BLACK AND MINORITY ETHNIC LESBIANS
There has been little research in Britain regarding Lesbians and even less concerning Black and Minority Ethnic Lesbians. We have put together this Resource List to make research conducted elsewhere accessible in Britain. All of the academic papers are obtainable by completing a request form (this should cost about .50p) at your local library who will send for a photocopy from the British Library. Similarly, many of the books should also be obtainable through your local library. Our thanks to Evelyn and Dorothea for their comments and suggestions.
THE PUERTO RICAN LESBIAN AND THE PUERTO RICAN COMMUNITY, HILDA A. HIDALGO, ELIA HIDALGO CHRISTENSEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 2(2), 1976-77, P109-121.
While homosexuality exists in both males and females within the Puerto Rican population, and the incidence of homosexuality is considered greater among males, this paper limits itself to the exploration of some of the perceptions of and the interaction and conflicts between Puerto Rican lesbians and the larger Puerto Rican community. The feelings and perceptions that underlie the Puerto Rican community's responses to Puerto Rican lesbians, and the feelings and perceptions of young Puerto Rican lesbians in relation to those responses to their sexual orientation constitute a major focus of our exploration and study. The writers hope that this article will help members of the Puerto Rican community, gay and straight, to understand each other better, as a step in facilitating a more humanistic interaction. The writers are aware that this exploration will raise many questions - questions that will spur researchers to explore further an aspect of social interaction that has remained largely ignored by social scientists.
LESBIANISM IN THE CHINESE OF HONG KONG, F. LIEH-MAK, K.M. O'HOY, S.L. LUK, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1983, 12, 1, FEB, P21-30.
Following some historical and literary background regarding lesbianism in China, demographic data, family background, and behavioral characteristics of 15 lesbians in Hong Kong are described and compared with like data for a matched group of married women. Questionnaire and interview responses reveal that more of the lesbians were adopted, experienced an unhappy childhood and hostile family atmosphere, had parents who would have preferred them to be boys and attended sexually segregated schools. Subjects differed from their Western counterparts in having a closer relationship with their mothers, and in the absence of oral sexual practice.
BLACK MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS: TRADITIONAL AND NEW POPULATIONS, G.I. JOSEPH, SAGE: A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL ON BLACK WOMEN, FALL 1984, VOL 1(2), PAGES 17-21.
Discusses the emergence of two groups of Black women with differing needs: adolescent mothers and lesbian mothers. Implications for understanding the attitudes of Black families and communities toward these groups and for childrearing practices are discussed.
SEXUALITY AND GENDER IN CERTAIN NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES: THE CASE OF CROSS-GENDER FEMALES, EVELYN BLACKWOOD, SIGNS: JOURNAL OF WOMEN IN CULTURE AND SOCIETY, 1984, VOL 10(1), P27-42.
This study closely examines the female cross-gender role as it existed historically in several Native American tribes, primarily in western North America and the Plains. It focuses on western tribes that shared a basically egalitarian mode of production in precolonial times, and for which sufficient data on the female role exist. Although there were cultural differences among these groups, prior to the colonial period, they all had subsistence-level economies that had not developed significant forms of wealth or rank. These tribes include the Kaska of the Yukon Territory, the Klamath of southern Oregon, and the Mohave, Maricopa, and Cocopa of the Colorado River area in the Southwest. The Plains tribes, by contrast, are noteworthy for the relative absence of the female cross-gender role. Conditions affecting the tribes of the Plains varied from those of the western tribes, and thus analysis of historical-cultural contexts will serve to illuminate the differing constraints on sex and gender systems in these two areas.
SISTERS AND BROTHERS, LOVERS AND ENEMIES: MARRIAGE RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN KWANGTUNG, ANDREA SANKAR, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 11 (3/4), SUMMER 1985, P69-81.
This article examines the structure and content of relationships among members of a sisterhood in Hong Kong. These women, who at the time of the research were members of a Buddhist vegetarian hall, had been participants in what can be termed a marriage resistance movement, that took place in the Pearl River Delta surrounding Canton from approximately 1865 through 1935.
"MUMMIES AND BABIES" AND FRIENDS AND LOVERS IN LESOTHO, JUDITH GAY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 11 (3/4), SUMMER 1985, P97-116.
This paper examines an institutionalized friendship among adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa. Lesotho's economy is based on migrant male labor which leaves the women dependent on male earnings or subsistence from the land, and also creates unstable marital relations. Young girls in the modern schools develop close relationships called "mummy-baby," with slightly older girls. Sexual intimacy is an important aspect of these relationships. Mummy-baby relationships not only provide emotional support prior to marriage, but also a network of support for married and unmarried women in new towns or schools, either replacing or accompanying heterosexual bonds.
THE DANGERS OF LEXICAL INFERENCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MAORI HOMOSEXUALITY, MANUEL ARBOLEDA & STEPHEN O. MURRAY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALIITY, 1985, VOL 12(1), P129-134.
STRANGE COUNTRY THIS: LESBIANISM AND NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBES, JUDY GRAHN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 12(3/4), P43-57.
This article is an exploration of historical names and functions of gay and lesbian people among traditional North American Indian tribes. Some detailed descriptions of individual offices are included, such as "manly hearted" women and shamanic cross-dressing men, as well as the original definition of "dyke" and "ceremonial lesbian" as described by Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo).
THE HIJRAS OF INDIA: CULTURAL AND INDIVIDUAL DIMENSIONS OF AN INSTITUTIONALIZED THIRD GENDER ROLE, SERENA NANADA, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 11(3/4), P35-54.
The hijra (eunuch/transvestite) is an institutionalized third gender role in India. Hijra are neither male nor female, but contain elements of both. As devotees of the Mother Goddess Bahuchara Mata, their sacred powers are contingent upon their asexuality. In reality, however, many hijras are prostitutes. This sexual activity undermines their culturally valued sacred role. This paper discusses religious meanings of the hijra role, as well as the ways in which individuals and the community deal with the conflicts engendered by their sexual activity.
WHY WAS THE BERDACHE RIDICULED? DAVID F. GREENBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 11(3/4), P179-189.
