ATTITUDES TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALITY
There has been little research in Britain in regard to lesbians/gays. The majority of the following articles are from the U.S.A. and are available through your local library (you will have to complete an order card and it will probably take about a month as they will have to send to the British Library for a copy; this should cost you about .50p).
SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE WHO HOLD POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS, A.P. MACDONALD, RICHARD G. GAMES, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(1), P9-27.
This study (presented as a paradigm study in the area of majority-minority relations) replicates previous findings that negative attitudes toward homosexuals are associated with lack of support for equality between the sexes. It includes a multidimensional measure of support for equality between the sexes; Semantic Differentials for Man, Woman, Male Homosexual, and Lesbian; four value factors derived from Rokeach's 36 Instrumental and Terminal Values; measures of authoritarianism, cognitive rigidy, and ambiguity tolerance; a premarital sexual permissiveness scale; and attitudes toward male and female homosexuality scales. Most interesting among the findings are the correlations to the Potency dimension of the Semantic Differential. Implications for the gay and feminist movements are briefly discussed.
PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY: PART OF THE 1970 NATIONAL SURVEY BY THE INSTITUTE FOR SEX RESEARCH, EUGENE E. LEVITT, ALBERT D. KLASSEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(1), P29-43.
IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL ATTITUDES TOWARD EQUALITY BETWEEN THE SEXES, A.P. MACDONALD, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(2), P165-182.
The proposal that support for equality between the sexes is multidimensional was supported by factor analyses of data from smaller samples and cross-validated on a sample of 639 (317 male and 322 female) subjects ranging in age from 14 to 73 years. A reliable 53-item multidimensional scale is offered for measuring an individual's support for equality between the sexes (a) in business and the professions, (b) in the home, (c) in respect to what is traditionally considered sex-appropriate behavior, and (d) in the performance of both social and domestic work. Evidence for construct validity is presented via the analyses of relations between the Sex Role Survey and (a) support for premarital sex, (b) cognitive rigidity, (c) authoritarianism, (d) tolerance for ambiguity, (e) values orientations, (f) evaluative and potency ratings of Man and Woman on the Semantic Differential, and so on.
HERESY, WITCHCRAFT, AND SEXUALITY, VERN L. BULLOUGH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEUALITY, 1974, VOL 1(2), P183-201.
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY VOL 2(1), 1976, INCLUDES:
A FACTOR-ANALYTIC CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD MALE AND FEMALE HOMOSEXUALS, JIM MILLHAM, CHRISTOPHER L. SAN MIGUEL, RICHARD KELLOGG, P3-10.
A wide spectrum of opinions and beliefs concerning homosexuals was sampled, compiled into a questionnaire format, and administered to a large group of heterosexual subjects. Factor analysis yielded six independent sets of attitudes that describe the variance in heterosexual reactions to homosexuals. The relationship of sex differences and familiarity with homosexuals to variations in response style is discussed.
THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE AND SITUATIONAL VARIABLES IN AGGRESSION TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS, CHRISTOPHER L. SAN MIGUEL, JIM MILLHAM, P11-27.
The relationship of several antecedents of aggression toward homosexuals was investigated. Attitudes toward homosexuality, perceived similarity to the target homosexual, and type of prior contact with the target homosexual were found to interact in influencing such aggressiveness. The implication of these findings to the "personal threat" and "scapegoating" hypotheses of aggression toward homosexuals is discussed.
HOMOPHOBIA: THE QUEST FOR A VALID SCALE, MALCOLM E. LUMBY, P39-47.
Using a modified version of Smith's "homophobic scale," this study examines attitudinal differences between 60 homosexual and 60 heterosexual Caucasian, middle-class, males. While Smith's items fail to meet minimal Guttman Scalogram requirements, significant attitudinal differences were recorded between groups. Furthermore, homosexual subjects were significantly more liberal than heterosexual subjects regarding the propriety of masturbation, extramarital sexual activities, as well as the sexual activities of their teenage sisters. Although homosexual subjects evidenced a consistent liberal attitude toward sexual behavior in general, many heterosexuals indicated a strong margin of attitudinal uncertainty in their responses.
ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR, KENNETH L. NYBERG, JON P. ALSTON, P99-107.
Data from a 1974 representative survey of the white American adult population indicate that most white Americans (75%) disapprove of homosexual relations. Those persons who tend to hold more favorable attitudes toward homosexual relations are those under 30 years of age, those living in larger urban centers, and those with college experience.
ACCEPTANCE OF THE RIGHTS OF HOMOSEXUALS: A SOCIAL PROFILE, PATRICK IRWIN, NORMAN L. THOMPSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 3(2), P107-121.
The relationships between attitudes toward homosexuality and sociodemographic and attitudinal variables were explored, using the data from a nationwide opinion survey in the United States. Individuals who were willing to grant such rights to homosexuals as teaching in college, speaking in a local community, and removing a book from a local library written by a homosexual and favorable to homosexuality, tended to be well educated, young, Jewish or nonreligious, from urban areas, raised in the Northeast or Pacific states, and willing to provide freedom of expression to people with nonconformist political ideas. "Erotophobia," which was not related closely to the rights issue, was associated with moral judgments about homosexual acts.
STEREOTYPE CONTENT AND SOCIAL DISTANCE: CHANGING VIEWS OF HOMOSEXUALITY, GREGORY R. STAATS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 4(1), P15-27.
This project examined effects of stereotype content and uniformity on social distance regarding homosexuals. Administration of an adjective checklist and social distance scale to 538 undergraduates resulted in identification of "traits" that change social distance. Those traits that postitively correlated with distance at or beyond the .05 level were: "cowardly," "sly," "suspicious," "shrewd," "stupid," "impulsive," and "ignorant." Traits that correlated with reduced distance ("sensitive," "individualistic," "intelligent," "honest," "imaginative," "neat," "reserved," "kind," "faithful," "courteous," "sophisticated," and "artistic") were more uniform. Both clusters of negative and positive traits were moderately intercorrelated within and suggest that they each represent underlying dimensions. It is suggested that stereotypes about homosexuals are changing in a more positive direction.
ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY AND FEMININITY IN MEN, MICHAEL D. STORMS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1978, VOL 3(3), P257-263.
PSYCHOLOGISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUAL PSYCHOTHERAPY CLIENTS, ELLEN M. GARFINKLE, STEPHEN F. MORIN, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34(3), P101-112.
Forty male and forty female psychotherapists were asked to rate both a hypothetical client, based on an intake case history, and their concept of the "psychologically healthy person" on a semantic differential scale. Participants were assigned case histories where the hypothetical client was a heterosexual male, heterosexual female, homosexual male, or homosexual female. Attributions of psychological health were found to differ as a function of sexual orientation of client and sex of therapist. No significant difference was found between evaluation of male homosexual and female homosexual clients. Results are discussed in terms of the significance of perceived violations of sex-role stereotypes in the evaluation of psychological health.
