SEXUAL ABUSE

SEXUAL MOLESTATION AND RAPE REPORTED BY HOMOSEXUAL AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, RALPH H. GUNDLACH, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1977, VOL 2(4), P367-384.

Questionnaire returns from 225 homosexual and 233 heterosexual adult women revealed 115 cases of rape or attempted rape. Data from 78 follow-up questionniares are summarized. About the same proportion of lesbians and heterosexuals, age 16 or over, were the object of rape. The lesbians tended to reject all men as sexual partners or companions, while the heterosexuals tended to blame themselves for not being careful. Some of the heterosexual women, age 16 to 18, interpreted the rape as a compliment to their sexual attractiveness. Girls under 16 whose asssailant was a stranger are, as adults, as frequently homosexual as heterosexual. Sixteen of the 17 girls age 4 to 16, molested or seduced (6 for a long time) by a relative or close family friend are lesbians as adults. The subjects' attitudes about the incident were highly determined by parental reactions. Inferences are drawn about the rapists' attitudes toward women.

INCESTUOUS EXPERIENCES WITHIN HOMOSEXUAL POPULATIONS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY, C. GEORGIA SIMARI, DAVID BASKIN, ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 1982, VOL 11(4), P329-344.

The incidence, frequency rates, and effects of both homosexual and heterosexual incestuous experiences within lesbian and male homosexual populations are exmained. Twenty-nine female homosexuals and 54 male homosexuals from diverse demographic backgrounds were administered a 16-page anonymous questionnaire designed to capture a wide range of demographic, personality, life history, and attitudinal information. Differences in family characteristics that exist between individuals who have experienced nuclear family incest, extended family incest, and those who have never experienced incest are investigated. Differences that exist between the two populations, incest and nonincest, were also studied.

THE LESBIAN VICTIM OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL, ANN M. ORZEK, WOMEN & THERAPY, 1989, VOL 8(1/2), P107-117.

PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMIZATION AMONG HETEROSEXUAL AND GAY/LESBIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, DAVID F. DUNCAN, PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS, 1990, VOL 66, P65-66.

The prevalence of being a victim of forced sex was examined in a sample of 412 university students. Sexual victimization was significantly more common among female than male and among gay and lesbian than heterosexual students.

MALE RAPE: VICTIMS NEED SENSITIVE MANAGEMENT, LETTER, MICHAEL B. KING, BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 1990, VOL 301, 15 Dec.

GENERAL

THE SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION OF CHILDREN, MARY DE YOUNG, MCFARLAND & CO. 1982.

INCEST, A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CAUSES AND EFFECTS WITH TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS, KARIN C. MEISELMAN, JOSSY-BASS, 1984.

 

SEXUAL ABUSE IN THE NATIONAL INCIDENCE STUDY OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT: AN APPRAISAL, DAVID FINKELHOR AND GERALD T. HOTALING, CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT, 1984, VOL 8(1). P23-33.

The National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect was a major, government sponsored effort to collect data on reported and unreported child abuse. It used a systematic representative sample methodology and very precisely developed definitions of child abuse. This paper reviews some fo the main limitations of the study in regard to findings on sexual abuse. First, there is probably less "new" data in the study on sexual abuse than on other forms of abuse, since so many of the study cases of sexual abuse were "officially reported" cases. In addition, the study limited its definition of sexual abuse only to cases where a caretaker was the perpetrator, a definition that is much more restrictive than what is used in many treatment programs. Finally, the data on perpetrators has a number of problems that stem from the study's definitions of sexual abuse. The paper makes suggestions for future incidence type studies of sexual abuse.

A SOURCEBOOK ON CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE, DAVID FINKELHOR, SAGE, 1986.

SOMATIC SYMPTOMS, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND TREATMENT SEEKING AMONG SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMS, R. KIMERLING, K.S. CALHOUN, JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 1994, VOL 62(2), P333-340.

In an effort to clarify the relationship between the experience of sexual assault and physical health, rape victims and a matched comparison group were repeatedly assessed for somatic symtoms, psychological distress, health care use, and self-rated health perceptions during the year immediately after the assault. Women who experienced sexual assault reported more somatic complaints, poorer perceptions of physical health, greater psychological distress, and increased used of medical services. However, victims did not show a significantly higher use of mental health services and continued to seek medical attention at the end of the year after the assault, when health perceptions and somatic symptoms were no longer significantly elevated. The use of mental health services and social support as moderating variables are examined, and implications for the medical and psychological treatment of sexual assault victims are discussed.

CROSS REFERENCE

ALCOHOL

CHILD PHYSICAL AND SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG CHEMICALLY DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS, ELI COLEMAN, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT, SPECIAL ISSUE: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY AND INTIMACY DYSFUNCTION, 1987, VOL 1(1), P27-38.

Numerous studies have documented the correlation between various forms of child physical abuse and/or neglect, sexual abuse, other sex offending behavior and chemical abuse and/or dependency. In treating any of these disorders, professionals should be aware of the high risk of interrelatedness of these factors and that in addition to addressing relevant factors, the underlying dynamics of intimacy dysfunction, shame, and boundary inadequacy need to be treated.

INCEST AND CHEMICALLY DEPENDENT WOMEN: TREATMENT IMPLICATIONS, SUE EVANS, SUSAN SCHAEFER, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY TREATMENT, SPECIAL ISSUE: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY AND INTIMACY DYSFUNCTION, 1987, VOL 1(1), P141-173.