Several anthropological explanations of why North American Indian berdaches were ridiculed are considered and rejected in favor of the proposal that berdaches were laughed at largely in the context of traditional joking relationships. Consequently, reports that Indians ridiculed berdaches need not be interpreted as evidence that they held negative views of homosexuality.
PERSISTENCE AND CHANGE IN THE BERDACHE TRADITION AMONG CONTEMPORARY LAKOTA INDIANS, WALTER L. WILLIAMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 11(3/4), P191-200.
This article explores the gender non-conformity role of berdache, which ethnographers have often assumed has died out among contemporary American Indians. Ethnohistorical sources indicate intense supression of berdaches by missionaires and government officials. The authors fieldwork in 1982 on Lakota reservations in South Dakota reveals that individuals recognized as berdaches continue to hold a social and ceremonial role. A gender-mixing status seldom talked about with outsiders (including heterosexual ethnographers) was observed. This role involves more emphasis on sexual contact with men than has been noted in recent anthropological writings.
YOUTH, IDENTITY, AND HOMOSEXUALITY: THE CHANGING SHAPE OF SEXUAL LIFE IN CONTEMPORARY BRAZIL, RICHARD PARKER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, VOL 17(3/4), 1987, P269-289.
This essay examines the relationship between homosexuality and adolescence in contemporary Brazil, focusing on a distinction between two rather different systems of sexual meanings that have structured the experience of same-sex relations: a traditional model of the sexual universe that continues to dominate sexual life in rural areas, and a more modern set of notions that has become increasingly important in the cities. It examines the ways in which these rather different systems have affected the experience of same-sex desires and practices during youth or adolescence, and suggests some of the ways in which the emergence of a gay subculture in urban Brazil has transformed the range of sexual possibilities and choices currently available to young men and women.
GROWING UP GAY OR LESBIAN IN A MULTICULTURAL CONTEXT, B. TREMBLE, M. SCHNEIDER, C. APPATHURAI, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1987, VOL 17, P253-267.
Investigates the influence of ethnicity on the relationships of gay and lesbian young people and their families. Modes of family responses are described and the conflicts involved in maintaining an ethnic identity, and a gay or lesbian identity are discussed.
THE SPIRIT AND THE FLESH: SEXUAL DIVERSITY IN AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE, WALTER L. WILLIAMS, REVIEW BY EVELYN BLACKWOOD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P165-176.
ISSUES OF IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, CONNIE S. CHAN, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, VOL 68, 1989, P16-20.
This study examined the factors that affect an Asian-American individual's choice of identification with Asian-American and lesbian or gay identity. Nineteen Asian-American lesbians and 16 Asian-American gay men belonging to Asian-American lesbian or gay organizations answered survey questionnaires. Results indicated that most of the respondents identified more strongly with their lesbian or gay identities than with their Asian-American identities; however, most indicated that acknowledgment of both aspects of identity was preferred. Other situational factors, including disclosure of lesbian or gay identity to family and to the Asian-American community, as well as discrimination because of sexual orientation, race, and gender, were examined in regard to identity development.
GAY IDENTITY ISSUES AMONG BLACK AMERICANS: RACISM, HOMOPHOBIA, AND THE NEED FOR VALIDATION, DARRYL K. LOIACANO, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT, VOL 68, 1989, P21-25.
There is little available literature on gay and lesbian identity among Black Americans. This exploratory study involved interviewing a total of six Black-American gay men and lesbian women regarding gay identity development issues. Data pertaining to the interviewees' experiences of gay identity development were obtained through a questionnaire of six open-ended questions and an interview with each participant lasting 1 to 2 hours. This article presnts some of the significant challenges faced by those who were interviewed regarding their sense of self-acceptance, both as Blacks in the predominatly White gay and lesbian community and as gay men and lesbian women in the predominantly heterosexual Black community. The implications of these issues for future research and counseling intervention are discussed. In this article the term gay identity is generally used in reference to both men and women. When women are being discussed exclusively, however, the term lesbian identity is used.
ETHNIC MINORITY FAMILIES AND MINORITY GAYS AND LESBIANS, EDWARD S. MORALES, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW, VOL 14 (3/4), 1989, P217-239.
Attitudes toward sexuality differs within the diverse ethnic and racial communities that exist in the U.S., and the cultural values and beliefs surrounding sexuality play a major role in determining how individuals behave within their sociological context. The family unit is the domain where such values and beliefs are nurtured and developed. An individual's value system is shaped and reinforced within the family context which usually reflects the broader community norms. Disclosure of a gay or lesbian sexual preference and lifestyle by a family member presents challenges to ethnic minority families who tend not to discuss sexuality issues and presume a heterosexual orientation.
For ethnic minority gays and lesbians the 'coming out' process present challenges in their identity formation processes and in their loyalties to one community over another. Ethnic gay men and lesbians need to live within three rigidly defined and strongly independent communities: the gay and lesbian community, the ethnic minority community, and the society at large. While each community provides fundmental needs, serious consequences emerge if such communities were to be visibly integrated and merged. It requires a constant effort to maintain oneself in three different worlds, each of which fails to support significant aspects of a person's life. The complications that arise may inhibit one's ability to adapt and to maximize personal potentials.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction and processes between ethnic minority communities and their gay and lesbian family members. A framework for understanding the process of change, that occurs for the gay or lesbian person as they attempt to resolve conflicts of dual minority membership, is presented. Implications for the practitioner is also discussed.
MORE THAN TWO: ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER, GARY J. MIHALIK, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, VOL 1(1) 1989, (NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES), P105-118.
ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE AND VICTIMIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES, AN OVERVIEW, KEVIN T. BERRILL, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, VOL 5(3), 1990, P274-294.
This article provides a general description of the nature and scope of violence and harassment against lesbians and gay men in the United States. It summarizes the results of local, state, and national surveys, and discusses gender and racial/ethnic differences in types and incidence of victimizations. The article examines anti-gay violence and harassment in such contexts as the home, schools, college and university campuses, and prisons and jails. There is a discussion of the perpetrators of anti-gay violence and the growing role of organized hate groups in such attacks. The article also examines time trends in anti-gay violence and the possible relationship between such violence and increasing public awareness about AIDS. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing data and the need for greater attention to the issue.