HOMOSEXUAL LABELING AND THE MALE ROLE, RODNEY G. KARR, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES, 1978, VOL 34 (3), P73-83.
This study attempted to experimentally isolate and determine the effects of the label "homosexual" upon the perceptions and behavior of the social audience toward men so labeled. Participants rated three different experimental confederates, each labeled homosexual in three groups and not labeled homosexual in three groups. Men were perceived as being significantly less masculiine and less preferred as fellow participants in any future experiment when they were labeled homosexual. The man responsible for the primary labeling of the homosexual was perceived as more masculine and more sociable when he labeled the homosexual than when he did not. Results are discussed in terms of the function of the fear of the homosexual label in maintaining the traditional male role.
ATTITUDINAL HOMOPHOBIA AND SUPPORT OF TRADITIONAL SEX ROLES, LINDA E. WEINBERGER, JIM MILLHAM, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(3), P237-246.
The present study investigated the relationships among various attitudes toward homosexuality and the maintenance of traditional male/female gender distinctions. The results supported both the importance of separate attitude dimensions describing reactions to homosexuality and the meaningfulness of an overall pattern of homophobia. Components of homophobic style were evaluated and related to components of support for traditional male/female roles. An individual's own congruence with traditional gender expectations and his/her attitudes toward sex-role incongruence were evaluated within the context of social psychological research on deviance.
STUDY OF LAW STUDENT ATTITUDES REGARDING THE RIGHTS OF GAY PEOPLE TO BE TEACHERS, JOSHUA DRESSLER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979, VOL 4(4), P315-329.
SEXUAL PREFERENCE OR PERSONAL STYLE? WHY LESBIANS ARE DISLIKED, MARY RIEGE LANER, ROY H. LANER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1979/80, VOL 5(1/4), P339-356.
MacDonald and Games (1974) have argued that homosexual men and women are disliked because they are thought to display inappropriate gender-related mannerisms (either "butch" or "femme"). Storms (1978) argued that sex-object choice, nor personal style, is the basis for dislike. Laner and Laner (1979) have presented evidence that both dimensions - sexual preference and personal style - are implicated in dislike of homosexual men. The present study replicates the design of Laner and Laner's (1979) study but compares likeableness ratings and quality attributes of lesbian and nonlesbian women, divided into three subtypes: hypofeminine (masculine), feminine (average), and hyperfeminine (effeminate). Findings parallel those of Laner and Laner's earlier work and lend partial support both to MacDonald and Games's and to Storms's propositions. Conventionality of style, as heterosexually defined (in this case, average feminine), appears most likely to reduce dislike of lesbians. A publicly conventional presentation of self is not incompatible with private individualism, however.
A STRATEGY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF HOMOPHOBIA, WALTER W. HUDSON, WENDELL A. RICKETTS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1980, VOL 5(4), P357-372.
This paper attempts to refine and state more clearly an operational definition of homophobia. Homophobia is seen as but one dimension among many that collectively refer to the much larger domain of homonegativism. The paper then presents a new measure of homophobia, called the IHP, and reports the findings of a study designed to validate the new scale. The IHP was found to have a reliability of .90 and good content and factorial validity.
PERSON STEREOTYPES AND MEMORY FOR PEOPLE, FRANCIS S. BELLEZZA, GORDON H. BOWER, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1981, VOL 41(5), P856-865.
Snyder and Uranowitz have proposed a memory-priming mechanism by which information about a person that is normally unavailable in episodic memory is made available by the activation of a person stereotype that subsumes that information. In our two experiments subjects read a biography of Betty K, who was later labeled as either a heterosexual or a lesbian before the subjects took a recognition memory test. A signal-detection model was used to assess the effects of labeling on response bias as well as on the amount of information available in memory. Neither experiment produced any improved recognition memory for biographic information due to activation of a sexual stereotype. Both experiments found a response bias (guessing), however, acting in the direction of the label of the subject received. It is concluded that at this time no clear empirical support exists for the memory-priming mechanism proposed by Snyder and Uranowitz.
THE EFFECT OF A WORKSHOP ON ATTITUDES OF FEMALE NURSING STUDENTS TOWARD MALE HOMOSEXUALITY, CARLA LEE ANDERSON, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1981, VOL 7(1), P57-69.
The responses of 64 female nursing students to the Survey of Attitudes Toward Deviance - Homosexuality Scale (May, 1974) indicated that they held more negative attitudes and more stereotyped beliefs regarding male homosexuality than did May's sample of male counselors and psychologists. After a 20-hour workshop, the attitudes of the 37 students in the experimental groups had changed and were similar to those expressed by May's sample. A testing 4 months later indicated that this change remained stable. Some attitudes relating to morality and social distance continued to be somewhat unfavorable. It made no difference in attitude change if the workshop presenters did or did not identify themselves as homosexual. The students with initially more negative attitudes toward homosexuality changed more as a result of the workshop experience than those with more positive attitudes. For both experimental and control subjects, more positive pretest attitudes toward homosexuality were associated with emotional stability, objectivity, good personal relations, restraint, friendliness, an interest in masculine activities, and greater support for equality of the sexes, as well as more liberal attitudes toward sex-appropraite behavior.
ASCRIPTION OF NEGATIVE TRAITS BASED ON SEX ROLE AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION, RODNEY K. GOODYEAR, PHILIP D. ABADIE, KAREN A. BARQUEST, PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS, 1981, VOL 49(1), P194.
A brief desription of the results of a survey of 142 undergraduates in educational psychology. A 'typical female' was evaluated most positively and a 'typical female homosexual' most negatively. The authors suggest that one explanation for the findings is that the participants were mainly female (78%); previous research has shown that women most positively evaluate their own sex role and people are most negative towards homosexuals of their own sex.
HETEROSEXUALS' ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANISM AND MALE HOMOSEXUALITY: THEIR AFFECTIVE ORIENTATION TOWARD SEXUALITY AND SEX GUILT, WILLIAM L. YARBER, BERNADETTE YEE, JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH, 1983, VOL 31(5), P203-208.
This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their affective orientation toward sexuality (erotophilia-erotophobia) and sex guilt. Subjects were 72 male and 57 female heterosexual college undergraduates. A self-report questionnaire was administered in a health education class and mailed to campus dormitories. The variables were measured by four scales: Attitudes Toward Lesbianism, Attitudes Toward Male Homosexuality, Sex Guilt Subscales, and modified Sexual Opinion Survey (erotophilia-erotophobia). Through a sample selection process involving randomization, the sample was made proportional to the university's undergraduate students by sex, class standing, and school.
