atypical on the Fy scale relative to their heterosexual counterparts. However, neither differed from heterosexuals on any of the measures of congnntive abilities. Heterosexual men did better than women on the Primary Mental Abilities spatial relations test. We conclude that sexual orientation is not related to specific cognitive abilities.
HOMOSEXUALITY. IV. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND DISABILITY IN THE FEMALE HOMOSEXUAL, MARCEL T. SAGHIR, ELI ROBINS, BONNIE WALBRAN, KATHYE A. GENTRY, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, VOL 127(2) 1970, P147-154.
A study of 57 homosexual women and 43 single heterosexual controls revealed slightly more clinically significant changes and disability in the lives of the homosexual women as compared with the heterosexual women. The chief differences were in the increased prevalence of alcoholism and of attempted suicide. Despite these difficulties, the homosexual women were able to achieve, adapt, and be productive citizens.
PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST DATA ON FEMALE HOMOSEXUALITY: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, BERNARD F. RIESS, JEANNE SAFER, WILLIAM YOTIVE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 1(1), 1974, P71-85.
A critical and compartive review is presented of all existing studies on responses by female homosexuals to projective and nonprojective tests. Although much of the data is contradictory, there is some consistency of findings on Rorschach protocols and other instruments. Evidence also indicates that female homosexuals seem to differ from male homosexuals in psychodynamics and to have no more psychopathology than heterosexual female controls.
REMOVING THE STIGMA, FIFTEEN YEARS OF PROGRESS, STEPHEN F. MORIN, ESTHER D. ROTHBLUM, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 46(9) P947-949.
THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF AGING: CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, RICHARD A. FRIEND, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 14(1/2), P307-331.
This article examines issues regarding aging for homosexual people in an attempt to provide a more comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the meaning age has for women and men in our society. Through the use of case examples, clinical concerns and interventions are discussed as they relate to three broad areas. Specifically, the interrelated effects of ageism and heterosexism, normal changes in sexual response with age, and "accelerated aging" are explored. The relationship between social context and individual psychology provides the framework for discussion. As the literature reviewed here indicates, there is a great deal of diversity among homosexual women and men in their experiences with aging. The strengths and insights which characterize many older homosexual men and women, however, provide valuable lessons for all men and women.
COMING OUT: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES FOR LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, CARMEN DE MONTEFLORES, STEPHEN J. SCHULTZ, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P59-72.
"Coming out" is the developmental process through which gay people recognize their sexual preferences and choose to integrate this knowledge into their personal and social lives. A number of experiences are critical in this process: the awareness of same-sex attractions, first homosexual experience, coming out in the gay world, labelling oneself as gay or homosexual, coming out to friends, family, and co-workers, and coming out publicily. Several areas of psychological theory relevant to the coming out process are discussed, including identity formation, self-disclosure and self-validation, and sex-role socialization. In addition, differences are noted in the coming out experiences of men and women related to conformity to and violation of sex-role expectations, as well as to political and legal issues.
PARENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTHS: A
REFLECTED APPRAISALS MODEL, R.C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUA-
LITY, 1989, VOL 17(1/2), P93-109.
Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects the self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.
PARENTS RESPONSES TO GAY AND LESBIAN CHILDREN: DIFFERENCES IN HOMOPHOBIA, SELF-ESTEEM, AND SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPING, DAVID W. HOLTZEN, ALBERT A. AGRESTI, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1990, VOL 9(3), P390-399.
This study investigated parental reactions to knowledge of a child's gay or lesbian sexuality. Parents (N = 55) of gay and lesbian children completed the Index of Homophobia (IHP), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for Adults (SEI), and short versions of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (TSBI) to measure homphobia and to examine possible differences and changes in self-esteem and sex-role stereotyping. Parents with high IGHP scores differed significantly from those parents with low IHP scores with respect to scores on the AWS (p < .001) and TSBI (p < .001), as well as differeing as to the amount of time elapsed since their child's disclosure (p < .01). As expected, IHP scores correlated negatively with all measures. Also, the amount of time a parent has known of his or her child's sexuality in combination with the parent's sex-role stereotypes proved a good predictor of his or her homophobia score. Implications of these findings with regard to our understanding of homophobia are discussed, as well as the possible impact of homophobia on the self-esteem and sex role attitudes of parents of gay and lesbian children.