VIOLENCE AGAINST LESBIAN AND GAY MALE YOUTHS, JOYCE HUNTER, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, VOL 5(3), 1990, P295-300.
This article documents the incidence of violent assaults toward lesbian and gay male youths and those youths' suicidal behaviour. Data were obtained by reviewing charts for the first 500 youths seeking services in 1988 at the Hetrick-Martin Institute, a community-based agency serving lesbian and gay male adolescents in New York City. The adolescents, who ranged in age from 14 to 21 years, were predominantly minority (35% black, 46% latino) and typically were referred by peers, media, schools and emergency shelters. Of the youths, 41% in the sample reported having suffered violence from families, peers or strangers; 46% of that violence was gay-related. These reports of violence occurred in conjunction with a high rate of suicide attempts; 41% of the girls and 34% of the boys who experienced violent assaults reported having attempted suicide. These alarming rates indicate the need for more systematic monitoring of violence toward and suicidal behaviour among lesbian and gay male youths.
IS SEPARATION REALLY SO GREAT? G. DORSEY GREEN, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P.87-104.
This paper challenges the validity of current male, Western psychological theories which state that separation and autonomy are prerequisites for mental health. The author argues for consideration of theories than envision individual development as occurring within the context of relationships. Lesbian couples are used as a focus for this discussion. Examples from communities of color in the United States and Eastern cultures are also discussed.
COMPOUNDING THE TRIPLE JEOPARDY: BATTERING IN LESBIAN OF COLOR RELATIONSHIPS, VALLI KANUHA, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1990 VOL 9(1/2), P169-184.
Over the last 15 years, societal awareness of spouse abuse has resulted in an extensive network of services, legislative reform, and research initiatives focused on increasing the public response to this serious social problem. More recently, battering in intimate lesbian relationships has gained the attention of women's and gay/lesbian organizations that deal with domestic violence issues. Lesbians in violent relationships differ significantly from heterosexual couples where battering occurs due to the powerful effect of societal homophobia that silences them from seeking help. This article will address the unique challenges faced by lesbians of color in violent relationships due to the interface not only between violence and homophobia, but racism as well. Analysis of community response to lesbians of color, and clinical issues presented in therapy by lesbians of color who are battered will also be discussed.
AN ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN ASIAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES: A MULTICULTURAL APPROACH TO COUNSELING, CHRISTINE K. HO, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P129-150.
This article presents a preliminary analysis of domestic violence in Asian American communities, and reports results from a focus group study on domestic violence in Southeast Asians (Laotians, Khmer, Vietnamese, and Chinese). It examines the influence of traditional Asian values, the assimilation of process into American cultures, and the impact of sexism and racism on the oppression of Asian women. It is suggested that traditional Asian values of close family ties, harmony, and order may not discourage physical and verbal abuse in the privacy of one's home; these values may only support the minimization and hiding of such problems. The role of the cultural values of fatalism, perseverance, and self-restraint reduce the incentive of Asian American women to change their oppressive situations. The results from the focus group study have implications for clinical and community intervention.
WHAT HAS GONE BEFORE: THE LEGACY OF RACISM AND SEXISM IN THE LIVES OF BLACK MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS, BEVERLY A. GREENE, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P207-230.
The role of mother is an important one for many Black women, and it is accompanied by tasks not shared by their white counterparts, specifically, racial socialization of Black children. It is important therefore that psychotherapists understand the additional stressors brought to bear on Black women as mothers as well as the effect of those stressors on their parenting skills. This paper focuses on the legacy of adaptive strengths Black women have exercised in coping with an antagonistic environment; potential complications in the task of racial socialization; traditional resources found in Black families, as well as psychotherapeutic interventions which may enhance this process when problems occur.
ETHNIC AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY: KEYS TO POWER, JULIA A. BOYD, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P151-167.
Within the past decade, feminist therapists have successfully taken a leadership role in challenging the traditional and inherent prejudice and discrimination concerning women in psychotherapeutic counseling theory and practice. As progress is made in research, theory, and practice affecting the mental health of women in therapy, more complex issues emerge. This paper will focus on the issues of ethnic and cultural diversity, as it applies to women of color seeking therapy.
RESOLVING "OTHER" STATUS: IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT OF BIRACIAL INDIVIDUALS, MARIA P.P. ROOT, WOMEN AND THERAPY, 1990, VOL 9(1/2), P185-205.
The current paper describes the phenomenological experience of marginal socio-ethnic status for biracial individuals. A metamodel for identity resolution for individuals who struggle with other status is proposed. Subsequently, multiple strategies in the resolution of ethnic identity development are proposed among which the individual may move and maintain a positive, stable self-image.
CHILDHOOD CROSS-GENDER BEHAVIOR OF HOMOSEXUAL FEMALES IN BRAZIL, PERU, THE PHILIPPINES, AND THE UNITED STATES, FREDERICK L. WHITAM, ROBIN M. MATHY, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1991, VOL 20(2), P151-170.
Heterosexual and homosexual females were inteviewed with regard to childhood cross-gender behavior in Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States. Nine items were used to examine childhood behavior differences between heterosexual and homosexual females. Six of these items (playing with boys' toys, playing with girls' toys, dressing up in men's clothes, dressing up in women's clothes, paying attention to women's fashions, and being considered a tomboy) revealed statistically significant differences between the heterosexual and homosexual females. These differences demonstrated significant cross-cultural consistency, despite cultural variations among the societies examined. Rejection of certain gender-typical activities and interests, as well as involvement in cross-gendered activities and interests, seem to be consistent precursors of adult sexual orientation regardless of the cultural context in which these behaviors emerge.
LESBIANISM IN CHINA, FANG FU RUAN, VERN L. BULLOUGH, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1992, VOL 21(3), P217-226.
Lesbianism in China has a long but usually hidden history. This paper examines the historical and literary sources of the past to illustrate the history of lesbianism and then turns to a survey of lesbianism in the China of today. As in the past, lesbianism remains more or less hidden, and comes to light only occasionally. Data for contemporary China comes from a visit to an institution for delinquent young women, recent police records and contemporary fiction. It has only been in the past 4 or 5 years that it was possible to talk about lesbianism and most lesbians are fearful of becoming identified.