Affective orientation toward sexuality was established to be related to attitudes toward lesbianism for both sexes, and related to attitudes toward male homosexuality for female subjects only (all p<.05). Sex guilt was related to both sexes' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality (p<.05). Erotophilic (more positive sex attitudes) and lower sex-guilt males and females had more positive attitudes toward lesbianism than the erotophobic (more negative sex attitudes) and higher sex-guilt subjects of their own sex. Lower sex-guilt males and females were found to have more positive attitudes toward male homosexuality. And, erotophilic females had more positive attitudes toward male homosexuality than the erotophobic females, with the relationship for males being similar although not significant.
HOMOPHOBIA: A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY, TERESA D. DECRESCENZO, HOMOSEXUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK AND HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 2 (2/3), P115-135.
A 20-page questionnaire was administerd to 140 mental health professionals employed in a variety of service delivery agencies, both public and private. Respondents were asked a variety of
demographic questions covering 23 variables, and were asked their opinions on a number of issues related to attitudes toward homosexuality. Statistically significant differences were found
among various disciplines and within disciplines on certain items. The findings illuminate some sources of attitude development, including family of origin, religious background, parental education level and other sources as well.
THERAPISTS' NEEDS FOR TRAINING IN COUNSELING LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, DEE L.R. GRAHAM, EDNA I RAWLINGS, HARRIS S. HALPERN, JULIE HERMES, PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, 1984, VOL 15(4), P482-496.
The 1973 and 1975 decisions of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Pscyhological Association (APA), respectively, to remove "homosexuality" from their list of mental disorders led to a need for therapists to change their therapeutic strategies in counseling lesbians and gay men. A survey of present-day therapists' attitudes, knowledge, concerns, and strategies in counseling lesbians and gay men clients revealed a strong need for therapist training. The authors recommend that training in counseling lesbian/gay clients become a standard feature of APA-accredited training programs in clinical psychology, that competence in counseling lesbian/gay clients become a prerequisite for state licensure, and that the availability of continuing education regarding therapy for lesbian/gay clients continue for practicing clinical psychologists.
JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1984, VOL 10(1/2), INCLUDES:
BEYOND "HOMOPHOBIA": A SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, GREGORY M. HEREK, P1-21.
Homophobia, a term often used to describe hostile reactions to lesbians and gay men, implies a unidimensional construct of attitudes as expressions of irrational fears. This paper argues that a more complex view is needed of the psychology of positive and negative attitudes toward homosexual persons. Based upon a review of previous empirical research, a model is proposed that distinguishes three types of attitudes according to the social psychological function they serve: (1) experiential, categorizing social reality by one's past interactions with homosexual persons; (2) defensive, coping with one's inner conflicts or anxieties by projecting them onto homosexual persons; and (3) symbolic, expressing abstract ideological concepts that are closely linked to one's notion of self and to one's social network and reference groups. Strategies are proposed for changing attitudes serving each of the functions. The importance of distinguishing attitudes toward lesbians from those focused on gay men is also discussed.
MISCONCEPTIONS OF HOMOPHOBIA, JOHN WAYNE PLASEK, JANICE MARIE ALLARD, P23-37.
Recent studies and analyses of social reactions to homosexuality are examined with the goal of linking them to general theories of deviance in the mainstream of sociology and social psychology. Homosexuality as an attitudinal object is classified as person, trait, and characteristic of collectivities and culture. The assumption of homosexuality as a "master status trait" is questioned. Foci of investigation are categorized as cognitive stereotypes, perceptions of threat to others and to valued aspects of society and culture, and the management of homosexuality. Ego-alien and phobic response are distinguished.
General problems of attitudinal research in the field are identified; chiefly, the overemphasis of cognitive elements and the neglect of affective and behavioral elements. The potential of this imbalance for the reification of homophobia among subjects and for the general public is noted. Other problems include the confounding of cognitive and affective dimensions and the assumption of stability of attitudes in different social settings.
The need for concrete observations of reponses to homosexuality in varying social settings and for the study of various types and phases of the disclosure process is specified. We call for grounded empirical observations of reactions to homosexuality within a model of the "social construction of reality" in order to place such studies within the mainstream of sociology and social psychology.
ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: A FACTOR-ANALYTIC STUDY, GREGORY M. HEREK, P39-51.
This paper reports a series of factor analyses of responses to attitude statements about lesbians and gay men. Using a common factor model with oblique rotation, a bipolar "Condemnation-Tolerance" factor was observed repeatedly in four separate samples of undergraduates. The factor accounts for 35-45% of the total common variance in responses, and is similar for male and female respondents and for questionnaires concerning both lesbians and gay men. A "Beliefs" factor accounts for another 5% of the total variance. It is argued that scales assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men should restrict their content to items loading highly on the Condemnation-Tolerance factor.
SEX DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS: A META-ANALYTIC REVIEW, MARY E. KITE, P69-81.
Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuality were examined using Glass's d as an estimator of effect size. There was a small mean effect (d = .207) indicating that males have more negative attitudes than females toward homosexuals. However, this effect was found to decrease in magnitude when sample size was controlled for, with larger studies being less likely to have a sex difference. Year of publication was also found to be related to the effect sizes with more recent studies tending to show a larger effect size. Sex of target is also discussed as a potentially important variable.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELF-REPORTED SEX-ROLE CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY, KATHRYN N. BLACK, MICHAEL R. STEVENSON, P83-93.
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported sex-role characteristics and attitudes toward homosexuality using the Bem Sex Inventory, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Attitudes toward Homosexuality Scale. Relationships occur for both males and females who are exhibiting greater amounts of cross-sex traits. Females with more instrumental characteristics were more accepting while males with more expressive characteristics were more rejecting. These findings are discussed in relation to those of Weinberger and Millham (1979) who also investigated this relationship, as well as to research investigating the relationship between attitudes toward homosexuality and attitudes toward sex roles and feminism.
THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SEXUAL BELIEFS, ATTITUDES, EXPERIENCE, AND HOMOPHOBIA, JOSEPH E. AGUERO, LAURA BLOCH, DONN BYRNE, P95-107.
Male and female subjects were given a series of questionnaires to assess their attitudes, behaviors, and experiences in relation to homosexuality. The findings indicated the presence of two systems, one dealing with affective orientation and the other with general beliefs (learned problem or physiological problem) about the origins of homosexuality. It was found that the greatest dislike toward homosexuals existed in those subjects who responded with negative affect and believed that homosexuality was a learned problem. Avoidance of social situations where homosexuals are present was evidenced in subjects who responded with negative affect and believed homosexuality was due to genetic factors.
CHANGING HOMOPHOBIC ATTITUDES THROUGH COLLEGE SEXUALITY EDUCATION, WILLIAM J. SERDAHELY, GEORGIA J. ZIEMBA, P109-116.
