STUDENT SOCIAL CLASS AND TEACHER EXPECTATIONS: THE SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY IN GHETTO EDUCATION, RAY C. RIST, HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW, VOL 40(3), AUGUST 1970, P411-451.
Many studies have shown that academic achievement is highly correlated with social class. Few, however, have attempted to explain exactly how the school helps to reinforce the class structure of the society. In this article Dr. Rist reports the results of an observational study of one class of ghetto children during their kindergarten, first- and second-grade years. He shows how the kindergarten teacher placed the children in reading groups which reflected the social class composition of the class, and how these groups persisted throughout the first several years of elementary school. The way in which the teacher behaved toward the different groups became an important influence on the children's achievement. Dr. Rist concludes by examiing the relationship between the "caste" system of the classroom and the class system of the larger society.
SEXUALITY, CLASS, AND CONFLICT IN A LESBIAN WORKPLACE, K.M. WESTON &
L.B. ROFEL,SIGNS, 9(4), 1984, 623-646.
EXTRACT: Lesbian-feminist discussions of class and conflict have defined class almost exclusively in liberal terms by reducing it to a matter of individual background. "Liberal" in this sense describes not a position on the political spectrum from left to right but a conception of society as a collection of individual actors who make independent choices based on free will alone. These liberal assumptions are not unique to lesbian feminism; indeed, they underlie the dominant world view in American society, with intellectual antecedents far back in the Western tradition. As lesbians concerned about recent conflicts in lesbian institutions, we have found that liberal interpretations leave too many questions unanswered about how class affects the way power and privilege are structured in those institutions. Socialist-feminist and Marxist analyses offer valuable criticism of individualistic approaches to class theory but are of limited use insofar as they ignore debates about sexuality and sexual identity or assume that sexuality and class constitute discrete levels of oppression.
Our intention in this article is to move toward an integrated theory of class and sexuality that views class as the ongoing production of social relations structured through the division of labor, rather than simply as class background, and that also comprehends the significance of lesbian identity as a historical constuct affecting social relations in lesbian institutions.
DEFEMINIZATION AND SOCIAL CLASS, JOSEPH HARRY, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, VOL 14(1), 1985, P1-12.
The hypothesis that there might occur selective defeminization by social class between childhood and adulthood among homosexual men was explored. Interview data on 686 homosexual men were employed. It was found that there is a greater tendency for cross-gender propensities to persist into adulthood among respondents from blue-collar backgrounds. Effeminate respondents from such backgrounds were found to be disproportionately involved in same-sex sexual activities during adolescence. They were also sexually responsive to same-sex persons earlier. The interpretation is offered that early homosexual experiences reinforce cross-gender propensities among blue-collar respondents because of the greater gender role dichotomization found in blue-collar culture. Such reinforcement may explain the tendency for there to be greater persistence of cross-gendering among blue-collar men.
CLASS OPPRESSION, AS IF IT MATTERED, JOHN DEVLIN, PROBATION JOURNAL JULY 1993, VOL 40(2), P72-77.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
WORKING CLASS GIRLS AND THE CULTURE OF FEMININITY, ANGELA McROBBIE, WOMEN TAKE ISSUE, WOMEN'S STUDIES GROUP CENTRE FOR CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM, HUTCHINGSON OF LONDON,1978, P96-108.
YOUNG CHILDREN LEARNING, TALKING AND THINKING AT HOME AND AT SCHOOL, BARBARA TIZARD AND MARTIN HUGHES, FONTANA PRESS, 1984.
OUT OF THE CLASS CLOSET, LESBIANS SPEAK, ED JULIA PENELOPE, THE CROSSING PRESS, 1994.
ODDS & SODS
CLASSISM WITHIN LESBIAN 'COMMUNITIES,' JAN BRIDGET, LESBIAN INFORMATION SERVICE.
BUTCHES, FEMMES, AND FEMINISTS: THE POLITICS OF LESBIAN SEXUALITY, ELIZABETH A. SMITH, NWSA JOURNAL VOL 1(3), 1989, P398-421.
INVISIBLE WOMEN IN INVISIBLE PLACES: LESBIANS, LESBIAN BARS, AND THE SOCIAL PRODUCTION OF PEOPLE/ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS, MAXINE WOLFE, ARCHITECTURE AND COMPORTMENT/ARCHITECTURE AND BEHAVIOR, 1992, VOL 8(2), P137-158.
SUMMARY: Though invisible in our literature as "environments for women" Lesbian bars exist in small towns and in large cities, all over the United States and the world. This paper traces the history of their development in the United States, their uses and meanings for Lesbians in different communities, as well as their relationship to Lesbian culture and to the emergence of the modern Lesbian and Gay political movement, and to the larger communities of which they are a part. A perspective called the "social production of people/environment relationships" is used, one in which historical anlaysis provides the link between existing macro- and micro-level approaches to understanding people/environment relationships at the present time. This perspective explores the relationship between environmental change and social change and leads to questions about assumptions, concepts and methods in current work in our field.
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OR EXTENDED FAMILIES? THE RECONSTRUCTION OF GENDER IN WOMEN'S COLLEGES IN THE LATE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, ELIZABETH EDWARDS, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1990, VOL 2(1), P17-35.