SEX, SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND CRIMINAL AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR, LEE ELLIS, HARRY HOFFMAN, DONALD M. BURKE. PERSONALITY & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 1990, VOL 11(12), P1207-1212.
This study was undertaken to help determine if homosexuals and bisexuals are more or less criminal and/or violent than heterosexuals. Based upon samples of 197 male and 279 female college students, Pearson correlations revealed several significant, but weak, relationships between sexual orientation and most forms of self-reported criminal and/or violent behavior patterns. Among males, the data generally suggested that heterosexuals were more criminal and violent than homosexuals (except in the case of drug offenses), but that bisexuals were more criminal and violent than heterosexuals. Among females, lesbians (including only a few females with exclusively homosexual preferences) were generally more criminal and violent than heterosexuals, although they were still less so than males (except for homosexual males). Results suggest that some important differences may exist among both sexes regarding relationships between sexual orientations and criminal/violent behavior.
COUPLES: THE HIDDEN SEGMENT OF THE GAY WORLD, NEIL R. TULLER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL5(4), P331-343.
This study explores the relationships of 15 homosexual couples - 5 female and 10 male couples. In duration the relationships ranged from 7 months to 13 years. In age the partners ranged from 19 to 50. Findings indicate that the partners met in social as compared with sexual settings, that relationships are more common for females than for males, that female more than male couples require sexual fidelity between partners, that male more than female couples desire children, and that there was no "butch-femme" role playing in the relationships. Social incompatibility of partners and social pressure are seen as causes for the breakup of relationships.
SATISFACTION AND COMMITMENT IN HOMOSEXUL AND HETEROSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS, SALLY M. DUFFY, CARYL E. RUSBULT, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985/86, VOL 12(2), P1-25.
Rusbult's (1980, 1983) investment model was utilized to explore the determinants of satisfaction with and commitment to maintain romantic relationships among male and female homosexuals and male and females heterosexuals. The study employed a questionnaire designed to obtain both specific and global measures of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments, and to obtain global measures of satisfaction and commitment. Women, both lesbians an heterosexuals, reported that they had invested more in their relationships and were more committed to maintaining their relationships than did men. Heterosexuals, male and female, reported greater costs and marginally greater investments in their relationships. In general, the investment model effectively predicted satsifaction and commitment for the sample as a whole and for all four groups of respondents. Greater satisfaction with relationships was associated with higher levels of rewards and lower levels of costs. Greater commitment was associated with greater satisfaction, greater investments, and poorer quality alternatives. Relationship costs were more stongly related to satisfaction and commitment for females than for males Differences in the average level and the importance of a wide variety of specific predictors were also examined. In general, gender appeared to be a more important predictor of the behaviors explored in this study than was sexual preference.
SEXUAL COERCION IN GAY MALE AND LESBIAN RELATIONSHPS: PREDICTORS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SUPPORT SERVICES, CAROLINE K. WATERMAN, LORI J. DAWSON, MICHAEL J. BOLOGNA, THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1989, VOL 26(1), P118-124.
Numerous studies have documented the prevalence of forced sex in heterosexual couples. Positive effects of this research include increases in awareness about the problem among helping professionals and the public, as well as increases in support services and prevention programs. However, no research has been done on sexual coercion in gay male and lesbian relationships, and few support services exist. Therefore, this study is an investigation of the prevalence and correlates of coercive sex in gay male and lesbian relationships. Participants were 36 women and 34 men who were in gay or lesbian relationships. The results indicated that 12% of the gay men and 31% of the lesbians reported being victims of forced sex by their current or most recent partner. The higher reporting rate among women may be due to greater awareness of issues pertaining to sexual abuse, and greater likelihood of identifying various forms of coercion as force. For men, being a victim of forced sex was generally associated with being a victim of other forms of violence. For both sexes, victims of forced sex believed that it would be relatively difficult to get counseling. Implications for support services are discussed.