This paper summarizes research which documents the correlation between chemical dependency and incest. It provides a conceptual framework for addressing incest on a continuum consisting of psychological precursors, covert incest and overt incest. The incest continuum which is described goes beyond mere legal definitions of incest and offers a definition of incest which the authors feels is more clinically meaningful and one which has implications for prevention, intervention, and treatment. This paper includes an assessment tool which the authors designed and have modified based on their clinical work and related research with incest victims. Recommendations for working with incest victims are outlined, and an annotated bibliography is provided as a resource for both human service professionals and their clients who wish to explore the topic further.

PERVASIVE EFFECTS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE IN LESBIANS' RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOL PROBLEMS, JOANNE M. HALL, SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE, 1996, VOL 31(2), P225-239.

In narratives of 35 lesbians in alcohol recovery, 46% unexpectedly disclosed having survived childhood sexual abuse (CSA), linking it with addiction and recovery experiences. This subgroup described unbounded difficulties that pervaded their lives well into recovery. They reported mutiple addictions, self-harm, isolation, sexual problems, depression, self-loathing, physical illness, and inability to work more often than did other participants. Those not reporting CSA were more socially and occupationally stable, self-satisfied, and physically well in recovery; their alcohol problems seemed circumscribed and responsive to conventional intervention. Conclusions indicate that CSA history may foster health risks that complicate alcohol recovery, necessitating more comprehensive clinical attention.

IDENTITY

NEGATIVE SEXUAL EXPERIENCES WITH MEN AMONG HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN AND

LESBIANS, JOANN C. BRANNOCK & BEATA E. CHAPMAN, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUA-

LITY, 1990, VOL 19(1), P105-110.

Survey responses on traumatic experiences with men were compared from 50 matched pairs of heterosexual women and lesbians. Prior research has implied that lesbians have had more traumatic experiences with men than heterosexual women. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lesbians would report more negative sexual experiences with men than heterosexual women. The findings of the present study did not support this hypothesis. The only significant difference found between the two groups was that heterosexual women were more likely to report multiple categories of traumatic experiences and lesbians were more likely to report experiences in only one category of trauma. Contrary to prior studies, these results indicate that previous traumatic experiences with men may not be a significant factor in the development of sexual orientation.

FACTORS DISTINGUISHING SAMPLES OF LESBIAN AND HETEROSEXUAL WOMEN, DEBRA K. PETERS, PEGGY J. CANTRELL, JOURNAL OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 1991, VOL 21(4), P1-15.

This study utilized non-clinical samples of women and examined historical, familial, sexual, and attitudinal variables to assess differences between groups endorsing heterosexual or homosxuals orientations. Drawing from social learning theory, researchers expected the lesbian group to report more negative childhood sexual experiences with mates, more positive childhood sexual experiences with females, more accepting parental attitudes toward sexuality and sexual experimentation, and more distant relationships with parents. Results indicate that, rather than childhood sexual experiences distinguishing groups, respondents' current attitudes are significant between-group discriminators. These findings are consistent with the recent body of literature that suggests that sexual orientation cannot be explained in terms of early sexual trauma or negative heterosexual experiences.

FEMINISM

BEYOND PLUMBING AND PREVENTION: FEMINIST APPROACHES TO SEX EDUCATION, HELEN LENSKY, GENDER AND EDUCATION, 1990, VOL 2(2), P217-230.

This article offers a feminist critique of existing sex education policies and programmes in Candada, as well as examining common right-wing arguments against more progressive approaches. Two major forces shaping adolescent girls' developing sexuality - male sexual violence and compulsory heterosexuality - are discussed, and recent initiatives in Ontario to introduce these issues into sex education programmes evaluated. Toronto Board of Education's new policy on sexual orientation and the Ontario Ministry of Education AIDS Education Curriculum are assessed and strategies for anti-sexist, anti-heterosexist sex education developed.

MENTAL

HEALING FROM CULTURAL VICTIMIZATION: RECOVERY FROM SHAME DUE TO HETEROSEXISM, J.H. NEISEN, JOURNAL OF GAY & LESBIAN PSYCHOTHERAPY, 1993, VOL 2(1), P49-63.

The author draws parallels between the painful effects of sexual/physical abuse and heterosexism. Heterosexism is defined as a form of cultural victimization that oppresses gay/lesbian/bisexual persons. Heterosexism stymies individual growth and development just as individuals who have been sexually/physically abused struggle with the painful effects of their own victimization. Recognizing heterosexism as a form of victimization and abuse, the parallels between the effects of sexual/physical abuse and heterosexism become more clear. A paradigm based on the healing process for individuals who have been sexually/physically abused can also be used with individuals who have been culturally victimized. The utility of the paradigm is in providing helping professionals and their gay/lesbian/bisexual clients a means to articulate (1) how heterosexism is abusive, (2) the painful consequences of victimization, and (3) the healing process.

THERAPY

LESBIANS PSYCHOLOGIES, EXPLORATIONS & CHALLENGES, ED BOSTED LESBIAN PSYCHOLOGIES COLLECTIVE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS, 1987, INCLUDES:

THE PERSEPHONE COMPLEX: INCEST DYNAMICS AND THE LESBIAN PREFERENCE,

EILEEN STARZECPYZEL, P261-282.

THE COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST, 1991, VOL 19(2), INCLUDES:

AFFIRMATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR LESBIAN WOMEN, CHRISTINE BROWNING, AMY L. REYNOLDS, SARI H. DWORKIN, P177-196.

This article explores the unique issues and concerns facing lesbian women in our culture. Theoretical issues and effective therapeutic interventions in counseling lesbians are examined. Specific content areas highlighted include lesbian identity development and management, interpersonal and couple issues, and specific problems such as substance abuse, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. This article concludes with recommendations for treatment and suggestions for research.

© J. Bridget/Lesbian Information Service