This article aims to develop our theorisation of gender as a category of analysis in education, by examining how the meaning of gender has been socially constructed historically within specific educational contexts. A post-structuralist perspective is used to show how gender meaning is constructed both from competing and conflicting discourses within these specific historical contexts, and also by the transformation of existing discourses into new contexts. It first discusses how the discourse of social practice and family organisation in the Victorian middle-class home were translated from their domestic setting and transformed to provide new meanings in the institutional context of women's colleges. The translation and transformation of these domestic and familial discourses was relatively straightforwad; but the construction of the new role of the woman principal from the discourses of Victorian middle-class femininity was always highly problematic. The second part of the article examines the difficulties faced by women principals in constructing their dual gender role as both father and mother of the institutional families which they served. Finally I attempt to decode the homoerotic friendships which some principals formed in order to express the emotional and sexual needs of their own femininity.
ON "BEING A PROSTITITUE", PAUL W. MATHEWS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P119-135.
The book "On Being a Prostitute" (Perkins & Bennett, 1985) is a valuable contribution to the sociology of deviance and sexual ideologies. However, comprehensive as it is, the book presents certain omissions and flaws, with implications for both its empirical data and theoretical underpinnings. In focusing on male (homoerotic) prostitution, and drawing upon Bennett's (1983) "Twenty-Ten" survey (which forms the main empirical base of that aspect of the book), I argue that certain categories of male prostitutes have been excluded. These omissions, I suggest, were necessary to allow Bennett's hypothesis that most male prostitution derives from economic necessity - a recurrent economic determinism reminiscent of Havelock Ellis (1906/1936), and somewhat contrary to a broader strutural approach (see Mathews, 1983).
A RESPONSE TO MYRIAM EVERARD'S "LESBIAN HISTORY: A HISTORY OF CHANGE AND DISPARITY," LILIAN FADERMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P137-141.
REMEMBERING LESBIAN BARS: MONTREAL, 1955-1975, LINE CHAMBERLAND, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(3), P231-269.
This essay retraces the development of lesbian bars in Montreal between 1955 and 1975. It analyzes this process as a form of appropriation of urban public space which reveals the repressive elements confronting lesbians in their pursuit of the right to exist socially, and examines the key-role played by working-class lesbians in struggling against them. It also describes class-related divisions in the way these places are remembered, which may be paralleled to the opposite positions in the current debate about the role of bars in the development of a lesbian culture. Finally, it suggests explanations for class-related differences in bar-going habits and ways of expressing lesbian identity.
LESBIANS OVER 65: A TRIPLY INVISIBLE MINORITY, MONIKA KEHOE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 12(3/4), P139-152.
Questionnaire responses from 50 lesbians, 65 to 85 years of age, were used to describe their present status, their educational background, their economic and occupational condition, their personal and psycho/social concerns, as well as their perception of their own physical and mental health. The data suggests that the 65+ lesbian is a survivor, a balanced personality, coping with aging in a satisfactory manner.
CAREGIVING: WHAT DO MIDLIFE LESBIANS VIEW AS IMPORTANT? C. THORPE TULLY, JOURNAL OF GAY AND LESBIN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1989, VOL 1(1), P87-103.
OLDER PEOPLE AND SEXUALITY, PENSIONER'S LINK.
POWER-SHARING IN LESBIAN PARTNERSHIPS, MARY ELLEN REILLY, JEAN M. LYNCH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(3), P1-30.
This study of 70 lesbian couples explored whether partners who characterized certain aspects of their relationships as equal in power-sharing were similar in age, income, education, and financial assets, while those who viewed their power-sharing as unequal would be dissimilar on these social status variables, and, second, whether or not most lesbian couples considered their relationships as egalitarian. Power-sharing was assessed through a number of questionnaire items, and snowball sampling was utilized. Three types of couples emerged: (a) equal, (b) unequal but in agreement about who had more power, and (c) couples with differing perceptions about power-sharing. The findings indicated that power-sharing arrangements could not be explained by age, income, education, and asset differences between partners. Egalitarianism was the ideal in most realtionships, but had not been achieved to the same degree in each of the areas investigated.
HOMOSEXUALITY, CLASS AND THE CHURCH IN NINETEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND: TWO CASE STUDIES, WILLIAM T. GIBSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P45-55.
This article seeks to reconstruct and contrast two episodes in the nineteenth century Church. Both involved churchmen, Bishop Percy Jocelyn and Dean Charles Vaughan, in homosexual incidents. The second episode, that of Dean Vaughan, has been reconstructed for the first time using the Broadlands Manuscripts of Lord Palmerston. The most interesting aspect of these events is the response of the "establishment" to homosexuality. There seems little doubt that attitudes of the "establishment" were determined largely by class. The "establishment" would not officially condone homosexual behaviour, but in both cases (to varying degrees) it seems to have acted toward these men with latitutde. One was able to evade justice, the other denied a mitre but otherwise allowed advancement in the Church. Both incidents provide evidence that persecution of homosexuals was something confined to the lower orders; and that the discreet middle class or aristocratic homosexual could rely on his class for protection. Perhaps integral to this tolerance was a Victorian taste for self-denial. The homosexual who treated his sexuality as a curse and a source of tragedy was more likely to attract the tolerance of his peers than the homosexual who acknowledged his sexuality to the full.
© Jan Bridget/Lesbian Information Service