INVISIBLE WOMEN IN INVISIBLE PLACES: LESBIANS, LESBIAN BARS, AND THE SOCIAL PRODUCTION OF PEOPLE/ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS, MAXINE WOLFE, ARCHITECTURE AND COMPORTMENT/ARCHITECTURE AND BEHAVIOR, 1992, VOL 8(2), P137-158.
COPING WITH WORK: INTERVENTIONS WITH AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN, B.S. RICHIE, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1992, VOL 12(1/2), P97-111.
African-American women, who have faced the "double jeopardy" (Beale, 1970) of racism and sexism in the workforce, have had to develop coping strategies to enable their survival. African-Americans appear to use more diverse coping strategies than Caucasians (Barbarin, 1983; Gibson, 1982; Ramseur, 1989), as well as a more varied pool of informal helpers in their social networks and more flexible responses to stress (Gibson, 1982). Career counselors working with African-American women should be aware of decision-making factors other than individual preference, such as cultural norms and coping strategies necessary to survive in a discriminatory work environment. This paper examines the relationship between coping strategies used by Afircan-American women and work place realities, and makes recommendations for cultually sensitive career interventions with African-American women clients.
THE IMPACT OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION ON THE INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS OF BLACK LESBIANS, V.M. MAYS, S.D. COCHRAN, S. RHUE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P1-14.
This paper explores the effects of perceived racial/ethnic and sexual orientation discrimination on African-American lesbians' relationships with friends, lovers, family, and community support systems. Data for this exploratory study were gathered from a series of semi-structured ethnographic interviews with self-identified Black lesbians. Results suggested that those who had been in relationships with White lesbians reported more frequent experiences of discrimination that influenced their later decision to seek a Black lesbian partner for their next love relationship. Reactions toward lesbian community events ranged from avoidance to determined participation in response to feelings of alienation and racism. Also, Black lesbians perceived the African-American community to be conservative in their views on homosexuality. Nevertheless, for half of the women their interest in participation in the African-American community overshadowed their concerns about negative reactions to their homosexuality. Data from this exploratory study isolated questions that need further empirically based exploration in order to understand how race/ethnicity, culture, and sexual orientation influence the development, maintenance, and dissolution of intimate relationships in the lives of African-American lesbians.
SIGNS, 1993, VOL 18(4) INCLUDES:
EXCERPTS FROM THE ORAL HISTORY OF MABEL HAMPTON, JOAN NESTLE, P925-935.
LANDMARKS IN LITERATURE BY ASIAN AMERICAN LESBIANS, KARIN AGUILAR-SAN JUAN, P936-943.
GIVEAWAY: NATIVE LESBIAN WRITERS, BETH BRANT, P944-947.
SPECULATIVE FICTION AND BLACK LESBIANS, JEWELLE GOMEZ, P948-955.
TORTILLERISMO: WORK BY CHICANA LESBIANS, ALICIA GASPAR DE ALBA, P956-963.
MATI-ISM AND BLACK LESBIANISM: TWO IDEALTYPICAL EXPRESSIONS OF FEMALE HOMOSEXUALITY IN BLACK COMMUNITIES OF THE DIASPORA, GLORIA WEKKER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 24(3/4), P145-158.
There are different ways in which black women in the Diaspora have given expression to their erotic fascination with other women. In this article two ideal typical expressions of black female homosexuality and the outlines of their underlying cosmologies are sketched: mati-ism and black lesbianism. Mati (or matis-ma) is the Sranan Tongo word for women who have sexual relations with other women, but who typically also will have had or still have relationships with men, simultaneously. More often than not they will also have children.
While both types can only be understood via a constructionist view of homosexuality, the institution of mati-ism will be shown to have retained more Afrocentric, working class elements, while black lesbianism has more middle class, Eurocentric features.
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(2/3) SPECIAL ISSUE: CRITICAL ESSAYS: GAY AND LESBIAN WRITERS OF COLOR INCLUDES:
SURVEYING THE INTERSECTION: PATHOLOGY, SECRECY, AND THE DISCOURSES OF RACIAL AND SEXUAL IDENTITY, M. DIGGS, P1-19.
"Surveying the Intersection: Pathology, Secrecy, and the Discourses of Racial and Sexual Identity" cautions against the risks of metaphorical imperialism in readings of codified gay and lesbian representation. Taking issue with Foucault's suggestion that the secret of the nineteenth century was the secret of sex, I suggest that, in nineteenth-century American culture, where African-American identity and equality were among the most controversial issues of the century, the secrets of identity were secrets of race as well. Because scientific and literary representations of pathological and/or secret, essential identities are sites of intersection in the discourses of homosexual and mixed-race identity, they should be investigated as intersections, rather than read as codifications of sexual difference.
Surveying the discourses of scientific racism, genetics, and eugenics, and doing readings of Frances E.W. Harper's Iola Leroy and Alice Dunbar-Nelson's "The Stones of the Village," I suggest that Harper's representation of the mulatto leader can be read as an act of resistance to the representation of the mulatto as a degenerate, hybrid species; and that in Dunbar-Nelson's story, the thematics of passing, secrecy, and the fear of detection, while having a recognizable homoerotic quality, should not be read simply as a codification of homosexual difference and panic. I conclude with a call for more work on historicizing the intersection of racial and sexual identity in the discourses of pathology and degeneration.
PREMATURE GESTURES: A SPECULATIVE DIALOGUE ON ASIAN PACIFIC ISLANDER LESBIAN AND GAY WRITING, A Y. HOM & MING-YUEN S. MA, P21-51.
A collaborative exploration of the political realities and implications faced by self-identified Asian Pacific Islander lesbian and gay writers. Mixed-genre piece combining the essay and dialogue form, it contains sections co-written as well as individual pieces by the authors. The issues touched upon through this discussion are: available community-based writing, relation between grassroots political organizing and writing, API and lesbian/gay identity issues, internalized racism and homophobia, and other barriers for API lesbian and gay writers.
MYTH SMASHERS, MYTH MAKERS: (RE)VISIONARY TECHNIQUES IN THE WORKS OF PAULA GUNN ALLEN, GLORIA ANZALDUA, AND AUDRE LORDE, AL. KEATING, P73-95.