It was hypothesized that a unit on homosexuality (which emphasized role playing and the debunking of myths) in an undergraduate college sexuality course would alter students' homophobic attitudes. A modified version of the Hudson/Ricketts Index of Homophobia was used to measure homophobia. At the completion of the course, for those students in the treatment group with pretest scores above the median, the homophobic scores decreased significantly when compared to the scores of control counterparts. The results of this study also showed that there was no significant difference in homophobia scores at the end of the course for those students in the treatment group with pretest scores below the median when compared to the appropriate controls.
CONCEPTION OF MALE AND FEMALE HOMOSEXUAL STEREOTYPES AMONG UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES, STEWART PAGE, MARY YEE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1985, VOL 12(1), P109-118.
Following the procedure used by Broverman, Broverman, Clarkson, Rosenkrantz & Vogel (1970), male and female undergraduates described a male homosexual, lesbian, and normal adult in terms of 41 adjective rating scales, each scale having a masculine and a feminine pole. Results indicated that compared to ratings of the normal adult, the male homosexual was viewed unfavorably and was significantly different from "normality" on 27 scales. Ratings of the lesbian were closer to those for the normal adult, although significant differences appeared on 11 scales. Ratings for the lesbian differed significantly from those for the male homosexual on 20 scales. On all but two scales, lesbian ratings were closer to the more favorable pole than were male homosexual ratings. The position seems supported that male gender nonconformity is viewed more seriously than female gender nonconformity.
DEVELOPMENT OF SCALES MEASURING SOCIAL DISTANCE TOWARD MALE AND FEMALE HOMOSEXUALS, CYNTHIA S. GENTRY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1986, VOL 13(1), P75-82.
The focus of this paper is the development of Guttman scales of social distance toward male and female homosexuals. The development of these scales was in three phases. In each phase, a series of items was distributed, analyzed and refined. These refinements were not solely statistical, but involved considerable conceptual clarification. The final scale is offered as a statistically sound and conceptually clear measurement of social distance towards homosexuals.
RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION AND PREJUDICE: A COMPARISON OF RACIAL AND SEXUAL ATTITUDES, GREGORY M. HEREK, PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 1987, VOL 13(1), P34-44.
Past research on the relationship between religious orientation and prejudice against out-groups has focused on racism. A greater tendency toward racist attitudes has been found among persons with an external religious orientation, whereas an intrinsic orientation has sometimes been associated with tolerance. This study examined the influence of religious orientation on attitudes toward an out-group not widely accepted by contemporary religions: lesbians and gay men. Using questionnaire data from white, heterosexual students on four university campuses, an extrinsic orientation was found to be positively correlated with racism, while an intrinsic orientation was not. Intrinsics, however, tended to be more prejudiced against gay people than were extrinsics. It is suggested that an intrinsic orientation does not foster unequivocal acceptance of others but instead encourages tolerance toward specific groups that are accepted by contemporary Judeo-Christian teachings. The hypothesis is discussed that attitudes toward outgroups serve different psychological functions for persons with extrinsic and intrinsic orientations.
DETECTION OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION BY HETEROSEXUALS AND HOMOSEXUALS, GREGORY BERGER, LORI HANK, TOM RAUZI, LAWRENCE SIMKINS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALTY, 1987, VOL 13(4), P83-100.
The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual orientation can be correctly identified under controlled conditions. A series of 24 brief videotaped interviews with homosexual and heterosexual men and women were presented to a sample of 143 subject raters divided into four sexual preference and gender groups. None of the groups were able to exceed levels of correct detection. Approximately 20% of the total subject pool did exceed change levels. There were significantly more women than men in this sub-sample and homosexual women were represented disproportionately. Although there were some differences in the types of behavioral cues used by the different sexual preference groups to make their judgments, with the possible exception of homosexual women. These cues were unrelated to accurate identification of sexual orientation. The relatively better performance of female raters is discussed in terms of differences in the socialization process of men and women.
ARE SOCIAL WORKERS HOMOPHOBIC? J. WISNIEWSKI, B. TOOMEY, SOCIAL WORK, 1987, 32(5), P454-455.
HOMOSEXUAL CLIENTS AND HOMOPHOBIC SOCIAL WORKERS, DEBRA L. TIEVSKY, CHILD & ADOLESCENT SOCIAL WORK, 1988, VOL 2(3), P51-62.
People of gay sexual orientation struggle with the same problems that confront everyone else, and they face some problems that are unique. However they must carry out this struggle in the context of a largely rejecting and fearful society. For them to have the same opportunities for help that exist for others, it is important that professionals are free of bias and homophobia. This paper looks at the historical and current attitudes that professional social workers, as well as the public, have had toward homosexuals. It considers the workers' responsibility for self-awareness in attitudes toward homosexuals and makes recommendations for achieving helpful non-homphobic clinical practice.
AIDS-PHOBIA, CONTACT WITH AIDS, AND AIDS-RELATED JOB STRESS IN HOSPITAL WORKERS, JOSEPH H. PLECK, LYDIA O'DONNELL, CARL O'DONNELL, JOHN SNAREY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1988, VOL 15(3/4), P41-54.
In a survey of 237 hospital workers involved in the care of AIDS patients and AIDS inpatient-care facility, negative attitudes toward AIDS and AIDS patients (AIDS-phobia) and AIDS-related job stress (AIDS-stress) were common. In multivariate analyses, AIDS-phobia is significantly higher among older staff, those having low contact with AIDS patients (AIDS-contact), and those holding homophobic attitudes. AIDS-phobic attitudes and low AIDS-contact can be interpreted as predicting each other. Finally, AIDS-stress is predicted by low contact with AIDS and AIDS-phobic attitudes.
ATTITUDES, EXPERIENCES, AND FEELINGS OF GUIDANCE COUNSELORS IN WORKING WITH HOMOSEXUAL STUDENTS: A REPORT ON THE QUALITY OF SCHOOL LIFE FOR SOUTHERN GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS, JAMES T. SEARS, 1988. (MICRO FICHE - SOURCE E.R.I.C.)
During the past 15 years, a variety of studies conducted mostly in the industrial North and Far West, have sought to determine the attitudes and feelings of various populations toward homosexual men, lesbians, and homosexuality. These studies often reported the relationships between attitudes and personality traits or demographic variables. During this same time period articles have appeared in professional counseling journals advising practitioners of their professional responsibility to address the special needs and problems of homosexual clients, particularly students. This study examined the attitudes, experiences, and feelings of school counselors in the state of South Carolina about homosexual students. All 483 counselors (grades 5-12) in the state were surveyed. Responses were received from 142 counselors for a return rate of 29%. Instruments used were the Counselors' Perceptions of the Quality of School Life for Gays and Lesbians survey (a measure designed specifically for this study), the Modified Attitudes Toward Homosexuality survey (MATH), and the Index of Homophobia measure (IH). Significant differences were found between counselors' attitudes and feelings about homosexuality vis-a-vis their educational level, gender, and race. Counselors often expressed ambivalent attitudes toward homosexuality though few harbored neutral feelings. Most counselors felt ill-prepared to work with homosexual students.