LESBIAN AND GAY COUPLES: WHERE THEY TURN WHEN HELP IS NEEDED, MATTHEW J. MODRCIN,M NORMAN L. WYERS, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1990, VOL 1(3), P89-104.
This article presents findings of a 1988 study of the help-seeking behaviors of a sample of 128 gay and lesbian individuals currently in coupled relationships. Gender of professional service providers, not sexual orientation, was found to differentiate between gay and lesbian respondents in their selection of service providers. Differences between help-using behaviors of gay and lesbian respondents (past and anticipated) were also discovered. These differences are analyzed, and implications for mental health practitioners who provide services to gay and lesbian couples are discussed.
THE DISSOLUTION OF GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, 1991, VOL 8, P265-278.
This study examined reactions to separation in both partners of gay and lesbian couples whose relationships ended a mean of 5.92 months ago. There were no differences between gay and lesbian respondents on reasons for the separation, emotional adjustment to the separation and problems since the separation. The most common reasons for the dissolution of the relationship, the most common emotional experiences since the separation and the most frequently reported problems since the separation were identified. Information available from respondents during the last year of cohabitation indicated that the person adjusting well to the separation completed many years of education, knew his or her partner for a few months and lived with that partner for a few months, did not pool finances with the ex-partner, reported low love for the partner, placed a low value on attachment to the partner and reported low severity of psychological distress.
CORRELATES OF RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION IN COHABITING GAY AND LESBIAN COUPLES: INTEGRATION OF CONTEXTUAL, INVESTMENT, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELS, LAWRENCE A. KURDEK, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1991, VOL 61(6), P910-922.
This study examined the relation between reltionship satisfaction and variables representing the contextual, investment, and problem-solving models of intimate relationships. Ss were 75 gay and 51 lesbian cohabiting couples. There were very few instances in which mean levels of model variables differed significantly for gay and lesbian couples. The strength of the correlates of relationship satisfaction rarely differeed between gay and lesbian couples. Relationship satisfaction was related to variables from each of the 3 models. Support was obtained for a mediational model that proposed ordered linkages among variables from the 3 models.
A BONDING OF CHOICE: VALUES AND IDENTITY AMONG LESBIAN AND GAY RELIGIOUS LEADERS, CLARE B. FISCHER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1989, VOL 18(3/4), P145-174.
In this preliminary study of values and attitudes of a select number of lesbian and gay religious leaders, respondents reflected on the meaning of family, church, and community. Although the survey is modest in scope, several themes emerge that locate this study in the context of gender analysis. Female respondents had greater similarity in their emphasis upon relationality than did lesbian and gay respondents within the same denominational tradition. For male respondents, the "coming out" narrative was a central event and deepened the meaning of telling another about self.
A COMPARISON OF LESBIANS, GAY MEN, AND HETEROSEXUALS ON WEIGHT AND RESTRAINED EATING, PAMELA A. BRAND, ESTHER D. ROTHBLIM, LAURA J. SOLOMON, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, 1992, VOL 11(3), P253-259.