This paper examines the revisionist mythmaking strategies employed by three lesbian-feminist writers of color: Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna/Sioux/Lebanese/Scottish), Gloria Anzaldua (Chicana tejana), and Audre Lorde (Caribbean/African/American). By incorporating creatrix figures such as the West African Mawulisa, the pre-Aztec Coatlicue, and the Laguna Pueblo Spider Old Woman/Thought Woman into their works, they challenge the cultural stereotypes that silence women of color by denying their access to language. Their use of nonwestern mythic material destabilizes monolithic definitions of (white heterosexual) female identity, yet their mythmaking goes beyond this challenge to hegemonic concepts of (white) womanhood. As they replace the Judeo-Christian world-view with modes of perception drawn from Native American, Chicana, and African mythic traditions, they offer a far-reaching critique of western culture's binary structures. By displacing the boundaries between inner/outer, subject/object, spirit/matter, and other dichotomous terms, the new myths they create provide radical alternatives to the existing social structures.
"BEING BRIDGES": CLEAVER/BALDWIN/LORDE AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN SEXISM AND SEXUALITY, S. WALDREP, P167-180.
In an attempt to place James Baldwin and his ideas within the context of a debate on black sexuality and sexism, this paper begins with a section on Eldridge Cleaver and his critique of Baldwin's position on sexuality and race. Cleaver's own homophobia and misreading of Baldwin's essays and published comments on Richard Wright contribute to his inability to grasp Baldwin's sophisticated analysis of race/sexuality/sexism within Western culture. The second section takes up Baldwin explicitly and attempts both to outline his position more fully and to suggest the breadth and depth of his analysis of sexuality and the work yet to be done to chart it. In the final section of the paper I turn to Audre Lorde in order to update the critique of Baldwin's position within the debate. Lorde, like many other contemporary writer-theorists, sees the terms of the discussion, differently from Baldwin. She agrees with his hatred of racism, homophobia, and sexism, but she disagrees with his solution that acceptance and "brotherly" love are a solution to the real problems facing black (and gay) people today. She posits a belief in the necessity for delineating the particular subject position she holds: black, lesbian, female, Western, etc., and she is wary of any allegiances that might elide the clues to her oppression. The paper attempts to demonstrate that these differing positions are, nevertheless, linked in ways historical and otherwise.
"THE VERY HOUSE OF DIFFERENCE": ZAMI, AUDRE LORDE'S LESBIAN-CENTERED TEXT, C. KADER, P181-194.
Locating the feminist subject at the intersection of shifting social groups, or "homes," allows me to explore the connections between concepts of home and identity in Audre Lorde's "biomythography," Zami: A New Spelling of My Name. While Lorde's writing attends to the complex intersections of race, gender, and sexuality, as the prologue to the text makes apparent, it also testifies to the "naturalness" of lesbianism as the ground of writing, thinking, and acting. In Lorde's text, the lesbian body figures neither as an essential or fixed identity nor as the site for a unified conception of community or home, but rather, as a paradigm for a new kind of writing - one which inhabits the very house of difference.
ETHNIC-MINORITY LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: MENTAL HEALTH AND TREATMENT ISSUES, B. GREENE, JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1994, VOL 62(2), P243-251.
Clinical psychological research has been a part of a significant growth of scholarly literature in mental health that appropriately explores relevant cultural variables and their effects on both the mental health and treatment of ethnic minority group members. A similar expansion of material seeking to develop affirmative perspectives in the treatment of gay men and lesbians has also found its way into the psychological literature. Scarcely any research seeks to explore the particular psychological strengths and vulnerabilities of men and women who are members of both groups. This article reviews literature pertinent to the cultural proscriptions of several ethnic minority groups and their relevance to mental health issues and treatment of gay and lesbian members, as well as a review of potential countertransference dilemmas for therapists.
ARTICLES IN BOOKS
OUR RIGHT TO LOVE, A LESBIAN RESOURCE BOOK, ED. GINNY VIDA, NATIONAL GAY TASK FORCE, 1978. INCLUDES:
'I PICKED UP THAT MY MOTHER CONSIDERED HOMOSEXULITY A MENTAL DISORDER,' P32-33.
A Puerto Rico Lesbian, Nelly, tells her coming out story.
LESBIANS AT WORK, LYNN, P45.
I'VE BEEN STANDING ON THIS STREET CORNER A HELL OF A LONG TIME! AUDRE LORDE, P223-237.
EXTRACT FROM INTRODUCTION: Lesbians are members of every race, class, religion, and age group. The differences in our background affect our experiences as lesbians in important areas: our attitude toward homosexuality, our families reactions to our coming out, the level of repression we feel in acting on our love for women, our degree of inclination toward role-playing, and so on.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES: A RESOURCE MANUAL FOR SOCIAL WORKERS, H. HILDAGO, T.L. PETERSON AND N.J. WOODMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, 1980. INCLUDES:
THIRD WORLD, HILDA HIDALGO, P14-16
THE BLACK WOMAN, EDITOR LA FRANCES RODGERS-ROSE, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 1980, INCLUDES:
THE SELF/GROUP ACTUALIZATION OF BLACK WOMEN, GERALDINE L. WILSON, P301-314.
THIS BRIDGE CALLED MY BACK: WRITINGS BY RADICAL WOMEN OF COLOR, EDITED BY CHERRÍE MORAGA, GLORA ANZALDÚA, PERSEPHONE PRESS, 1981, INCLUDES:
ACROSS THE KITCHEN TABLE, A SISTER-TO-SISTER DIALUGE, BARBARA SMITH AND BEVERLY SMITH, P113-127.
LESBIANISM: AN ACT OF RESISTANCE, CHERYL CLARKE, P128-137.
LETTER TO MA, MERLE WOO, P141-147.
I COME WITH NO ILLUSIONS, MIRTHA QUINTANALES, P148-149.
I PAID VERY HARD FOR MY IMMIGRANT IGNORANCE, MIRTHA QUINTANALES, P150-159.
A BLACK FEMINST STATEMENT, COMBAHEE RIVER COLLECTIVE, P210-218.
LESBIAN STUDIES, PRESENT AND FUTURE, ED. MARGARET CRUIKSHANK, THE FEMINIST PRESS, 1982. INCLUDES:
BLACK LESBIANS IN ACADEMIA: VISIBLE INVISIBILITY, DORIS DAVENPORT, P9-11.