LESBIAN AND GAY ISSUES IN EDUCATION: A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS IN A COLLEGE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, STEPHEN M. CLIFT, BRITISH EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL, 1988, VOL 14(1), P31-50.
The present study investigated the attitudes of 80 first-year students in a college of higher education towards homosexuals, lesbian women, gay men and 'homosexuality and education' using specially constructed scales. An attempt was also made to assess the effect of a short unit on 'homosexuality and education' on the attitudes of students following a foundation course in Educational Studies. Test-retest reliabilities over a one-week interval were very satisfactory and the scales were highly inter-correlated. Consistent with earlier research evidence significant sex differences emerged, with men being less tolerant than women towards homosexuals in general, gay men and greater openness in education. For the lesbian women scale, in contrast, men expressed more positive attitudes, with particularly clear and significant differences in this direction emerging for three lesbian items. Students who rated themselves as other than exclusively heterosexual and as having lesbian and gay acquaintances, were generally more positive in their attitudes, with the exception of men in relation to the 'homosexuality and education' scale. Finally, experience of a unit homosexuality and education appeared to result in a significant shift in male students' attitudes towards gay men, but in general the changes observed between pre-test and post-test were slight. The implications and shortcomings of the present investigation are discussed and suggestions for further studies in a neglected area of British research outlined.
HETEROSEXUALS' ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN: CORRELATES AND GENDER DIFFERENCES, G.M. HEREK, JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 1988, VOL 25(4), P451-477.
This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences. Three studies conducted with students at six different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men. The same social psychological variables appear to underlie both males' and females' attitudes toward both gay men and lesbians: religiosity, adherence to traditional ideologies of family and gender, perception of friends, agreement with one's own attitudes, and past interactions with lesbians and gay men. The role of these variables in shaping attitudes is discussed and areas for future research are proposed. Construction and validation of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale are also described.
STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF AIDS AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD GAY MEN AND LESBIAN WOMEN, INGRID GRIEGER, JOSEPH G. PONTEROTTO, JOURNAL OF COLLEGE STUDENT DEVELOPMENT, 1988, VOL 29(5), P415-422.
In this the authors study assessed students' knowledge of AIDS-specific facts, their attitudes towards people with AIDS, and their general attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women.
DEVIANT STEREOTYPES: CALL GIRLS, MALE HOMOSEXUALS AND LESBIANS, V. GAMBOA, H.J. FEENSTRA, PHILLIPINE SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW, 1989, VOL 17 (3/4), p136-148.
This paper reviews various ways of studying deviance, from an interactionist framework to an approach via ethnic stereotypes. Research on two samples of students (49 male and 50 female subjects from Manila and 56 male and 79 female subjects from the University of Beguio) is reported. Three measures of attitudinal "tolerance" toward call girls, male homosexuals, and lesbians were applied. A polarity analysis was used to determine which traits were most closely associated with each of the three concepts. Factor analysis was also applied. Both analyses show how both samples distinguished between heterosexual and homosexual. Sex of subjects was a crucial variable in differentiating attitudes toward homosexual same-sex group deviants and homosexual opposite-sex group deviants. Men with positive attitudes toward lesbians and call girls did not reveal positive attitudes toward male homosexuals; women with negative attitudes toward call girls and male homosexuals did not exhibit the same negative attitudes towards lesbians. It is males and not females who attribute to male homosexuals feminine attributes, and females, not males, who view lesbians as young, fast, and aggressive. The Beguio sample shows female subjects having a negative attitude toward lesbians but describing them as young, fast and aggressive.
THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES TO MALE AND FEMALE ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS, BERNIE S. NEWMAN, SEX ROLES, 1989, VOL 21 (7/8), P451-465.
Previous studies suggest that gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, religiosity, contact with homosexuals, and exposure to educational influences are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. Few studies have been conducted on attitudes toward lesbians specifically. This study investigated the pattern of predictors for male and female attitudes toward lesbians. The regression analysis on males revealed that gender role attitudes were the only significant predictor, while gender role attitudes, parental attitudes, authoritarianism, and educational and media influences made a contribution to female attitudes toward lesbians. Despite more liberal gender role attitudes expressed by female respondents, there was no differences between male and female attitudes toward lesbians. This finding and the additional contribution to female attitudes toward lesbians made by the other predictors beside gender role attitudes suggests that the female respondents' development of attitudes toward lesbians is a product of a wider array of variables, with gender role attitudes playing a more central role in the development of male attitudes toward lesbians. Nevertheless, the importance of gender role attitudes to both male and female attitudes toward lesbians suggests that stratification by sex might be an underlying variable for both gender role attitudes and attitudes toward lesbians.
CONTROLLED COMPARISON OF ATTITUDES OF PSYCHIATRISTS, GENERAL PRACTITIONERS, HOMOSEXUAL DOCTORS AND HOMOSEXUAL MEN TO MALE HOMOSEXUALITY, D. BHUGRA, M. KING, JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE, 1989, VOL 82.
LESBIAN PHOBIA AMONG BSN EDUCATORS: A SURVEY, CARLA E. RANDALL, JOURNAL OF NURSING EDUCATION, 1989, VOL 28, P302-306.
This exploratory study identified the attitudes of BSN educators in a midwestern state towards lesbians. A 50% (N100) return rate of mailed questionnaires elicited responses to 48 statements about lesbians and lesbianism on a modified Likert scale. The questionnaire included general demographic data and responses to statements seeking information about topics of lesbianism or lesbian issues. Specific areas addressed included moral and ethical responses, knowledge statements, sexuality or sex related statements, normalness of lesbians and lesbian behavior, and social contact with lesbians. Notable findings revealed that BSN educators were not personally fearful of sexual advances from lesbians; however, they did indicate concern about lesbians molesting and caring for children as well as lesbians in the role of educators. More than half believed that lesbianism is not a natural expression of human sexuality.
RACISM, SEXISM, AND EROTOPHOBIA: ATTITUDES OF HETEROSEXUALS TOWARD HOMOSEXUALS, THOMAS J. FICARROTTO, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(1), P111-116.
This investigation examines the differential power of explanation of a sexual conservatism theory of homophobia against a more general theory of intergroup prejudice. Forty-eight female and 31 male undergraduate introductory psychology students from a large Eastern university completed a survey assessing contemporary attitudes toward women, Blacks, and homosexuals, as well as their affective orientation towards sex. The results indicated that sexual conservatism, as measured by an affective dimension of erotophila-erotophobia, and social prejudice, as measured by racist and sexist beliefs, are independent and equal predictors of antihomosexual sentiment. It is suggested that distinct etiological differences may exist in the development of the homophobic personality. Findings are discussed within the context of Herek's (1984) functional approach to understanding attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.