It is possible that lesbians are as concerned with weight and dieting as are heterosexual women in order to be socially accepted in our society, while men (both gay and heterosexual) have more flexibility in this regaRd. On the other hand, lesbians, like heterosexual men, may be less concerned with weight than are heterosexual women and gay men, since the latter gROups may strive to be disirable to men. To test these hypotheses, lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual women and men were compared on weight, dieting, preoccupation with weight, and exercise activity. heterosexual women and gay men reported lower ideal weights and tended to be more preoccupied with their weights than were lesbians or heterosexual men. However, gender was a more salient factor than sexual orientation on most variables, with both lesbians and heterosexual women reporting greater concern with weight, more body dissatisfaction, and greater frequency of dieting than did gay or heterosexual men. The results indicate that both lesbians and heterosexual women are influenced by cultural pressures to be thin, but that these pressures may be greater for heterosexual women.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY'S TASK FORCE ON YOUTH SUICIDE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, 1989, FOUR VOLUMES:
GAY MALE AND LESBIAN YOUTH SUICIDE, PAUL GIBSON, P110-142.
Gay and lesbian youth belong to two groups at high risk of suicide; youth and homosexuals. A majority of suicide attempts by homosexuals occur during their youth, and gay youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to
attempt suicide than other young people. they may comprise up to 30 percent of completed youth suicides annually. The earlier youth are aware of their orientation and identify themselves as gay, the greater
the conflicts they have. Gay youth face problems in accepting themselves due to internalization of a negative self image and the lack of accurate information about homosexuality during adolescence. Gay youth face extreme physical and verbal abuse, rejection and isolation from family and peers. They often feel totally alone and socially withdrawn out of fear of adverse consequences. As a result of these pressures, lesbian and gay youth are more vulnerable than other youth to psychosocial problems including substance abuse, chronic depression, school failure, early relationship conflicts, being forced to leave their
families, and having to survive on their own prematurely. Each of these problems presents a risk factor for suicidal feelings and behaviour among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transsexual youth.
The root of the problem of gay youth suicide is a society that discriminates against and stigmatizes homosexuals while failing to recognize that a substantial number of its youth has a gay or lesbian
orientation. Legislation should be introduced to guarantee homosexuals equal rights in our society. We need to make a conscious effort to promote a positive image of homosexuals at all levels of society that
provides gay youth with a diversity of lesbian and gay male adult role models. We each need to take personal responsiblility for revising homophobic attitudes and conduct. Families should be educated about the development and positive nature of homosexuality. They must be able to accept their child as gay or lesbian. Schools need to include information about homosexuality in their curriculum and protect gay
youth from abuse by peers to ensure they receive an equal education. Helping professionals need to accept and support a homosexual orientation in youth. Social services need to be developed that are sensitive
to and reflective of the needs of gay and lesbian youth.
PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH LESBIANS, DOROTHY I. RIDDLE, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P384-100.
Psychotherapeutic work with lesbians is confounded by both sexist and heterosexist factors. This paper traces three aspects of women's socialization - self-concept, feminine sex-role behavior, and sexuality - which have particular implications for lesbians and discusses the implications of these three in therapy. The impact of women's conditioning to base self-esteem on acceptance by others is noted, particularly as such conditioning combines with the cumulative stresses of lesbian life. Finally, examples of ways in which heterosexual bias may become apparent in therapy are given, and alternative therapeutic approaches are discussed.
THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2), INCLUDES:
AFFIRMATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR LESBIAN WOMEN, CHRISTINE BROWNING, AMY L. REYNOLDS, SARI H. DWORKIN,P177-196.
This article explores the unique issues and concerns facing lesbian women in our culture. Theoretical issues and effective therapeutic interventions in counseling lesbians are examined. Specific content areas highlighted include lesbian identity development and management, interpersonal and couple issues, and specific problems such as substance abuse, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. This article concludes with recommendations for treatment and suggestions for research.
AFFIRMATIVE PSYCHOTHERAY FOR GAY MEN, JOSEPH W. SHANNON, WILLIAM J. WOODS, P197-215.
This article explores unique issues that confront gay male clients. These issues include identity development and management, interpersonal issues, and special issues, such as the impact of aging, antigay violence, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diversity within the male gay community is also addressed throughout the article, and case examples are used to illustrate issues more fully. The article concludes with recommendations for treatment and research.
© Jan Bridget/Lesbian Information Service