BLACK LESBIANS BEFORE 1970: A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY, J.R. ROBERTS, P103-109.
This bibliographical essay will focus on the identification and description of selected works by and/or about Black lesbians before 1970. These particular materials have been the least visible and the least accessible and are due some attention. A further goal is to provide self-help information to sources so that the reader may continue to locate, identify, and make more materials accessible.
BIOLOGICAL WOMAN - THE CONVENIENT MYTH, R HUBBARD, 1982, INCLUDES:
BLACK WOMEN'S HEALTH: NOTES FOR A COURSE, BEVERLY SMITH, P227-239.
WOMAN-IDENTIFIED-WOMAN, EDS T. DARTY, S. POTTER, MAYFIELD, 1984, INCLUDES:
THE BLACK LESBIAN IN AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN OVERVIEW, ANN ALLEN SHOCKLEY, P267-275.
BELOVED WOMEN: THE LESBIAN IN AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE, PAULA GUNN ALLEN, P83-96.
RECLAMATION: A LESBIAN INDIAN STORY, BETH BRANT, P97-103.
THE PUERTO RICAN LESBIAN IN THE UNITED STATES, HILDA HIDALGO, P105-115.
ALL IN A DAY'S WORK, A REPORT ON ANTI-LESBIAN DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN LONDON, ED. NINA TAYLOR, LESBIAN EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS, 1986. INCLUDES:
A Black non-Disabled Lesbian.
A Black, Working Class, non-Disabled Lesbian.
IN THE LIFE: A BLACK GAY ANTHOLOGY, ALYSON, 1986, INCLUDES:
WHY A GAY BLACK CHURCH? J. TINNEY, P70-86.
LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES, EXPLORATIONS AND CHALLENGES, ED. THE BOSTON LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES COLLECTIVE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1987, INCLUDES:
ISSUES OF IDENTITY IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LATINA LESBIANS, OLIVA M. ESPIN, P35-55.
THE IMPACT OF RACE AND CULTURE DIFFERENCES: CHALLENGES TO INTIMACY IN LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS, NORMA GARCIA, CHERYL KENNEDY, SARAH F. PEARLMAN, AND JULIA PEREZ, P142-160.
CHILD-REARING ATTITUDES OF BLACK LESBIAN MOTHERS, MARJORIE HILL, P215-226.
BLACK WOMEN'S HEALTH BOOK: SPEAKING FOR OURSELVES, EDITED BY EVELYN C. WHITE, THE SEAL PRESS, INCLUDES:
TAKING THE HOME OUT OF HOMOPHOBIA: BLACK LESBIAN HEALTH, JEWELLE L. GOMEZ AND BARBARA SMITH, P198-213.
CHARTING THE JOURNEY, WRITINGS BY BLACK & THIRD WORLD WOMEN, SHEBA FEMINIST PRESS, 1988, INCLUDES:
FROM THE INSIDE LOOKING IN, A REAPPRAISAL OF HEART OF THE RACE, SISTERS IN STUDY, P91-96.
FRONTIERS, PRATIBHA PARMAR AND JACKIE KAY INTERVIEW AUDRE LORDE, P121-131.
PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES, MO ROSS TALKS WITH JACKIE KAY AND PRATIBHA PARMAR, P169-187.
LESBIAN COUPLES, D. MERILEE CLUNIS & G. DORSEY GREEN, SEAL PRESS, 1988, INCLUDES:
HOW RACISM AFFECTS COUPLES, P131-142. (This chapter is based on a manuscript by Vickie L. Sears).
ALIVE AND WELL, A LESBIAN HEALTH GUIDE, CUCA HEPBURN WITH BONNIE GUTIERREZ. THE SOCIAL HEALTH OF LESBIAN COMMUNITIES, 1988. INCLUDES:
FOR LESBIANS ONLY: A SEPARATIST ANTHOLOGY, EDITORS SARAH LUCIA HOAGLAND, JULIA PENELOPE, ONLYWOMEN PRESS, 1988, INCLUDES:
A BLACK SEPARATIST, ANNA LEE, 1981, P83-91.
RADICAL RECORDS - THIRTY YEARS OF LESBIAN AND GAY HISTORY, ED. BOB CANT & SUSAN HEMMINGS, ROUTLEDGE, 1988. INCLUDES:
LIVING ON THE FRINGES IN MORE WAYS THAN ONE, YIK HUI, P108-115.
A Chinese Lesbian in Britain shares her experiences.
'IRRESPECTIVE OF RACE, SEX, SEXUALITY...', GERRY AHRENS, AHMED FAROOQUI AND AMITHA PATEL, P128-141.
Two lesbians and one gay man share their experiences of working for the Citizen's Advice Bureau.
BEYOND TOLERANCE. GAYS, LESBIANS AND BISEXUALS ON CAMPUS, 1991, ED NANCY J. EVANS & VERNON A. WALL, AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION, INCLUDES:
CH 4: UNDERSTANDING GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTTS OF COLOR, VERNON A. WALL, JAMIE WASHINGTON.
ARTICLES IN U.S. MAGAZINES/NEWSLETTERS
CONNEXIONS, AN INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S QUARTERLY, SPECIAL ISSUE NO 3: GLOBAL LESBIANISM, 1983, INCLUDES:
TRIAL AND A MARRIAGE, P6.
Experiences of two young Lesbian couples.
BURY US TOGETHER, P7.
Tracing Indian Lesbians in ancient cultures.
LATIN AMERICA'S ENCUENTRO FEMINISTA, P9.
Discussion of Lesbianism at the Latin American Feminist Conference.
"DON'T LABEL ME; I LABEL MYSELF," P10-11.
Interview with members of Brazilian Lesbian Feminist Group.
SHROUDED IN SILENCE, P12-14.
LESBIANS AND THE INQUISITION, LOVE AND LANGUISHING, P15 AND 26.
Spanish inquisition and Lesbians in Brazil.
THREE LESBIAN CONVERSATIONS, P22-24.
Lesbians from South Africa and Lesotho.