ATTITUDES TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN HEALTH CARE LITERATURE 1983-1987, SANDRA L. SCHWANBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 19(3), P117-136.
The purpose of this paper was to content analyze a purposive sample of American health care literature from 1983-1987 to ascertain what impact if any, the AIDS epidemic has had on the images of gay men and lesbian women in health sciences literature. Empirical studies, letters to the editor, policy statements and opinion papers expressing attitudes towards homosexuality and psychosocial aspects of AIDS in nursing, general medicine, and psychiatric literature were content analyzed. Findings indicate that although positive, neutral and negative images were found in the 59 articles which were examined, the largest proportion (61%) were negative. This reflects a change in the literature from previously neutral positions. Implications for patient care and further research are addressed.
ISSUES OF GENDER IN PROMOTING TOLERANCE FOR HOMOSEXUALITY, MICHAEL R. STEVENSON, WENDY M. GAJARSKY, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & HUMAN SEXUALITY, 1990, VOL 3(2), P155-163.
Although a recent review suggests that students' attitudes toward homosexuality change as a result of taking a human sexuality course, research in this area has not adequately addressed the issues of gender of target and gender of respondent. Attitude measures rarely distinguish between lesbians and gay men; respondents are expected to hold more negative attitudes toward homosexuals of their own sex; and women are expected to be more readily influenced in some situations. This study shows that women and men did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, but attitudes toward lesbians were more easily changed than attitudes toward gay men regardless of the gender of the respondent.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF HETEROSEXUALS' ATTRIBUTIONS FOR THE CAUSES OF HOMOSEXUALITY TO ATTITUDES TOWARD LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, BERNARD E. WHITELEY, PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 1990, VOL 16(2), P369-377.
Attribution theory suggested the hypothesis that heterosexuals' attitudes toward persons bearing the social stigma of homosexuality would be more negative when homosexuality was attributed to controllable than to uncontrollable causes. It was further hypothesized that groups that have been found to express more favorable attitudes toward lesbians and gay men - persons rating other-sex gay people and those who know a gay person - would attribute homosexuality to less controllable causes. Data from 193 female and 173 male heterosexual college students supported the first, but not the second, hypothesis. In addition, heterosexual women were more likely to report knowing a lesbian than heterosexual men were to report knowing a gay man, and among respondents who reported knowing a gay man, women reported closer acquaintanceship than men did. The implications of these findings for changing antigay attitudes are discussed.
THE ECOLOGY OF ANTI-GAY VIOLENCE, HOWARD J. EHRLICH, JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE, 1990, VOL 5(3), P359-365.
This article discusses how prejudice and violence directed at lesbians and gay men are unique and how they are similar to other forms of prejudice and violence in American culture. The article begins with a brief discussion of how children learn prejudice in general and speculates about the possible origins of anti-gay prejudice in particular. Then, violence in American society is discussed, and the concept of "ethnoviolence" is introduced to refer to violence motivated by a desire to do harm to an "other" who represents a group against which the attacker is prejudiced. The assumption that most anti-gay violence is perpetated by young males is rejected as biased because it is based only on reported cases. The characteristics of the attacker often are not known and, where known, are likely to vary according to the site of the attack. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the psychological impact of ethnoviolence on victims (who are more traumatized than victims of other crime), on witnesses, and on researchers and service providers.
ATTITUDES AND EXPECTATIONS ABOUT CHILDREN WITH NONTRADITIONAL AND TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES, CAROL LYNN MARTIN, SEX ROLES, 1990, VOL 22(3/4), P151-165.
Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of typical boys, typical girls, tomboys, and sissies. Results revealed that sissies were more negatively evaluated than tomboys. Women were more accepting of, and perceived more societal acceptance from cross-sex children, than were men. One reason for the negative evaluation of sissies may be that there is more concern for their future outcomes than for tomboys. Analyses of predictions concerning future behavior showed that sissies, more so than tomboys, were expected to continue to show cross-gender behavior into adulthood. Also, sissies were rated as likely to be less well adjusted and more likely to be homosexual when they grow up than other children. The accuracy of these beliefs and their implications for child-rearing practices are discussed.
HELPING A CAMPUS UNDERSTAND: LOOKING FOR NEW ATTITUDES, WILLIAM W, GELLER, PAPER PRESENTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NATIONAL ASOCIATION OF STUDENT PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATORS, 1990, (MICRO FICHE, SOURCE - E.R.I.C.)
ATTITUDES TOWARDS GAYS AND LESBIANS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY, WILLIAM W. GELLER, 1991, (SOURCE: E.R.I.C.)
As part of a new student orientation at a rural northeastern state college, incoming students (N = 150) were surveyed in fall 1989 regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality. Students (N = 140) were surveyed again in April 1991 after four semesters of educational intervention. The results indicated that new students were uncomfortable with and lacked knowledge about homosexuals, with less than half expressing comfort with particular situations involving most feeling statements. Greater levels of comfort with homosexual matters and increased knowledge were reported between the time of the first survey and the second. One-third or more of the students were informed and were comfortable with homosexuals. Two factors, the necessity of dialogue, and having contact with a homosexual person, emerged from this study as strategy elements that can make a difference. Homosexual, lesbian, and bisexual role models are important in shifting the attitudes of heterosexuals. Based on these findings and other research it seems reasonable to conclude that many peoples' feelings can change as they come to know a homosexual person.
ISSUES IN PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH LESBIANS AND GAY MEN, A SURVEY OF PSYCHOLOGISTS, LINDA GARNETS, KRISTIN A. HANCOCK, SUSAN D. COCHRAN, JACQUELINE GOODCHILDS, LETITIA ANNE PEPLAU, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 40, P964-972.
In 1984, a task force of the American Psychological Association (APA) Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns was charged with investigating bias in psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men. The task force surveyed a large and diverse sample of psychologists to elicit information about specific instances of respondent-defined biased and sensitive psychotherapy practice. Open-ended responses were used to separately identify major themes of biased and sensitive practice and to illustrate each with concrete examples. Results suggest that psychologists vary widely in their adherence to a standard of unbiased practice with gay men and lesbians. To bring individual practice into accord with APA policy will require continued and expanded efforts to educate practitioners about sexual orientation.
LESBIAN PHOBIA IN NURSING STUDENTS, MICHELE J. ELIASON, CARLA E. RANDALL, WESTERN JOURNAL OF NURSING RESEARCH, 1991, VOL 13(3), P363-374.
CAN ATTITUDES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS TOWARDS AIDS AND HOMOSEXUALITY BE CHANGED IN SIX-WEEKS?: THE EFFECTS OF A GAY PANEL, CHWEE LYE CHNG, ALAN MOORE, HEALTH VALUES, 1991, VOL 15(2), P41-49.
This study investigated the relationship between attitudes towards AIDS and homosexuality among a selected sample of college students who listened to a panel of speakers comprised of gay and lesbian individuals. There were 52 subjects, 20 males and 32 females, who completed, at three successive administrations, a questionnaire seeking demographic information and attitudes toward homosexuality using the Index of Homophobia (IHO). At the third testing, an attitudes-toward-AIDS questionnaire was also administered using the Fear of AIDS Scale (GFS). A repeated measures design suggested that homophobia scores were highly correlated over time. The Fear of AIDS scores were moderately correlated with scores on all three adminstrations of the IHP, and most correlated (r = 0.61) with test 3 homophobia scores. Male subjects were found to be more homophobic than females. T-tests of the differences between white and black subsamples reveal that black subjects were significantly more homophobic than whites at test 2, but at no other time.
AIDS AND HOMOPHOBIA AMONG NURSES, YVONNE K. SCHERER, YOW-WU B. WU, BRENDA P. HAUGHEY, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P17-27.
The purpose of this research was to study nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and caring for homosexual patients. The results reported in this article are a component of a larger study of nurses' knowledge about the attitudes toward caring for patients with AIDS. The sample comprised 581 Registered Nurses residing in Erie County, New York. Data were gathered by mailed questionnaires.
Results of the study indicate that issues concerning the care of patients with AIDS may be complicated by the fact that many of these individuals are homosexuals. The results of this research provide data for developing intervention strategies to help nurses cope with their concerns about caring for homosexual patients with AIDS.
A SURVEY OF GAY/LESBIAN CATHOLICS CONCERNING ATTITUDES TOWARD SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS, THOMAS O'BRIEN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P29-44.
The negative assessment of lesbian/gay relationships in Catholic circles is most often based on scanty information gathered from folklore, the commercial media, and a narrow, literal reading of Biblical texts. Assumptions are made about the personal adjustment of individual gay/lesbian persons and the quality of their relationships without recourse to actual lived experience. This survey of 263 gay/lesbian Catholics and 20 controls was designed to receive direct feedback from lesbian/gay persons concerning their religious attitudes, personal adjustment, and relational quality. The results contradict many preconceptions, and a remarkable similarity is demonstrated between the gay/lesbian responses and those of the control group.
ATTITUDES TOWARD MINORITIES: A COMPARISON OF HOMOSEXUALS AND THE GENERAL POPULATION, NANCY J. BERAN, CONNIE CLAYBAKER, CORY DILLON, ROBERT J. HAVERKAMP, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(3), P65-83.
As a prelude to a media campaign to improve the public image of gays, a gay rights organization in Columbus, Ohio, constructed a questionnaire to assess perceptions of and attitudes toward gays and various other minority groups including blacks, Jews, women, communists, and recovering alcoholics. The questionnaire was administered to two samples in the central Ohio area: a sample of the greater Columbus population at large, and a sample of gays and lesbians. This article reports on the comparative findings form these two samples.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN MALES' REACTIONS TO GAY MALES AND LESBIANS, MARY E. KITE, JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 22(15), P1222-1239.
Males who were tolerant or intolerant of homosexuals participated in an experiment wherein they interacted with a gay male, a lesbian, or a person of unknown sexual orientation. Results showed that although both attitudes toward homosexuality and the partner's sexual orientation affected reactions to that person, there were few effects due to target sex. Although men's reported attitudes toward gay males are more negative than their attitudes toward lesbians, these attitudes do not necessarily affect reactions to these individuals.
LESBIAN STEREOTYPES, MICHELE ELIASON, CAROL DONELAN, CARLA RANDALL, HEALTH CARE FOR WOMEN INTERNATIONAL, 1992, VOL 13(2), P131-144.
The American Psychological Association's Committee on Gay and Lesbian Concerns (Herek, 1987) expressed a need for research that focuses specifically on the concerns of lesbians. To this end, we attempted to identify stereotypes about lesbians, as noted in 278 female nursing students' responses to open-ended questions. Content analysis of the responses revealed a number of consistent themes or stereotypes. The most prevalent stereotypes included lesbians' seduction of heterosexual women, lesbian "boasting," and the "masculine aura" of lesbians. None of the participant variables (age, educational level, social class, and type of nursing education) were significantly related to particular stereotypes. The impact of stereotypes on the acceptance of lesbians within society is discussed.
PUBLIC ENDORSEMENT OF RESTRICTIONS ON THREE ASPECTS OF FREE EXPRESSION BY HOMOSEXUALS: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND TRENDS ANALYSIS 1973-1988, EDMUND F. DEJOWSKI, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 23(4), P1-18.
The willingness of the public to endorse proposals to remove gay-positive books from library shelves, to dismiss college teachers who are homosexuals, and to prohibit public speaking by homosexuals was examined. A socio-demographic analysis aggregating the entire period 1973 through 1988, and an analysis of trends over the period, were undertaken using data from the General Social Surveys. Responses to survey questions concerning homosexuals were compared with responses to similar questions concerning other unpopular groups, and to questions which called upon the respondent to make a moral judgment concerning homosexual relations. A significant decline over the period was found in the public's willingness to endorse restrictions on homosexuals, and on each of the other unpopular groups used for comparison. Level of education appeared to be a strong indicator of a more tolerant attitude. Paradoxically, negative moral attitudes toward homosexual relations did not decline. Bias in the wording of the General Social Surveys' questions concerning the moral dimension of homosexuality may have distorted these results, however. The public's moral attitude toward homosexual behavior does appear to be quite labile from year to year, suggesting that concerted efforts to educate the public on this subject can have an important and rapid effect.
DIVERGENT PERCEPTIONS OF LESBIANS: A COMPARISON OF LESBIAN SELF-PERCEPTIONS AND HETEROSEXUAL PERCEPTIONS, DENISE C. VISS, SHAWN M. BURN, THE JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1992, VOL 132(2), P169-177.
Social-psychological research on stereotyping was applied to lesbianism among American college students. The hypothesis that stereotypes of lesbians are often inaccurate predictors of individual lesbians was supported. Using stereotypes of lesbians identified by previous research, lesbians rated themselves on a series of bipolar stereotypical adjectives, and a comparison group of nonlesbians rated lesbians as a group on these same adjectives. Significant differences were found on 16 of the 21 adjectives. Knowing a lesbian personally did not influence heterosexuals' ratings, suggesting the resistance of stereotypes to change.
LIBERAL ATTITUDES AND HOMOPHOBIC ACTS: THE PARADOXES OF HOMOSEXUAL EXPERIENCE IN A LIBERAL INSTITUTION, WILLIAM P. NORRIS, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1992, VOL 22(3/4), P81-120.