SOJOURNER, THE WOMEN'S FORUM, JUNE 1989, INCLUDES:
BREAKING SILENCE: COMING OUT IN INDIA, SHARMEEN ISLAM, P20-21.
CONNEXIONS, AN INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S QUARTERLY, 40, 1992, INCLUDES:
A BLACK DYKE IN AMSTERDAM, ELLIN ROBLES (TRANSLATOR), P25.
LOVE UNDER FIRE, CROATIA, EVA GERSTER, P29-30.
SINISTER WISDOM, 47, SUMMER/FALL 1992, INCLUDES:
FINDING OUT THE SECRETS: AN INTERVIEW WITH EVA AYALA - MEXICANA LESBIANS IN THE U.S.A. TERRI DE LA PENA, P11-17.
WHY I'M LEAVING THE NEW COLLEGE: A WOMAN OF COLOR CONFRONTS FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY ON ITS RACISM, JAMIE LEE EVANS, P93-99.
CONNEXIONS, AN INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S QUARTERLY, 1994, VOL 46 INCLUDES:
ANJAREE - TOWARD LESBIAN VISIBLITY, THAILAND, P8-9.
LESBIAN ORGANIZING: CULTURE, SEXUALITY, POLITICS, TAIWAN, P20-22.
FEMALE CLOSENESS AND LESBIAN IDENTITY, INDONESIA, CONNEXIONS, P23.
ARTICLES IN BRITISH MAGAZINES/PAMPHLETS, ETC
SPARE RIB, 1983, VOL 135, INCLUDES:
THERE HAD TO BE MORE BLACK LESBIANS OUT THERE... DOLORES, GERRY, SUNITA, P6-8.
Three young Black feminists, Dolores, Gerry and Sunita decided one day to record one of their conversations. This article is virtually a transcript of that conversation.
Although the 'article' is unstructured it does cover various important points regarding sexism and racism in this country. One important aspect is around lesbianism and how Black women perceive themselves facing the double oppression of race and sex.
These women are not authorities on the subject, and what they talk about is London-based. But what they say is important - it raises many questions, for instance how white feminists treat Black feminists in a social situation such as in a disco.
We would be open to any criticisms or comments you have to make on this article.
SPARE RIB, NO 136, NOV 1983, INCLUDES:
THE STRUGGLE TO BE ACCEPTED AS A PERSON, MADHU PATEL,
SPARE RIB, NO 149, NOV 1984, P26-29, INCLUDES:
"...NO, WE NEVER GO OUT OF FASHION ... FOR EACH OTHER!"
Interview with Audre Lorde, Dorothea, Jackie Kay and Uma.
FEMINIST REVIEW NO 17, JULY 1984, INCLUDES:
BECOMING VISIBLE: BLACK LESBIAN DISCUSSIONS, CARMEN, GAIL, SHAILA AND PRATIBHA, P53-72.
As black lesbians in Britain we are growing in our numbers and in strength. The following discussion is a result of eight hours' taped discussion between four of us. It was impossible to reproduce the full text of the discussion due to lack of space. Here we are printing only extracts of our discussions and we hope to publish the full text as a pamphlet in the near future. The process of coming together and talking and eating has been exhilarating and strengthening. When we started out, two of us were unsure and reluctant about being identified by our real names, but towards the end of our discussions, we felt strengthened and supported and decided to be identified. We are all aware of how vulnerable we are making ourselves and putting our lives at risk in many ways, but it is only when we begin to make ourselves visible that we can break the silence about our lives.
TROUBLE & STRIFE, 10, 1987, INCLUDES:
DIFFERENT ROOTS, DIFFERENT ROUTES, ANON, P11-15.
This article is based on research funded by the Ethnic Minorities Unit of the Greater London Council. The research dealt with 'unprivileged lesbians' on the receiving-end of overt and covert racism and who experienced 'multifold oppressions'. Key points from the research included the need to distinguish between ethnic groupings who provided security in a hostile environment of racism, as well as common concerns such as the media representation of lesbianism and the problem of custody cases. The article concludes by drawing up a point agenda of key issues and by celebrating 'our different roots/routes'.
GEN - CHALLENGING HETEROSEXISM, MARCH 1987 (SPECIAL ISSUE) INCLUDES:
MY EXPERIENCE AS A BLACK LESBIAN TEACHER, HOPE, P16-17.
I NEVER THOUGHT I'D BE A LESBIAN UNTIL...SHARON SMITH, P44.
LESBIAN MOTHERS CONFERENCE, A BLACK LESBIAN VIEW, ANGELA, P45.
HETEROSEXISM IN HARINGEY, RACISM RUNS RIFE, FEMI, P67.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES, POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND LEGISLATION 1967-1987, LESBIAN AND GAY WORKING PARTY, LONDON STRATEGIC POLICY UNIT, 1988, INCLUDES:
BLACK LESBIANS AND GAY MEN IN LONDON, THE BLACK LESBIAN AND GAY COMMUNITIES, P22-24.
NEW INTERNATIONALIST NOV 1989 (SPECIAL ISSUE ON HOMOSEXUALITY), INCLUDES:
NATURAL GESTURES, BY BUCHI EMECHETA, P11-12.
Young girls growing up in Nigeria easily engage in forms of physical contact that might be labelled 'lesbian' in the West. Yet African
society is deeply hostile to homosexuality, says Buchi Emecheta. She gives a personal view.
WHAT YOUR DREAMS MAKE YOU, RAE TREWARTHA, P24-25.
Native Americans not only accepted lesbian and gay people, they also respected them as prophets, hunters or healers. Rae Trewartha looks at homosexuality in traditional culture.
THE VOICE, JANUARY 19 1988, INCLUDES:
WHY WE'RE PROUD TO BE GAY, P18-19.
The black community traditionally views homosexuality with suspicion and disgust. Yet in major cities across the nation black gays are coming out of the closet. Mike Burgess talks to the men and women who say they're proud to be gay.
LESBIAN INTERNATIONAL NO 24, OCT/NOV 1989, INCLUDES:
MARTA, NICARAGUAN YOUNG LESBIAN.
WOMEN'S HEALTH & REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS INFORMATION CENTRE NEWSLETTER NO 6, SEP 1989 INCLUDES:
ONE BLACKLESBIAN'S EXPERIENCE OF 'COMING OUT,' LORNA CAMPBELL, P6.