Rates of victimization of and attitudes towards lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals at a well-known national liberal arts college were reported and compared to other institutions. Based on two campus-wide surveys of employees and students respectively, differences in degree of exclusion, isolation, sexual harassment, needing to deny one's sexuality, self-censorship, and other factors were found among employees and students, people with varying sexualities, people of color, and whites. The paradoxical finding of extensive attitudinal support and widespread victimization was explored. The explanation suggested for the paradox drew on institutional characteristics, culture, and prioritites. Based on the configuration of these, I suggested that the paradox resulted from two competing values, a liberal ethos focused on equal rights, and a heterosexual orthodoxy, and that many people were pulled between the two. Theoretical implications, counter-explanations, and implications were briefly expolored.
HOMOPHOBIA AND ATTITUDES TOWARD GAY MEN AND LESBIANS BY PSYCHIATRIC NURSES, GEORGE BYRON SMITH, ARCHIVES OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, 1993, VOL VII(6), P377-384.
LOST-LETTER TECHNIQUE: ATTITUDES TOWARD GAY MEN AND LESBIANS, KAREN S. LEVINSON, MARIA D. PESINA, BETH M. RIENZI, PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS, 1993, VOL 72, P93-94.
As only 10 of 210 "lost" postal cards with messages supportive of lesbian, gay male, and elderly artist were returned after 30 days, careful methodological study is needed.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY: 1986 AND 1991, TRISH PRATTE, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P77-83.
This article describes changes in attitudes toward homosexuality using 1986 and 1991 samples drawn from the same population. It was found that men expressed significantly greater negative attitudes toward homosexuality than did women; participants in the 1986 assessment expressed more anit-homosexuality attitudes than did participants in 1991; and rural respondents expressed more negative attitudes than did participants sampled on a college campus. Greatest attitudinal change occurred in students over age 25 and non-students 40 and over. Plausible explanations for the favorable attitudinal change over the five-year period are explored.
THE EFFECTS OF A GAY/LESBIAN PANEL DISCUSSION ON COLLEGE STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD GAY MEN, LESBIANS, AND PERSONS WITH AIDS (PWAS), SHELLY GREEN, PAUL DIXON, VALERIE GOLD-NEIL, JOURNAL OF SEX EDUCATION AND THERAPY, 1993, VOL 19(1), P47-63.
This paper presents the results of a study examining the effectiveness of a gay/lesbian panel discussion conducted within a university-level human sexuality class. The panel was intended to alter the students' attitudes regarding gays, lesbians, and persons with AIDS (PWAS). A pretest-posttest design was used to assess students attitudes toward the target groups prior to and directly following the intervention. Results indicate that females reported significantly more positive attitudes than males overall, and that the panel was effective in altering the attitudes of females, while males showed no significant change from pretest to posttest. Supplemental analyses are presented, and implications for future research are discussed.
AIDS, HOMOSEXUALITY PUBLIC OPINION, AND CHANGING CORRELATES OVER TIME, RICHARD SELTZER, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P85-97.
Comparing data from national Los Angeles Times surveys allows for an examination of changes in attitudes toward AIDS in 1985, when the crisis was first coming to public attention, and in 1987, when public opinion had a greater opportunity to stabilize. The primary predictors of public opinion did not change from 1985 to 1987, but there were somewhat less irrational attitudes among most segments of the population by 1987. However, among those who were conservative on the issue of homosexuality, personal concern for AIDS fell and support for repression grew.
ATTITUDES TOWARDS GAY MEN AND LESBIAN WOMEN: INSTRUMENTATION ISSUES, SANDRA L. SCHWANBERG, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 26(1), P99-136.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the variety of instruments used to assess attitudes toward gay males and lesbian women. A total of 45 studies were analyzed that used homophobia instruments (N = 10), cognitive assessments (N = 11), affective instruments (N = 7), and mixed cognitive and affective instruments (N = 17) to assess attitudes toward homosexuality. Types of instruments used, number of subjects, reliability and validity estimates, major findings, and limitations were examined.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIDS-RELATED INFORMATION SOURCES AND HOMOPHOBIC ATTITUDES: A COMPARISON OF TWO MODELS, B. MAGRUDER, L.B. WHITBECK, M. ISHII-KUNTZ, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1993, VOL 25(4), P47-68.
Using a sample of 914 college students from the Midwest and West Coast, this research compared two possible relationships between information sources about AIDS and homophobic attitudes. The first model examined the effects of various information sources on students' accuracy of knowledge regarding AIDS transmission, subsequent beliefs that homosexuals are responsible for AIDS, and overall homophobia. The second model tested the alternative hypothesis that pre-existing homophobic attitudes affected the selection of information sources. This assortive process, in turn, was hypothesized to affect accuracy of knowledge about AIDS and beliefs that homosexuals are responsible for AIDS. The findings indicated the models had similar explanatory power, suggesting that information sources have diverse impacts on students' knowledge about AIDS and that homophobic attitudes affect selection of information sources. The authors conclude that while certain information sources about AIDS tend to increase homophobic attitudes, homophobic individuals are also more likely to select these information sources.
MALE COUNSELORS' DISCOMFORT WITH GAY AND HIV-INFECTED CLIENTS, J.A. HAYES & C.J. GELSO, JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY, 1993, VOL 40(1), P86-93.
This study examined male counselors' reactions to gay and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected clients in light of counselors' homophobia and death anxiety. After completing measures of homophobia and death anxiety, 34 male counselors viewed a videotaped, male client-actor in 1 of 4 conditions: either gay or heterosexual and either HIV negative or HIV positive. The dependent variable, counselor discomfort, was assessed through (a) the ratio of avoidance to approach verbal responses to the taped client, (b) self-reported state anxiety, and (c) recall of certain words used by the client. As hypothesized, counselors experienced greater discomfort with HIV-infected than HIV-negative clients, and counselors' homophobia predicted their discomfort with gay male clients. However, client sexual orientation did not afffect counselor discomfort, and death anxiety was unrelated to discomfort with HIV-infected clients. Implications regarding countertransference and counseling were discussed.
NURSES' ATTITUDES AFFECT LESBIANS' HEALTH CARE, ROBYN PARKES, AUSTRALIAN NURSING JOURNAL, 1993, VOL 1(4), P16.
THE EXPERIENCE OF GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS IN MEDICAL SCHOOL, JILL TINMOUTH, JAMA, 1994, VOL 271(9), P714-715.
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST GAY MEN AND LESBIANS, A STUDY OF THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST HOMOSEXUAL MEN AND WOMEN IN BRITAIN TODAY, DAWN SNAPE, KATARINA THOMSON, MARK CHETWYNBD, SOCIAL & COMMUNITY PLANNING RESEARCH, 1995.
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