FEMINIST REVIEW NO 34, SPRING 1990, INCLUDES:
PAT PARKER: A TRIBUTE, LYNDIE BRIMSTONE, P4-7.
TALKING ABOUT IT: HOMOPHOBIA IN THE BLACK COMMUNITY. A DIALOGUE BETWEEN JEWELLE GOMEZ AND BARBARA SMITH, P45-55.
AUDRE LORDE: VIGNETTES AND MENTAL CONVERSATIONS, GAIL LEWIS, P100-114.
ARTICLES FROM ILIS NEWSLETTER
INTERVIEW WITH THAI ACTIVIST, VOL 11(3), 1989, P12-14.
INDIA, VOL 11(3) 1989, P8-9.
BLACK LESBIANS IN SOUTH AFRICA, VOL 10(3) 1990, P4-6.
VOL 12 (4), 1991, SPECIAL ISUES: ZAMIES, INCLUDES:
TWO-SPIRITED PEOPLE, INTERVIEW WITH LEOTA LONE DOG, RECORDED BY ILONA IVEY, P15-17.
DO YOU KNOW THE LIGHT? BLACK AND PEOPLE OF ALL COLOURS LESBIAN AND GAY GOSPEL CHOIR OF NEW YORK, ILONA IVEY, P20.
GLADYS BENTLEY: THE BULLDAGGER WHO SANG THE BLUES, LESBIAN AND GAY LIFE IN JAZZ AGE HARLEM, P41-43.
EXPRESSIONS - POETRY, P44-49.
BLACK LESBIANS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, COMPILED BY J.R. ROBERTS, NAIAD PRESS, 1981.
BLACK LESBIAN IN WHITE AMERICA, ANITA CORNWELL, NAIAD PRESS, 1983.
SISTER OUTSIDER, AUDRE LORDE, THE CROSSING PRESS, 1984.
A BURST OF LIGHT, AUDRE LORDE, SHEBA, 1988.
CHICANA LESBIANS: THE GIRLS OUR MOTHERS WARNED US ABOUR, CARLA TRUJILLO, EDITOR, 3RD WOMEN PRESS, 1991.
GAY AND LESBIAN THEMES IN LATIN AMERICAN WRITING, DAVID WILLIAM FOSTER, UNIVERSITY TEXAS PRESS, 1991.
PIECE OF MY HEART: A LESBIAN OF COLOUR ANTHOLOGY, MAKEDA SILVERA, SISTER VISION PRESS, 1991.
MOVEMENT IN BLACK, POETRY BY PAT PARKER, FIREBRAND BOOKS, 1992.
KHUSH: A SHAKTI REPORT. AN INVESTIGATION INTO SOUTH ASIAN LESBIANS AND GAY MEN AND THEIR LIVES, SHIVANANDA KHAN (IN CONSULTATION WITH PRATIBHA PARMAR), SOUTH ASIAN LESBIAN AND GAY NETWORK, 1992.
WE'RE COUNTING ON EQUALITY, MONITORING EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WORKPLACE IN RELATION TO SEX, RACE, DISABILITY, SEXUALITY, HIV/AIDS, AND AGE, MAREE GLADWIN, 1993, CITY CENTRE, 32-35 FEATHERSTONE ST, LONDON, EC1Y 8QX.
LESBIANS TALK: MAKING BLACK WAVES, VALERIE MASON-JOHN, ANN KHAMBATTA, SCARLET PRESS, 1993.
COMPANERAS: LATINA LESBIANS, AN ANTHOLOGY, JUANITA RAMOS, ROUTLEDGE, 1994.
THE ISSUES: BLACK LESBIANS & BLACK GAY MEN, ANNE HAYFIELD, 1994, LESBIAN AND GAY EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS, ST MARGARETS HOUSE, 21 OLD FORD ROAD, LONDON, E2 9PL.
CRITICAL ESSAYS: GAY AND LESBIAN WRITERS OF COLOR, EMMANUEL S. NELSON, EDITOR, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1994.
DEFIANT DESIRE: GAY ANDLESBIAN LIVES IN SOUTH AFRICA, MARK GEVISSER, EDWIN CAMERON, ROUTLEDGE, 1994.
THE VERY INSIDE: AN ANTHOLOGY OF WRITINGS BY ASIA AND PACIFIC ISLANDER LESBIANS AND BISEXUAL WOMEN, SHARON LIM-HING, EDITOR, SISTER VISION PRESS, 1994.
THE INVISIBLE GHETTO: LESBIAN AND GAY WRITING FROM SOUTH AFRICA, MATTHEW KROUSE, GAY MENS PRESS, 1994.
LATIN AMERICAN WRITERS ON GAY AND LESBIAN THEMES: A BIO-CRITICAL SOURCEBOOK, DAVID WILLIAM FOSTER, EDITOR, GREENWOOD PRESS, 1994.
TALKING BLACK, LESBIANS OF AFRICAN AND ASIAN DESCENT SPEAK OUT, ED. VALERIE MASON-JOHN, CASSELL, 1995.
LESBIANS OF COLOR, SOCIAL AND HUMAN SERVICES, ED. HILDA HIDALGO, HARRINGTON PARK PRESS, 1995 (ALSO PUBLISHED AS JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN SOCIAL SERVICES, VOL 3(2).
AFREKETE: AN ANTHOLOGY OF CONTEMPORARY BLACK LESBIAN WRITINGS, CATHERINE E. MCKINLEY, JOYCE L.DELANEY, ANCHOR BOOKS, 1995.
ALN (ASIAN LESBIAN NETWORK), C/O ANJAREE, PO BOX 322, RAJDAMNERN, BANGKOK 10200, THAILAND.
BLACK LESBIAN AND GAY CENTRE PROJECT NEWSLETTER (ADDRESS BELOW).
CAMDEN LESBIAN CENTRE AND BLACK LESBIAN GROUP NEWSLETTER (ADDRESS BELOW).
INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN INFORMATION SERVICE NEWSLETTER, NVIH COC, ROZENSTRAAT 8, 1016 NX AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS.
© Lesbian Information Service 1995